The Car & Ramp

CPO Science

Key Questions 
How do we measure and describe the world around us?  What is speed and how do we measure it?  Can you predict the speed of the car at any given point on the ramp?

Overview 
Timer Functions  Using the Timer  Measuring Speed  Graphing Speed  Predicting Speed from our Graph

CPO Timing System .

01 seconds  Another runner has a time of 10.CPO Timing System  How can we measure time accurately?   Using the timer in stopwatch mode.00 seconds  Who wins? . Who can get the fastest time? The 100 meter race  One runner has a time of 10.

does the timer reset. .  What happens when you block the light beam several times in succession.Photogates  How does the Photogate start and stop the timer? Do the speed challenge. or does it add the times?  Plug the second photogate into the B port.

 How does the timer work like 3 internal stopwatches? .

or are the times added?  What does the timer measure when the A light is on?  What does the timer measure when the B light is on?  What does the timer measure when both lights are on? . does the timer start from zero each time.Review  How do you start the timer?  How do you stop the timer?  If you block the light beam several times in a row.

Motion Investigation #1  Why does the car have a tab on the side? Li ht ea Car Photo ate Cla Car Ra Physics Stand Foot .

Ramp Height  Design a quick experiment to see what effect ramp height has on the TIME it takes the car to move from Photogate A to Photogate B. 7. 9 . 5.  Ramp hole #: 3.

What Happened?  What are the variables in this experiment? 1. Distance between A & B 2. position of A & B 3. start technique 7. Ramp angle . starting point 5. Weight 4. friction 6.

Technique  Practice your drop technique until you get three identical times in a row! This is very important for data collection in the next investigation! .

Controlling Variables  Now Let¶s try that experiment again. and this time we will do our best to control all variables except ramp height. .

oot ace . The One.

Tsunami (tidal wave)  8. Human fast walk  2. 1974)  A.8 x 101  E. Winner of 100 m dash  7. 3. 4.2 x 101  B. Hair growth  4. 7. Continental drift  5.How Fast? Match them up! (m/s)  1.0 x 10-9  G. 1. 1. Fastball pitch (Nolan Ryan. 1. 2. Running cheetah  9.0 x 10-3  H. 1. Concorde SST  6. Snail  3.0 x 102  F.1 x 102  D.5 x 101  C.0 x 10-9 . 2.3 x 100  I.

1.How Fast? Match them up! (m/s)  1. Tsunami (tidal wave)  8. Continental drift  5.3 x 100  G.8 x 101  B. Human fast walk  2. 2. 1. 2. 1. 1974)  H. Fastball pitch (Nolan Ryan.2 x 101  E.0 x 102  D. 7.0 x 10-9  I.0 x 10-3  F. Snail  3. Running cheetah  9.1 x 102  A. Hair growth  4.0 x 10-9  C. 3. 1. Winner of 100 m dash  7. 4. Concorde SST  6.5 x 101 .

Using a model to predict speed of car  Turn to investigation 2.1. Foundations of Physical Science Investigation Manual .

Displacement  Why do we start with this graph?  Only need 1 photogate  Can make predictions with graph  What is the dependent variable.Make a Graph of Speed vs. and do we assign it to the X or Y?  What is the independent variable?  Should we connect the data points?  What does the graph tell us about the speed of the car as it rolls down the ramp?  Explain why the graph is a curve .

 Test your prediction!  Calculate % error . predict what the speed of the car at clamp B would be if the photogates were 27 cm apart.Test the Graphical Model  Connect the data points on your graph  Without using the car/ramp setup.

DON¶T TURN THE TIMER OVER. THAT¶S CHEATING  Use your graph and a little algebra to predict the time on the display  Write the time on your white board  Turn the timer over! How close were you?  Calculate % error  THIS IS YOUR GRADE! .The amazing Carnak  Place the Photogate at the 38 cm mark  Turn the timer face down on the table  Run the car down the ramp.

Position vs.    How do we measure the distance? How do we measure the time? What change in our setup is required? . Time  Suppose we want to collect data and graph the relationship between displacement of the car and time (distance vs. time graph).

Time B. Don¶t move A!!!  Place Photogate B at 6 different places along the ramp.Series of Trials  Place photogate A at the top of the ramp. but be sure the wing doesn¶t break the beam while the car is at rest. Time from A to B .  Measure:  Displacement (distance from A to B)  Time A.

the distance the car moves depends on how much time has elapsed  What is the independent variable?  The time it took the car to move from A to B  Create the d/t graph.  What does the graph tell us about the motion of the car?  Why is the graph a curve? .Graphing Data  What is the dependent variable?  Displacement.

check it.  Turn the timer over and run the car down the ramp  What will the timer read? Make your prediction.Using a Graph for Predictions  Time to make another prediction!  Place the photogates 55 cm apart. and calculate % error  What is your grade on this investigation? .

Acceleration  What is acceleration?  How could we find the acceleration of the car on the ramp?  Place photogates 20 cm apart at different places on the ramp. and find acceleration  How do accelerations compare at different places on the ramp?  How could I make the acceleration greater? .

we need to calculate speed at B from previous data  Calculate speed at B for each of the trials in investigation #3 .Testing Different Variables  What other combination of variables have we not yet graphed and investigated?  Speed of car vs. elapsed time  Do we need to run more trials to collect data for this?  No.

Time .More Graphing  What is the dependent variable?  Speed at B. it depends on the time elapsed  What is the independent variable?  Time elapsed from A to B  Create a graph of peed vs.

What is different about the ³look´ of this graph when compared to the other two graphs we created?  It¶s a line! What equation describes the relationship between x and y variables for a straight line?  y=mx+b .

or tAB This is a challenge! Check out the other data we collected and see if you can figure it out Speed at A.Using the Line Equation  Substitute variable names from our experiment for each of the letters in the equation y=mx+b. or VB Time elapsed. or VA  What does x represent?  What does b represent? .  What does y represent?     Speed at b.

What does m represent? Slope of the line How do you find the slope? Change in y over change in x What quantity is defined as the change in speed over time?  Acceleration!     .

Rearanging the Equation  Write the equation of the line using the physics variables  VB = at + VA  Physical Science teachers will recognize this as a= (Vf ± Vo)/t  You have just used a graph to show the relationship between 4 different physical variables! You derived the equation for finding acceleration!  Use your graph to find b (VA) & m (a) .

0.Prediction Vs.3000. Experiment  For each of the following times.2000. 0. 0.4000. time  T= 0. use your equation to find the speed at B and plot these data points on your experimental graph of speed vs.5000  Find VB for each of these times  Plot the ordered pairs on your experimental graph  How close does your prediction match your experiment? .

and acceleration are all important variables. and acceleration a = (Vf ± Vo)/t. like the car/ramp.  We know how to relate speed. distance.  How do we relate all four variables for a more general description of motion? .  We know how to relate speed.Summary  In many situations. the distance. but without acceleration. time. but without distance. speed. and time s = d/t. time.

See handout with explanation of finding area under speed/time graph .