Biomass & CHP Opportunity for NC

Sierra Club Forum
November 14, 2009
Alex Hobbs, PhD, PE NC Solar Center
www.ncsc.ncsu.edu

Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy

Living within our energy budget

Carbon production cycle based on agricultural biomass for production of hydrocarbon based energy and products
Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy

Energy from the Sun
An sustainable supply of energy for the next few billion years

&
nuclear energy we all support Diameter = 1.39 x 106 km Weight = 2 x 1030 kg

One billionth of the Sun’s radiation actually reaches Earth

178,000 Terawatts
Where 1 tera is 1012
E = mc2 Diameter = 12,700 km

The Sun destroys 4 x 109 kg/s of mass and releases energy at the rate of 3.8 x 1026 J/s.

32’ ≈ .53°

Earth

Surface solarization = 1000 W/m2

150 x 106 km
Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy

NC’s most widely deployed solar collector

Woody Biomass
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Sunlight → (CH2O)6 + 6 O2 
nutrients

Solar Powered Biomass

Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy

Long View of Climate Change • Venus. Earth & Mars were 96% CO2 originally • Carbon has been sequestered into the earth’s crust for 3+ billion years • With current growth in fossil fuel usage we will release all fuel grade carbon to the atmosphere in ~ 200 years Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .

World carbon balance Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .

Avoided Biomass Decomposition 46% landfilled lignin and 50% of the non-lignin resistant to degradation 15.6 kg CH4 (2.2 kg carbon 100 kg biomass (bone dry) (50.05 kg carbon) 90% not oxidized by soil microbes 10% oxidized by soil microbes 1.6 kg carbon) 3.4 kg CH4 (4.4 kg carbon) 4.6 kg carbon) 54% mulched 54 kg biomass (27.5% captured and combusted 5.5% released as CH4 2.8 kg CO2 (4.2 kg CO2equiv If 100 kg biomass were to completely decompose aerobically or combusted: 185.7 kg carbon) 5.5 kg CO2 (0.5 kg CH4 = 248.2 kg carbon) 40.9 kg CH4 (3.3 kg carbon) degradation of 50% of cellulose & hemicellulose decomposition 8.7 kg CO2 + 6.05 kg carbon) 90.4 kg CO2 GHG effect reduced by 62.3 kg carbon) 90% aerobic 10% anaerobic Natural decomposition of 100 kg of biomass: 111.1 kg carbon 50% to 50% to anaerobic CO 2 decomposition CH4 14.9 kg CH4 (2.5 kg carbon) Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .4 kg CO2 (1.0 kg CO2 (24.65 kg carbon) 59.8 kg per 100 kg of biomass 46 kg biomass (23.

204 1. NREL/TP-43023076 Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .627 10 Landfill and Mulching Transportation 3 Construction Power Plant Operation Electricity Out 28.4 Direct-Fired Biomass Residue System 134% carbon closure Mann and Spath (1997).0 Fossil Energy In Avoided Carbon Emissions 1.Life Cycle CO2 and Energy Balance for a Direct-Fired Biomass System Net greenhouse gas emissions -410 g CO2 equivalent/kWh 1.

Environmental Advantage of Biomass Based Energy Production NREL LCA studies by Mann & Spath Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .

Wood Biomass to Electricity 45 MWe Craven County Wood Energy (CCWE) Operating since 1990 at 95% availability Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .

85 5.89 0.5 11.22 2.67 Plant comparison air emissions Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy Wade Bennett NC GreenPower presentation .NC Wood vs.076 0. Coal Emissions 2078 12 10 8 6 lbs/MWh 4 2 0 CCWE NC Coal Avg 2003 CO2 SO2 NOx PM10 PM2.0089 0.

Biomass R&D Act of 2000 Management Harvesting Environmental sustainability Source: Martin Holmer Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .

Let’s focus on Southeastern energy issues In the Southeast what types of reasonable “solutions” may be provided through policy and technology changes? Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .

Southeast has relatively cheap power Risk of dying from coal fired power plant caused particulates Advancing Renewable Energy for a http://poweringthesouth.org Sustainable Economy Source: Clean Air Task Force .

Average = 800 kWh/month California = 500 kWh/month 15000 13000 11000 9000 per person NC FL GA PA CA WI US avg 7000 5000 annual kilowatt hours 3000 1955 1965 1975 Year Source: U. Electricity Consum ption per Person 1960-2001 North Carolina = 1.NC and GA – two of most inefficient energy economies in the U. Department of Energy.S.S.100 kWh/month U. 2006 1985 1995 2005 Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .S. Energy Information Administration.

2006 Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .S.World’s 50 largest GHG producers World’s largest emitters – 9 of 50 are southeast U. states Georgia 22nd in World Florida 17th in World North Carolina 24th in World Virginia 31st in World Source: Pew Climate Center presentation to NC Climate Change Commission.

• Promote distributed generation using available “opportunity” fuels • Utilize waste heat from the natural inefficiency of power generation • Strive to reduce carbon emissions to the atmosphere • Support the process to establish policies that allow change to occur Consider CHP for efficiently using biomass for power production Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .

Efficiency Benefits of CHP Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .

Efficiency gains translate to emission reductions Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .

cfm?Incentive_Code=NC09R&re=1&ee=1 Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy . animal waste. spent pulping liquors. energy crops. combustible gases.” Further determination of what constitutes a qualifying biomass resource may be made on a case-bycase basis http://dsireusa. Gen. Stat.C. or waste heat derived from a renewable energy resource. wood waste.org/incentives/incentive. combustible liquids. or landfill methane. § 62133. combustible residues.NC REPS Definition of Biomass The NCUC decided not to expand the definition of biomass specified in N.8(a)(8): “agricultural waste.

Wood residues The conversion of woody biomass to energy in the NC poses a unique opportunity to address three issues: •Restoration of forest health •GHG reduction by using renewable energy alternatives •Provide economic development in rural communities Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .

Total Biomass Thermal Fuel Value 199x1012 Btu/yr 6650 Mwt 1662 Mwe Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .

There is a significant proportion of the 10% NC REPS available from gleaning logging residues. Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .

Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .Biomass harvests can reduce site preparation costs.

Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .Biomass markets can make management of poor quality stands profitable by making pre-commercial thinnings into commercial thinnings.

Residue Left at Final Harvest Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy . 8 live 5” diameter trees/acre no harvest of advanced regeneration. or opening to documentation to pass up government the commercial chain to regulation or state regulators. 2 brush piles per acre Minimum Nope Residual Stand for Thinning.Woody Biomass “Practices” There are different opinions Practice Best Management Practices for Water Quality Harvest Notification Industry Approve Extension Approve Environmentalist Approve Dislike any sort Supports Written Contract Pre harvest notification of pre or post approved by NC Registered harvest Forester to verify that BMPs announcement were followed. This is sort oversight of a back door to post harvest notification No consensus opinion 30 ft2/acre for thinning.

edu Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .ncsc.Do we have some questions? Alex Hobbs NC Solar Center www.ncsu.

epa.gov/chp/basic/catalog.html • Good introduction to power technology options and heat recovery • Coverage of several efficiency measurements and where they best apply Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .EPA CHP technology catalog • www.

gov/combdhpp/documents/biomass_ch Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .epa.EPA Biomass Publication • CHP applications for low Btu fuels • Provides a good review of everything from stoker boilers to gasification for powering renewable CHP • www.

Waste Wood. FischerTropsch Liquids Bio-Fuels & Bio-Products Chris Hopkins-NCSU Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy . Tops & Branches Electricity or Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Turbines Torrefied Wood Bio-Char Pyrolitic Conversion Hydrolysis Pyrolysis 400ºC Alcohols Fermentation & Distillation Bio-Oil Gasification 500ºC Syngas (CO H2 CH4) Alcohol.Energy Conversion Technologies Energy Products and Processes for Woody Biomass Process Heat Hot Gas or Steam Bio-Power Direct Combustion Torrefaction 300ºC Simple Sugars Acids & Enzymes Logging Residue.

NC Biomass Council Estimated 277 trillion Btu’s or 81billion kWthr of biomass resource in NC http://www.edu/ncsc/bioenergy/docs Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .ncsu.engr.

Notes on Biomass Availability for the EMC Chris Hopkins Outreach Associate. Forestry Extension Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .

Components of Biomass Available for Energy and Fuels in NC • Forest harvest residues • Pulpwood • Agricultural Residues (corn and wheat stover) • Hay • Biofuels crops (perhaps on pasture land) Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .

Current Forest Productivity • TPO for NC 2007 data indicate we are generating about – 12 million green tons of logging residue and – 11. – 25% more than enough to satisfy the 17.5 million other removals.6 million tons of forest residue (55% of the RPS total need) from the full implementation of the RPS Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .

25 • If all timberland stands were managed on a 50 year rotation and • Growth rates matched those of the top 25% of existing hardwood and softwood stands. Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .Prospective Forest Productivity • We could approximately increase our harvestable annual yield by a factor of 5.

Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .

Pulpwood • Most NC pulp mills not currently operating at full capacity • Nationally we are using less paper each year (1-2%) • NC TPO indicates about – 10 million tons of pulpwood produced annually – 1.5 million tons of fiber for composite products Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .

238 million BDT) • Hay is not a residue product. • Corn stover is about 74% of the agricultural residues (0.Agricultural Residues • USDA figures from the last ten years indicate: • Corn stover and wheat straw are the main sources of potential agricultural residues in NC.659 million BDT) and wheat straw is the bulk of the remainder (0.589 million tons) Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy . but may be available for use (1.

000 acres.Biofuels on Pasture and Hay Land • Hay is typically grown on fallow agricultural land while pastures are usually less productive. • Biofuels production such as switchgrass on pasture lands would likely be relatively low compared to typical ranges (4-9 BDT/acre) • 4 BDT/acre used in this analysis.000. while pasture is about 3. • Hay represents about 716.000 acres. Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .

Regions for Analysis of the Biopower/Biofuels Resources Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .

000 BDT from each region • Biopower and Biofuels production is assumed to be equally shared among regions.466 million BDT from each region. – 1.000 gallons annually – Assume 80 gallons of fuel per BDT of biomass.Requirments for Biofuels and Biopower Production • Biopower was assumed to require 8.500.250. – 7.000.8 million BDT annually at full RPS implementation or 1. Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy . • Biofuels production is proposed to be 600.000 BDT required statewide.

. i.• Availability describes participation in biomass markets. assumed to be 90% for all biomass sources in this analysis • Recovery is the technical ability to bring available biomass to market – 75 % from recent experience with the logging industry – 60% from agriculture literature – 100% for hay and biofuels crops Constraints and Improvements of Biomass Availability • Yield gain describes increase in production foreseen under improved management scenarios (2 is considered a conservative forestry increase.e. 100% increase) Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .

• Yellow indicates biopower goal met. Biofuels and Biopower • Red indicates regional biopower goal not met. • Numbers in table are cumulative over – – – – – – Logging residue. Other forest residue. • Green indicates both goals met. Agriculture residue Hay Switchgrass Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .Biomass vs. partial fulfillment of biofuels goal. Pulpwood .

893 1.604.670.264 2.470.Base Case: Current Productivity.014.158.090 2.439.084 422.353.583 5.237 3.448.75 1 0.960 1.222.497 1.458 3.778.488 5.057.9 0.182.551.415. Recovery and Logging Other Forest Pulpwood Crop Hay Pasture to Availability Residues Residues Residue Switchgrass Availability Recovery Yield Gain Total 0.610.9 0.529 1.393.927.891 1.6 1 0.104.996 1.142.121 2.180.129 1.064 2.085.281 801.675 0.593 1.9 0.124.526 3.570.922 589.391 1.855 1.060 1.130 1.9 1 1 0.695.704 2.54 0.810.361.9 0.002 2.9 1 1 0.654 2.622 3.041.9 521.9 Regions Cumulative Sum of Biomass Sources Logging Residues Other Forest Residues Pulpwood Crop Residue Hay Pasture to Switchgrass 1 2 3 4 5 6 0.309 804.461 1.686.75 1 0.936 Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .841.923.692 1.674 2.530 6.893 607.675 0.9 1 1 0.977 1.

157 3.994 2.9 1 1 0.603.597.449.190 3.616.593.364.423 3.587 3.715.958 2.776.711 3.786 4.739 8.625.340.Improved Forest Production Scenario with Logging Other Forest Current Recovery Pulpwood Crop Residue Hay and Availability Residues Residues Availability Recovery Yield Gain Total 0.9 0.457 Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .694 1.445.360.9 6 1.813 8.769.9 1 1 0.723.75 2 1.141.379 4.75 2 1.260 3.6 1 0.221.9 1 2 1.446.115.860 5.54 0.205 2.285.258 6.606.148 7.384 6.992 2.244 4.617 1.163 1.9 0.326.35 0.955 2.609.200.9 0.057.9 Pasture to Switchgrass 0.562 2.186 3.786 3.782 3.059 3.696.249.683.043.8 Regions Cumulative Sum of Biomass Sources Logging Residues Other Forest Residues Pulpwood Crop Residue Hay Pasture to Switchgrass 1 2 3 4 5 0.349 3.316.214.052 1.588 5.178.35 0.583 6.308 4.830 844.421.356.773.311.167 2.

Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .Results • Satisfying biofuels and biopower mandates are achievable with modest and achievable increases in forest production alone in most regions. • Region 6 is probably too small and isolated to be considered independently.

How Achievable is a Doubling of Forest Productivity? • CAPAG Forest Management Option • Goal: by 2020 double the productivity of 50% of NC timberland for high value products and claim these products and energy as carbon offsets. • Enhance funding of the Forest Development Program (NC DENR) – ~$230 million for 10 years – Discounted cost of about $260/acre in program • 10% of the budget reserved for forestry extension Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy Chris Hopkins .

• Forest residue energy relies on health of the solid wood product market Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy .Forest Industry Health • Financial motivation for forest landowners is not to produce biomass product. biomass is a co-product (so is pulpwood). • Motivation is to produce a high value solid wood product.

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