Attitudes and Attitude Change

Allport (1935) The intensity of positive or negative affect for or against a psychological object. exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individual¶s response to all objects and situations with which it is related. Thurstone (1946) An attitude is a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor. W. They are acquired through experience and exert a directive influence on subsequent behavior. & Sadava (1991) . Eagley & Chaiken (1993) Attitudes are enduring mental representations of various features of the social or physical world. G. Carment. Breckler & Wiggins (1989) An attitude is a predisposition to react in a certain way to an object or experience. Alcock.Definitions of Attitudes      An attitude is a mental and neural state of readiness. organized through experience.


maximize rewards or minimize punishment 3.Functions of Attitudes (Katz.allow the expression of personal values and self-concept . 1960. Knowledge: .protect ourselves from unpleasant realities 4.organize and simplify people s experience 2. Ego-defensive: . Katz & Stotland. Value expressive: . Instrumental: . 1959)     1.

1992)    Transcend specific situations Guide selection or evaluation of behaviour and events Ordered by relative importance .Values  Values are principles that guide our lives. They are designed to lead us to our ideal world (Schwartz.

Value Dimensions (Schwartz. 1992) Openness to change SelfDirection Universalism Self-transcendence Stimulation Benevolence Hedonism Tradition Achievement Conformity Security Power Self-enhancement Conservation .

1980)     Power Distance  the tendency to see a large social distance between those in the upper part of a social structure and those in the lower part of the social structure. low risk-taking. caring for others and quality of life Individualism-Collectivism  Tendency to give priority to personal goals even when they conflict with the goals of important groups. state religion Masculinity-Femininity  The tendency of members of a culture to value activities that are more common among men than women. .  Control of others behaviours Uncertainty Avoidance  Avoidance of situations where the outcome is uncertain  Security.Value Dimensions (Hofstede.  success vs.

Chinese Culture Connection (1987)  CBC     Hofstede     Integration Human-heartedness Confucian work dynamism Moral discipline -- Collectivism Masculinity -Power distance (high) Uncertainty avoidance    .

1985.Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen & Fishbein. 1980) and Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen. 1987) Attitude toward the behaviour Behavioural Intentions Subjective Norms Behaviour Perceived Behavioural Control .

How are Attitudes Formed?  1. with the attitude object b. with associated object Experience with others a. classical conditioning b. Direct experience a. instrumental conditioning c. modelling others behavior  2. .

Who says what to whom under what circumstances? .PERSUASION  The process of getting others to agree with (or change their attitude regarding) an advocated position by means of a rational or an emotional appeal.

WHO SAYS WHAT TO WHOM UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES? Source (WHO?) a. Physical attractiveness . Credibility: Are they an expert and are they trustworthy? b.

fear arousal . two-sided arguments c.WHO SAYS WHAT TO WHOM UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES Message (WHAT?) a. primacy-recency effects b.vs. one.

) the perceived ability to perform the recommended action 5.) the probability that the negative event will occur if the recommended action is not taken 3.) how afraid you already are of the topic .) the magnitude of the unpleasantness of the event 2.) the perceived effectiveness of the recommended action 4.WHO SAYS WHAT TO WHOM UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES?       Five factors are important in any fear appeal: 1.

WHO SAYS WHAT TO WHOM UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES Recipient or Target (TO WHOM?) a) personality traits (self-esteem and intelligence) b) gender c) mood .

WHO SAYS WHAT TO WHOM UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES?  Context (UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES?)   a. Situational distractions (noise) overheard message . b.

1957)  Types of Cognitions    Irrelevant two cognitions have nothing to do with each other Consonant one cognition follows from. the opposite of another. discrepant . or fits with another Dissonant one cognition follows from.Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Festinger. or fits with.

03 Control $1 $20 11.61 8.76 . 1959) 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 7.Attitude change following induced compliance (Festinger & Carlsmith.

Mean attitudes toward police actions (Cohen.00 Control .00 $5.00 $10.50 $1. 1962) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 $0.

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