METHODS OF MELTING

Anil Kumar. Garikapati

INTRODUCTION There are a no of methods available for melting the foundry alloys such as. Open hearth furnace. Electric furnaces. Pit or crucible furnace. . Rotary furnace. Cupola furnace. The choice of the furnace depends on the amount and the type of alloy being melted.

Dimensions of a cupola: The c/s area of a cupola depends on the o/p of the molten metal. The common dimensions of the cupola are.Height. And is det.CUPOLA FURNACE Cylindrical type of furnace for producing molten CAST iron.500 to 2100mm 3. The shell is made of steel plate of 8mm to 10mm.upto12m .Outside dia. Lined with heat resisting (refractory ) bricks. By using the following formula:=Ac The height of the cupola is taken 3 to5 times the diameter of the cupola.900 to 2700mm 2. 1.Inside dia .

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Pig Iron (main charge) Feldspar Iron waste Sulphur Ingredien ts used in Cupola Foundry waste Mangane se Scrap Silicon Carbon .

VARIOUS ZONES OF CUPOLA Well or crucible. Combustion zone. Tuyer zone. Preheating zone . Melting zone. Reducing zone.

The reaction is Exothermic and the highest temperatures are developed in this zone. . The temperatures may reach 1600 degrees to 1700 degrees. Carbon. The reactions are. silicon & manganese are oxidised to produce heat. These heat transferred to other parts of the furnace.COMBUSTION ZONE Combustion if fuel takes place by oxygen of air blast & produce lot of heat.

REDUCING ZONE The Co2 Flowing upwards through this zone reacts with hot cocke and the reaction is endothermic. Co2 + C (coke) -> 2Co ² Heat. However . the metal charge (iron and other elements ) above will be protected from oxidisation. Because of this reaction . . The reaction is . the temperature in the reducing zone gets reduced to about 1200 degrees.

3Fe + 2 Co Fe3 C +Co2 . The reaction takes place is. In this zone . A significant of the carbon pick up by metal also occurs in this zone.the charge starts melting and trickling through the coke to the bottom of the cupola.MELTING ZONE This layer includes the the first layer of iron above the initial coke bed.

OTHER ZONES Preheating zone:Includes Charge And get preheated Moisture and volatile matter are evaporated The temperatures are here are 1090 degrees Well:The molten metal gets collected here This also known as Crucible Stack:Carries the combustion gases .

DESCRIPTION Shell Spark arrester Refractory lining Charging door Charging platform Wind box or blast pipe Tuyeres Slag spout Sand bottom Tap hole Legs & prop .

Fuel Metallic materials Fluxes Charge .

Foundry scrap. Fuel Foundry coke Anthracite coke .& Steel crap.CHARGE Metallic materials Pig iron of various grades. Fluxes A flux is a substance which react with slag(accumulations of oxides and other unwanted materials)to lower its melting points The fluxes used are Limestone. Cast iron . Dolomite .

& The metal is added alternatively The first molten metal would appear in the tap hole within 10 to 15 minutes When the well or the crucible is filled the slag is first drained off. .OPERATION Should be thoroughly dried before drying A layer of sand (150mm) is placed over the doors and sloped towards the tap holes Initially the kindling wood is fired Coke bed is made (700 to 800mm) Then coke and charge is added alternatively The tuyeres are opened gradually to intensifies gradual combustion Lime stone =2 to 4% Coke= 8 to 12 % .

‡Initial cost is low compared to other ‡Maintenance is easy and economic ‡Operation Cost is low ‡Low space is required compared to other ‡Run for long time ‡Composition of the melt can be controlled ‡Temperature of the melt can be controlled Limitations ‡Metal purity cannot be maintained ‡Temperature is difficult to control .

CRUCIBLE FURNACE .

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