# The Car & Ramp

CPO Science

Key Questions 
How do we measure and describe the world around us?  What is speed and how do we measure it?  Can you predict the speed of the car at any given point on the ramp?

Overview 
Timer Functions  Using the Timer  Measuring Speed  Graphing Speed  Predicting Speed from our Graph

CPO Timing System .

01 seconds  Another runner has a time of 10.CPO Timing System  How can we measure time accurately?   Using the timer in stopwatch mode.00 seconds  Who wins? . Who can get the fastest time? The 100 meter race  One runner has a time of 10.

does the timer reset. .  What happens when you block the light beam several times in succession.Photogates  How does the Photogate start and stop the timer? Do the speed challenge. or does it add the times?  Plug the second photogate into the B port.

 How does the timer work like 3 internal stopwatches? .

or are the times added?  What does the timer measure when the A light is on?  What does the timer measure when the B light is on?  What does the timer measure when both lights are on? . does the timer start from zero each time.Review  How do you start the timer?  How do you stop the timer?  If you block the light beam several times in a row.

Motion Investigation #1  Why does the car have a tab on the side? Li ht ea Car Photo ate Cla Car Ra Physics Stand Foot .

Ramp Height  Design a quick experiment to see what effect ramp height has on the TIME it takes the car to move from Photogate A to Photogate B. 7. 9 . 5.  Ramp hole #: 3.

What Happened?  What are the variables in this experiment? 1. Distance between A & B 2. position of A & B 3. start technique 7. Ramp angle . starting point 5. Weight 4. friction 6.

Technique  Practice your drop technique until you get three identical times in a row! This is very important for data collection in the next investigation! .

Controlling Variables  Now Let¶s try that experiment again. and this time we will do our best to control all variables except ramp height. .

oot ace . The One.

Tsunami (tidal wave)  8. Human fast walk  2. 1974)  A.8 x 101  E. Winner of 100 m dash  7. 3. 4.2 x 101  B. Hair growth  4. 7. Continental drift  5.How Fast? Match them up! (m/s)  1.0 x 10-9  G. 1. 1. Fastball pitch (Nolan Ryan. 1. 2. Running cheetah  9.0 x 10-3  H. 1. Concorde SST  6. Snail  3.0 x 102  F.1 x 102  D.5 x 101  C.0 x 10-9 . 2.3 x 100  I.

1.How Fast? Match them up! (m/s)  1. Tsunami (tidal wave)  8. Continental drift  5.3 x 100  G.8 x 101  B. Human fast walk  2. 2. 1. 2. 1. 1974)  H. Fastball pitch (Nolan Ryan.2 x 101  E.0 x 102  D. 7.0 x 10-9  I.0 x 10-3  F. Snail  3. Running cheetah  9.1 x 102  A. Hair growth  4.0 x 10-9  C. 3. 1. Winner of 100 m dash  7. 4. Concorde SST  6.5 x 101 .

Using a model to predict speed of car  Turn to investigation 2.1. Foundations of Physical Science Investigation Manual .

Displacement  Why do we start with this graph?  Only need 1 photogate  Can make predictions with graph  What is the dependent variable.Make a Graph of Speed vs. and do we assign it to the X or Y?  What is the independent variable?  Should we connect the data points?  What does the graph tell us about the speed of the car as it rolls down the ramp?  Explain why the graph is a curve .

 Test your prediction!  Calculate % error . predict what the speed of the car at clamp B would be if the photogates were 27 cm apart.Test the Graphical Model  Connect the data points on your graph  Without using the car/ramp setup.

DON¶T TURN THE TIMER OVER. THAT¶S CHEATING  Use your graph and a little algebra to predict the time on the display  Write the time on your white board  Turn the timer over! How close were you?  Calculate % error  THIS IS YOUR GRADE! .The amazing Carnak  Place the Photogate at the 38 cm mark  Turn the timer face down on the table  Run the car down the ramp.

Position vs.    How do we measure the distance? How do we measure the time? What change in our setup is required? . Time  Suppose we want to collect data and graph the relationship between displacement of the car and time (distance vs. time graph).

Time B. Don¶t move A!!!  Place Photogate B at 6 different places along the ramp.Series of Trials  Place photogate A at the top of the ramp. but be sure the wing doesn¶t break the beam while the car is at rest. Time from A to B .  Measure:  Displacement (distance from A to B)  Time A.

the distance the car moves depends on how much time has elapsed  What is the independent variable?  The time it took the car to move from A to B  Create the d/t graph.  What does the graph tell us about the motion of the car?  Why is the graph a curve? .Graphing Data  What is the dependent variable?  Displacement.

check it.  Turn the timer over and run the car down the ramp  What will the timer read? Make your prediction.Using a Graph for Predictions  Time to make another prediction!  Place the photogates 55 cm apart. and calculate % error  What is your grade on this investigation? .

Acceleration  What is acceleration?  How could we find the acceleration of the car on the ramp?  Place photogates 20 cm apart at different places on the ramp. and find acceleration  How do accelerations compare at different places on the ramp?  How could I make the acceleration greater? .

we need to calculate speed at B from previous data  Calculate speed at B for each of the trials in investigation #3 .Testing Different Variables  What other combination of variables have we not yet graphed and investigated?  Speed of car vs. elapsed time  Do we need to run more trials to collect data for this?  No.

Time .More Graphing  What is the dependent variable?  Speed at B. it depends on the time elapsed  What is the independent variable?  Time elapsed from A to B  Create a graph of peed vs.

What is different about the ³look´ of this graph when compared to the other two graphs we created?  It¶s a line! What equation describes the relationship between x and y variables for a straight line?  y=mx+b .

or tAB This is a challenge! Check out the other data we collected and see if you can figure it out Speed at A.Using the Line Equation  Substitute variable names from our experiment for each of the letters in the equation y=mx+b. or VB Time elapsed. or VA  What does x represent?  What does b represent? .  What does y represent?     Speed at b.

What does m represent? Slope of the line How do you find the slope? Change in y over change in x What quantity is defined as the change in speed over time?  Acceleration!     .

Rearanging the Equation  Write the equation of the line using the physics variables  VB = at + VA  Physical Science teachers will recognize this as a= (Vf ± Vo)/t  You have just used a graph to show the relationship between 4 different physical variables! You derived the equation for finding acceleration!  Use your graph to find b (VA) & m (a) .

0.Prediction Vs.3000. Experiment  For each of the following times.2000. 0. 0.4000. time  T= 0. use your equation to find the speed at B and plot these data points on your experimental graph of speed vs.5000  Find VB for each of these times  Plot the ordered pairs on your experimental graph  How close does your prediction match your experiment? .

and acceleration are all important variables. and acceleration a = (Vf ± Vo)/t. like the car/ramp.  We know how to relate speed. distance.  How do we relate all four variables for a more general description of motion? .  We know how to relate speed.Summary  In many situations. the distance. but without acceleration. time. but without distance. speed. and time s = d/t. time.

See handout with explanation of finding area under speed/time graph .