computers

Classification of Computers

On the basis of data representation Analog computers Digital computers Hybrid computers On the basis of data size Microcomputers Minicomputers Mainframe Supercomputers Network computers

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Types of Micro computers Personal computers Workststions Portable computers Laptops / notebooks Subnotebooks Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs)

Input / Output devices ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Input devices Keyboard Mouse Scanner Touch Screen Light Pen Output devices Monitor LCD Printer Speaker Plotter .

6. Jumps from box to box when entering data in a form. 4. 2. numbers and other characters. Control key : Called as a helper key because it is always used in combition with other keys to perform specific actions.a text based input device that is used to type in letters. 5.Input devices 1. Alternate key : Called as a helper key because it is always used in combition with other keys to perform specific actions. Keyboard keys Enter : to execute a command or a program Backspace : To remove the character directly to the left of cursor. 3. ‡ 1. 7. Keyboard. . Shift key : used to type capital letterswhen pressed with an alpphabetic key. Also used to type the symbols located on the upper side of number keys (0-9) Tab : used to insert indentation into a document. Arrow keys : used to move the cursor in top/ bottam/ left/ right directions.

It will not move the cursor to the second page if you are in the first page. F Keys : Called function keys. Page down : Used to move the cursor down one screen length. Mouse : it is used to move the cursor on your computer screen to give instructions to your computer and to run programs and applications. It will not move the cursor to the second page if you are in the first page. End key is ysed to bring the cursor to the end of a line Page Up : Used to move the cursor up one screen length. . 2. Their function depends upon the type of the program being used. It can be used to select menu commands.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Caps lock : Used to make the alphabetic characters to the upper case. close windows etc. size windows. start programs. which are located at the top of the keyboard. Num lock : the numeric keypad located at the extreme right to the keyboard is activated when the num lock key is turned on. move icons. Esc ( Escape Key) : Used to cancel and abort program Home/ end : Home key is used to move the cursor to the begning of a line.

Right Click : used to display a set of commands. It converts. Double means quickly press the left mouse button twice. Light pen : it is used as a light sensor device to select objects on a display screen. 3. Click : used to select an item.Mouse function cont« 1. Holding down the button. 4. 2. Images to digital form so that it can be fed into the computer. Click means press and release the left mouse button. ‡ ‡ ‡ . Scanner : used to input pictures and images into your computer. move the cursor to where you want to place the item and then release the button. Touch screen : it allows the user to operate a computer by simply touching the display screen. Drag and drop : place the cursor over an item on the screen and the press and hold down the left mouse button. There should not be any time gap between the two press actions. Right click means press and release the righ tmouse button Double Click : Used to open a document or a program.

Output devices ‡ ‡ ‡ Monitor : used to display information. LCD : it is smaller and lighter as compared to a moniter. Mostly used for portable computers. Printer used to create hard copy of the files . program and application in computer also called display screen.

‡ 1.Classification of Computers 1. 3. 2. On the basis of data representation Analog computers Digital computers Hybrid computers On the basis of size Microcomputers Minicomputers Mainframe Supercomputers Network computers 1. 2. 3. 2. Types of Micro computers Personal computers Workststions Portable computers Laptops / notebooks Subnotebooks Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) .

Main Functions of operating system 1. assemblers. It is designed to support the activities of a computers installation . Automatic transistion from job to job as directed by special cntrol statements. Processor management 2. File management 5. 4. . Maintenance of internal time clock. and other software to various users of the computer system. 12. Memory management 3. Interpretation of commands and instruction. 7. 9.Operating System ‡ An OS is an integrated set of programs that is used to manage the various resources and overall operations of a computer system. the ease with which a system can be used. ‡ Main objective of OS its prime objective is to improve the performance and efficiency of a computer system and increase facility. Establishment of data security and integrity. Establishment and enforcement of a job priority system. utility program. Facilitates easy communication user and machine. Input / Output management. 8. 6. Error detection and correction 11. Coordination and assignment of compilers. 10.

Efficiency of OS depends on two factors. 2. ‡ 1. Turnaround Time : the interval between the time a user sumbits his job to the system for processing and the time he receives results. Throughput: total volume of work performed by the system over a given period of time..OS cont. Users APPLICATION PROGRAMS OPERATING SYSTEM HARDWARE HARDWARE .

Universal serial bus. System file checker 9. Backup. Server Operating System. 5.Classification of OS OS can be classified into different types like Desktop Operating System. Registry checker 11. Accessibility wizard 6. Help 7. Mainframe Operating system. Power management 4. Scan disk 10. etc. WINDOWS 98: Win 98 makes the computer easier to use with new and enhanced features: 1. ‡ . Web integration 2. Multiple display support 3. Window updates 8.

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