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Contents

In today¶s lecture we¶ll have a look at:

± Bresenham¶s line drawing algorithm ± Line drawing algorithm comparisons ± Circle drawing algorithms

A simple technique The mid-point circle algorithm

± Polygon fill algorithms ± Summary of raster drawing algorithms

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**The Bresenham Line Algorithm
**

The Bresenham algorithm is another incremental scan conversion algorithm The big advantage of this algorithm is that it uses only integer calculations

Jack Bresenham worked for 27 years at IBM before entering academia. Bresenham developed his famous algorithms at IBM in the early 1960s

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**The Big Idea
**

Move across the x axis in unit intervals and at each step choose between two different y coordinates For example, from 5 position (2, 3) we (xk+1, yk+1) have to choose 4 between (3, 3) and (xk, yk) 3 (3, 4) (xk+1, yk) We would like the 2 point that is closer to 2 3 4 5 the original line

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**Deriving The Bresenham Line Algorithm
**

At sample position yk+1 xk+1 the vertical y separations from the mathematical line are yk labelled dupper and dlower

dupper dlower xk+1

The y coordinate on the mathematical line at xk+1 is:

y ! m( xk 1) b

dupper and dlower are given as follows: d lower ! y yk ! m( xk 1) b yk and: d upper ! ( yk 1) y ! yk 1 ( xk 1) b We can use these to make a simple decision about which pixel is closer to the mathematical line .6 of 39 Deriving The Bresenham Line Algorithm (cont«) So.

7 of 39 Deriving The Bresenham Line Algorithm (cont«) This simple decision is based on the difference between the two pixel positions: d lower d upper ! 2m( xk 1) 2 yk 2b 1 Let¶s substitute m with ¨y/¨x where ¨x and ¨y are the differences between the end-points: (x(d lower (y d upper ) ! (x(2 ( xk 1) 2 yk 2b 1) (x ! 2(y xk 2(x y k 2(y (x (2b 1) ! 2(y xk 2(x yk c .

then we choose the lower pixel. otherwise we choose the upper pixel .8 of 39 Deriving The Bresenham Line Algorithm (cont«) So. a decision parameter pk for the kth step along a line is given by: pk ! (x(d lower d upper ) ! 2(y xk 2(x yk c The sign of the decision parameter pk is the same as that of dlower ± dupper If pk is negative.

9 of 39 Deriving The Bresenham Line Algorithm (cont«) Remember coordinate changes occur along the x axis in unit steps so we can do everything with integer calculations At step k+1 the decision parameter is given as: pk 1 ! 2(y xk 1 2(x yk 1 c Subtracting pk from this we get: pk 1 pk ! 2(y ( xk 1 xk ) 2(x( yk 1 yk ) .

xk+1 is the same as xk+1 so: pk 1 ! pk 2(y 2(x( yk 1 yk ) where yk+1 .yk is either 0 or 1 depending on the sign of pk The first decision parameter p0 is evaluated at (x0.10 of 39 Deriving The Bresenham Line Algorithm (cont«) But. y0) is given as: p0 ! 2(y (x .

perform the following test. yk) and: pk 1 ! pk 2(y . storing the left end-point in (x0. 3.0) Input the two line end-points. If pk < 0. y. 2. At each xk along the line. y0) Calculate the constants x. the next point to plot is (xk+1. p0 ! 2(y (x 4. and (2 y . 2 y. y0) Plot the point (x0.11 of 39 The Bresenham Line Algorithm BRESENHAM¶S LINE DRAWING ALGORITHM (for |m| < 1.2 x) and get the first value for the decision parameter as: 1. starting at k = 0.

12 of 39 The Bresenham Line Algorithm (cont«) Otherwise. Repeat step 4 ( x ± 1) times ACHTUNG! The algorithm and derivation above assumes slopes are less than 1. yk+1) and: pk 1 ! pk 2(y 2(x 5. for other slopes we need to adjust the algorithm slightly . the next point to plot is (xk+1.

13 of 39 Bresenham Example Let¶s have a go at this Let¶s plot the line from (20.2 x: -4 Calculate the initial decision parameter p0: ± p0 = 2 y ± x = 6 . 18) First off calculate all of the constants: ± x: 10 ± y: 8 ± 2 y: 16 ± 2 y . 10) to (30.

yk+1) 6 7 8 9 .14 of 39 Bresenham Example (cont«) k 0 1 2 3 4 5 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 pk (xk+1.

16) .12) to (29.15 of 39 Bresenham Exercise Go through the steps of the Bresenham line drawing algorithm for a line going from (21.

16 of 39 Bresenham Exercise (cont«) k 0 1 2 3 4 5 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 pk (xk+1.yk+1) 6 7 8 .

17 of 39 Bresenham Line Algorithm Summary The Bresenham line algorithm has the following advantages: ± An fast incremental algorithm ± Uses only integer calculations Comparing this to the DDA algorithm. DDA has the following problems: ± Accumulation of round-off errors can make the pixelated line drift away from what was intended ± The rounding operations and floating point arithmetic involved are time consuming .

we can write a simple circle drawing algorithm by solving the equation for y at unit x intervals using: y!s r x 2 2 .18 of 39 A Simple Circle Drawing Algorithm The equation for a circle is: 2 2 2 x y !r where r is the radius of the circle So.

19 of 39 A Simple Circle Drawing Algorithm (cont«) y0 ! 20 2 0 2 } 20 y1 ! 20 2 12 } 20 y 2 ! 20 2 2 2 } 20 y19 ! 20 19 } 6 2 2 y 20 ! 20 2 20 2 } 0 .

20 of 39 A Simple Circle Drawing Algorithm (cont«) However. more accurate solution . unsurprisingly this is not a brilliant solution! Firstly. the calculations are not very efficient ± The square (multiply) operations ± The square root operation ± try really hard to avoid these! We need a more efficient. the resulting circle has large gaps where the slope approaches the vertical Secondly.

x) R 2 (y. 0) have eight-way symmetry (-x. -x) (-x. y) (x. -y) .21 of 39 Eight-Way Symmetry The first thing we can notice to make our circle drawing algorithm more efficient is that circles centred at (0. y) (-y. x) (-y. -x) (x. -y) (y.

y) r yc xc ² For any circle point (x. the distance relationship is expressed by the Pythagorean theorem in Cartesian coordinate as: ( x xc )2 ( y yc )2 ! r 2 .22 of 39 Circle Generating Algorithm Properties of Circle ² Circle is defined as the set of points that are all at a given distance r from a center point (xc.y).yc) (x.

23 of 39 Circle Generating Algorithm ² We could use this equation to calculate the points on a circle circumference by stepping along x-axis in unit steps from xc²r to xc+r and calculate the corresponding y values as y ! yc s r ( xc x) 2 2 .

24 of 39 The problems: ² Involves many computation at each step ² Spacing between plotted pixel positions is not uniform ² Adjustment: interchanging x & y (step through y values and calculate x values) ² Involves many computation too! .

25 of 39 Another way: ² Calculate points along a circular boundary using polar coordinates r and x = xc + r cos y = yc + r sin ² Using fixed angular step size. a circle is plotted with equally spaced points along the circumference ² Problem: trigonometric calculations are still time consuming .

26 of 39 Consider symmetry of circles ² Shape of the circle is similar in each quadrant ² i. we can generate the circle section in the 2nd quadrant of the xy plane (the 2 circle sections are symmetric with respect to the y axis) ² The circle section in the 3rd and 4th quadrant can be obtained by considering symmetry about the x axis ² One step further symmetry between octants . if we determine the curve positions in the 1st quadrant.e.

y) 450 (-x.27 of 39 ² Circle sections in adjacent octants within 1 quadrant are symmetric with respect to the 45° line dividing the 2 octants (-y.x) (x.-y) ² Calculation of a circle point (x.-x) (y.x) (y.-y) (-y.y) (-x.-x) (x. y) in 1 octant yields the circle points for the other 7 octants .

y) is moved to its proper screen position by adding xc to x and yc to y .28 of 39 Midpoint Circle Algorithm As in raster algorithm.yc) . r and screen center position (xc.0) Each calculated position (x. we can set up our algorithm to calculate pixel positions around a circle path centered at the coordinate origin (0. we sample at unit intervals & determine the closest pixel position to the specified circle path at each step For a given radius.

0 i. we can take unit steps in the +ve x direction over the octant & use decision parameter to determine which 2 possible positions is vertically closer to the circle path Positions in the other 7 octants are obtained by symmetry .e.29 of 39 Midpoint Circle Algorithm Along a circle section from x=0 to x=y in the 1st quadrant. the slope (m) of the curve varies from 0 to 1.

there is an incremental algorithm for drawing circles ± the mid-point circle algorithm In the mid-point circle algorithm we use eight-way symmetry so only ever calculate the points for the top right eighth of a circle. . who we heard about earlier.30 of 39 Mid-Point Circle Algorithm Similarly to the case with lines. and then use symmetry to get the rest of the points The mid-point circle algorithm was developed by Jack Bresenham. Bresenham¶s patent for the algorithm can be viewed here.

yk-1) and (xk+1. yk-1) We would like to choose the point that is nearest to the actual circle So how do we make this choice? . yk) (xk+1. yk) just plotted point (xk.31 of 39 Mid-Point Circle Algorithm (cont«) Assume that we have (xk. yk) The next point is a choice between (xk+1. yk) (xk+1.

if ( x. if ( x. y ) is on the circle boundary ± 0. y ) ¯! 0. if ( x. y ) is outside the circle boundary " ° By evaluating this function at the midpoint between the candidate pixels we can make our decision . y ) is inside the circle boundary ± f circ ( x. y ) ! x 2 y 2 r 2 The equation evaluates as follows: ® 0.32 of 39 Mid-Point Circle Algorithm (cont«) Let¶s re-jig the equation of the circle slightly to give us: f circ ( x.

yk) and (xk+1.33 of 39 Mid-Point Circle Algorithm (cont«) Assuming we have just plotted the pixel at (xk. yk 1 ) 2 ! ( xk 1) 2 ( yk 1 ) 2 r 2 2 If pk < 0 the midpoint is inside the circle and and the pixel at yk is closer to the circle Otherwise the midpoint is outside and yk-1 is closer .yk) so we need to choose between (xk+1.yk-1) Our decision variable can be defined as: pk ! f circ ( xk 1.

34 of 39 Mid-Point Circle Algorithm (cont«) To ensure things are as efficient as possible we can do all of our calculations incrementally First consider: pk 1 ! f circ xk 1 1. yk 1 1 ! [( xk 1) 1] yk 1 2 .

2 .

1 or: pk 1 ! pk 2( xk 1) ( y 2 k 1 2 k r 2 2 2 y ) ( yk 1 yk ) 1 where yk+1 is either yk or yk-1 depending on the sign of pk .

r 1 ) 2 ! 1 (r 1 ) 2 r 2 2 ! 5 r 4 o o Then if pk < 0 then the next decision variable is given as: pk 1 ! pk 2 xk 1 1 If pk > 0 then the decision variable is: pk 1 ! pk 2 xk 1 1 2 yk 1 .35 of 39 Mid-Point Circle Algorithm (cont«) The first decision variable is given as: (x .r)) p0 ! f circ (1. y =(0.

0) is (xk+1.36 of 39 The Mid-Point Circle Algorithm MID-POINT CIRCLE ALGORITHM Input radius r and circle centre (xc. y0 ) ! (0. then set the coordinates for the first point on the circumference of a circle centred on the origin as: ( x0 . yc). perform the following test. If pk < 0. the next point along the circle centred on (0. yk) and: pk 1 ! pk 2 xk 1 1 . r ) Calculate the initial value of the decision parameter as: p0 ! 5 r 4 Starting with k = 0 at each position xk.

Determine symmetry points in the other seven octants Move each calculated pixel position (x. y) onto the circular path centred at (xc. 5.37 of 39 The Mid-Point Circle Algorithm (cont«) Otherwise the next point along the circle is (xk+1. y ! y yc Repeat steps 3 to 5 until x >= y . yk-1) and: pk 1 ! pk 2 xk 1 1 2 y k 1 4. yc) to plot the coordinate values: x ! x xc 6.

0) with radius 10 .38 of 39 Mid-Point Circle Algorithm Example To see the mid-point circle algorithm in action lets use it to draw a circle centred at (0.

10) (2.39 of 39 Mid-Point Circle Algorithm Example (cont«) k pk (xk+1.10) (4.yk+1) 2xk+1 2yk+1 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 -9 1 -6 2 -1 3 6 4 -3 5 8 6 5 (1.10) (3.9) (6.7) 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 20 20 20 18 18 16 14 .9) (5.8) (7.

0) with radius 15 .40 of 39 Mid-Point Circle Algorithm Exercise Use the mid-point circle algorithm to draw the circle centred at (0.

41 of 39 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Mid-Point Circle Algorithm Example (cont«) k 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 pk (xk+1.yk+1) 2xk+1 2yk+1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 12 .

42 of 39 Mid-Point Circle Algorithm Summary The key insights in the mid-point circle algorithm are: ± Eight-way symmetry can hugely reduce the work in drawing a circle ± Moving in unit steps along the x axis at each point along the circle¶s edge we need to choose between two possible y coordinates .

43 of 39 Filling Polygons So we can figure out how to draw lines and circles How do we go about drawing polygons? We use an incremental algorithm known as the scan-line algorithm .

44 of 39 Scan-Line Polygon Fill Algorithm 10 Scan Line 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 .

45 of 39 Scan-Line Polygon Fill Algorithm The basic scan-line algorithm is as follows: ± Find the intersections of the scan line with all edges of the polygon ± Sort the intersections by increasing x coordinate ± Fill in all pixels between pairs of intersections that lie interior to the polygon .

46 of 39 Scan-Line Polygon Fill Algorithm (cont«) .

47 of 39 Line Drawing Summary Over the last couple of lectures we have looked at the idea of scan converting lines The key thing to remember is this has to be FAST For lines we have either DDA or Bresenham For circles the mid-point algorithm .

48 of 39 Anti-Aliasing .

49 of 39 Summary Of Drawing Algorithms .

50 of 39 Mid-Point Circle Algorithm (cont«) 6 5 4 3 1 2 3 4 .

51 of 39 Mid-Point Circle Algorithm (cont«) 6 M 5 4 3 1 2 3 4 .

52 of 39 Mid-Point Circle Algorithm (cont«) 6 M 5 4 3 1 2 3 4 .

53 of 39 Blank Grid .

54 of 39 Blank Grid .

55 of 39 Blank Grid 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 .

56 of 39 Blank Grid .

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