Case study On

Attitude
Title: Doing his share

MIM, Manipal 2009

Gist of the case 

Ralph Morgan, a worker and union member has now been made a supervisor Initially Ralph has an attitude against the management and continues to show an attitude of kinship with the union Over time and with events and experiences, Ralph undergoes attitudinal changes Management invites Ralph to train supervisors in ways of dealing with the union because Ralph himself was a part of the union at one time.   

MPOB - Case study on Attitude

Attitude - Components
What was Ralph s attitude towards the union when he first became a supervisor?

Cont d 

 

Ralph s initial attitude was based on Belief (Cognitive): Positive Emotion (Affective): Affinity, kinship Behavior : Protectionist

Stephen P. Robbins 13th edition, p. 79

MPOB - Case study on Attitude

Components of Attitude
Attitudes
Cognitive component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude. Affective Component The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. Behavioral Component An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.
MPOB - Case study on Attitude

Attitude - Components
What was Ralph s attitude towards the union when he first became a supervisor?
Ralph s initial attitude towards the union was based on these components

Cont d

Cognitive component: Opinion and belief segment of attitude.
Ralph had a favourable opinion about the union and its purpose. His opinion or judgment was based on available information from his being associated with it before taking up the new position. He had a favorable opinion towards the union which he thought was necessary in order to ensure a fair and win-win relationship between management winand union.
Stephen P. Robbins 13th edition, p. 79

MPOB - Case study on Attitude

Attitude - Components
Affective component: Emotional or feeling
segment of attitude. Ralph was emotionally attached to the union. He developed a feeling of affinity and kinship with the union, especially during the two unsuccessful strikes.

Behavioral component: An intention to behave in a certain
way toward someone or something. Ralph had an intention of protecting the union and upholding its purpose while trying to show the management down for not acting favourably.
Stephen P. Robbins 13th edition, p. 79

MPOB - Case study on Attitude

BARRIERS TO CHANGE 
Prior

commitment  Insufficient information  Escalation of commitment

Attitude

Barriers to change

What barriers were there that initially prevented him from changing his attitude towards the union?
The barriers to change of attitude in Ralph can be categorized as below: Prior commitment: when people feel a commitment towards a
particular course of action that has already been agreed upon, it becomes difficult for them to change or accept the new ways of functioning. In case of Ralph, he had dedicated himself to the goals of the union when he participated in the two strikes that failed. His attitude was shaped such as to help the union with its goals.
MPOB - Case study on Attitude

Attitude

Barriers to change

Cont d

Insufficient information: Sometimes people simply don t see a
reason to change their attitude due to unavailability of adequate information. Ralph was yet to learn the management s perspective and what it takes to deal with the union workers. The boss may not like an associate s negative attitude, but the latter may be quite pleased with his own behaviour. Unless the boss can show the individual why a negative attitude is detrimental to career progress or salary raises or some other desirable personal objective, this person may continue to have a negative attitude.

Fred Luthans 11th edition, p. 139

MPOB - Case study on Attitude

Attitude

Barriers to change

Cont d

Escalation of commitment: Knee deep in the big muddy; People
tend to justify their current attitude despite new evidence that it is wrong. Ralph had invested a lot of energy and time in the union activities and it was preventing him from changing his attitude in favor of the management and against the union. The president of the company graduated from an Ivy League school and was personally instrumental in hiring the new head of the marketing department, who had graduated from the same school. Unfortunately, things are not working out well. The marketing manager is not very good. However, because the president played such a major role in hiring this manager, the chief executive is unwilling to admit the mistake.
Fred Luthans 11th edition, p. 139

MPOB - Case study on Attitude

Attitude - Factors for change Why did Ralph s attitude change? What factors accounted for this?

MPOB -Case study on Attitude

Because of .  Exposure to new information  Co-opting approach Co- 

Ralph s change in attitude can be attributed to the following factors. New information: Providing relevant and adequate information changes attitude dramatically; conversely, lack of information breeds negative feelings and attitudes. 

Attitude - Factors for change

Cont d

Before joining the management, Ralph had an anti management attitude. However, when he was promoted into the management rank, his attitude changed. He became aware of what the company was doing to help the workers and how the union was working against the company and, overtime, this new information resulted in a change in his belief about management and his attitude towards both the company and the union. He became more pro-company and less pro-union.

MPOB -Case study on Attitude

Attitude - Factors for change

Cont d

CoCo-opting approach: To change the attitude of some one who
belongs to a different group , it is often becomes very effective if you can include him in your own group . Such a person can help formulate policies in matters he has participated in previously as part of the other group. The management knew that Ralph feels that the management is doing less to address the union s issues. Inviting Ralph on board to formulate policies for dealing with the union is an attempt at changing Ralph s negative attitude towards the management.

MPOB -Case study on Attitude

Attitude

Functions

Are workers who are recruited for supervisory positions likely to go through the same attitude changes as well? Yes, Yes, because of presence of comparative intensity of attitude functions

MPOB - Case study on Attitude

Attitude - Functions
Adjustment function: One when is Well treated = positive attitude Ill treated = negative attitude

Cont d

Attitudes often help people to adjust to their work environment. Well-treated employees tend to develop a positive attitude towards their job, management and the organization in general while berated and ill treated organizational members develop a negative attitude. In other words, attitudes help employees adjust to their environment and form a basis for future behaviour. In case of Ralph, he was embarrassed by the two incidents with the workers and that made him develop a negative attitude towards the union and workers.
MPOB - Case study on Attitude

Attitude - Functions
self image.

Cont d

Ego defensive function: Attitude helps one retain dignity and
An old manager whose decisions are continuously challenged by a younger subordinate, manager may feel that the latter is brash, immature and inexperienced. In truth, the younger subordinate may be right in challenging the decision. The older manager will try to protect his ego by putting the blame on the other party. Challenged by the workers, Ralph had to undergo a change in attitude to defend his ego.

MPOB - Case study on Attitude

Attitude - Functions
Value expressive function Attitude provides a basis for function:
expressing ones human values.

Cont d

For example, a manager who values hard and sincere work will be more vocal against an employee who is having a very casual approach towards work. Ralph did not like the employees who were slacking at work or not being punctual.

MPOB - Case study on Attitude

Attitude - Functions
reference for ones understanding and perception.

Cont d

Knowledge function Attitudes provide standards and frames of function:
If one has a strong negative attitude towards the management, whatever the management does, even employee welfare programmes can be perceived as something bad and as actually against them.

Fred Luthans 11th edition, p. 139 and 140

MPOB - Case study on Attitude

Case study On

Attitude
Title: Ken leaves the company
1st Semester, MBA Section A Group 6 Puja Singh Anu Meha Trupti Fernandes Rashmi Shreshtha Gaurav Ravi MIM, Manipal 2009

Title: Ken Leaves The Company
Gist of the case 

Ken an experienced under writer quit his job because: 
He felt that the job wasn t right for him. He needed more of a chance to show what he can do. He wasn t getting enough feedback regarding his job. Company kept people in the dark about where it s headed.

Do you think that Ken s self esteem had anything to do with his leaving the firm?
Self esteem has to do with people s self perceived competence and self image.  People with high self esteem report more positive attitude, feelings and life satisfaction and less anxiety, hopelessness and depressive symptoms.  High self esteem can be a good thing only if it is nurtured and channeled in constructive and ethical ways. Otherwise it can become anti social and destructive.  Since Ken had a high self esteem, he felt that he could do much more challenging assignments than his job offered. 

What do you think were Ken s satisfaction with and commitment to the job and firm he is leaving? How does this relate to the research on the determinants and outcomes of satisfaction and commitment? 


Job satisfaction focuses on employee s attitude towards the job. Organizational commitment focuses on their attitude towards the overall organization.

Determinants of job satisfaction 
Work  Pay  Promotion  Supervision  Work

itself

group  Working conditions

Outcomes of Job Satisfaction 
Performance  Turnover

What lesson can this company learn from the case of Ken? What can and should it now do? 
Ability

job fit  Person organization fit  Person job fit 
Alignment

of organizational values with individual values.

Relationships among Occupational Personality Types 

Provide

a challenging job  Provide relevant training  Provide timely and consistent feedback  Select a good first supervisor

Case study On

Attitude
TITLE: ALBERTSONS WORKS ON EMPLOYEE ATTITUDES
1st Semester, MBA Section A Group 6 Anu Meha Gaurav Ravi Puja kumari Rashmi Shreshtha Trupti Fernandes MIM, Manipal 2009

Gist of case 
Albertsons

is a huge grocery and drug company in U.S.  With increase in competition ,sales of the company was decreasing.  A person named Johnston was appointed by Albertsons.  But Johnston wanted to hire another person named Foreman a training specialist for the same purpose. 

Johnston

met Foreman when he was in

G.E co.  Increase in profitability was observed after Training program conducted by Foreman on motivation and attitude in G.E.  Training program included yoga, uphill marching chanting I know I can I know I can , and variety of lectures on attitude.  According to Foreman its your attitude, not your aptitude that determines your altitude. 

Explain

how Foreman s three days course positively influences the profitability of Albertsons

Concept
Attitudes
Cognitive component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude. Affective Component The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. Behavioral Component An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.
MPOB - Case study on Attitude

Concept
Cognitive : Evaluation I believe I can do Affective : feeling I know I can Behavioral : Action I started working harder
MPOB - Case study on Attitude

Attitudes

POSITIVE ATTITUDE

How you can change attitude?

Methods 
Exposure

effect - exposing a person to a concept, object or person no of times.  Reinforcement
classical conditioning-involuntary reflexes conditioningOperant conditioning-voluntary behavior conditioning Persuasive

communication how effectively communication made  Changing viewpoint 

Foreman

applied these concept to change the attitude of Albertsons associates making them more productive and concentrated. He raised the energy levels of associates. Generally behaviour of an individual follows from attitude. If attitude is positive then behaviour will also be the same.

Behavior follows Attitude
Johnston says, "Positive attitude is a single biggest thing that can change a business". How valid and generalizable do you think this statement is ? 

Positive

attitude reduces cognitive dissonance which leads to cognitive consonance.

Measuring the A-B Relationship A

Recent research indicates that attitudes (A) significantly predict behaviors (B) when moderating variables are taken into account.
Moderating Variables
Importance of the attitude Specificity of the attitude Accessibility of the attitude Social pressures on the individual Direct experience with the

attitude

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 

Positive attitude has direct relationship with productivity of an employee. Employees with a positive attitude will definitely have higher degree of job involvement. Satisfied and committed employees, for instance, have lower rates of turnover, absenteeism, and withdrawal behaviours. They also perform better on their jobs. Organizational performance success is largely dependent on satisfied and productive work -force. This can be achieved only if attitude of an employee is positive.

Levels of Attitude 
If

you were Johnston, what would you do to evaluate the effectiveness of your $10 million investments in Foreman s training program? 

As

Johnston, we would check the evaluation by the following levels of attitude  Reaction level  Learning level  Behavior level  Result level

a) Reaction Level: This level is to measure the Level: employees reaction to the training activity. Employees attitude towards the programme i.e. how much did they like the training and to what extent did they get influenced by that. b) Learning Level: This level will be used to Level: measure the learning transfer achieved by the training and development activity and second purpose is to determine the extent to which employees have increased their knowledge, skills and changed their attitudes.

c) Behaviour Level: This level s purpose is to Level: measure changes in behaviour of employees as a result of training and development activity and how well the enhancement of knowledge, skill, attitudes has prepared them for their role. I would concentrate more on what changes they exhibited in their behaviour after the program. d) Result Level: This level would help me in Level: knowing what made the employees to act differently after the training. It measures the contribution of training and development to the achievement of the business/operational goals.

Benefits of positive attitude 
If

you were an Albertsons employee, how would you feel about going through Foreman s course. Explain your position 

After

Foreman s training course Every employee started believing in themselves. It helped in tackling challenges. The chanting of words I KNOW I CAN motivated the words . It helps in balancing thoughts,doubts,anxities and fears with positive thoughts like hopes ,courage, confidence and cheerfulness.

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