What are waxes used for? 

Waxes have a variety of uses in clinics and laboratories. In clinics In laboratories Boxing techniques Baseplate for complete and partial dentures Hold components before articulation Indirect pattern for casting

Bite registration Alterations and adaptation for impression trays Direct waxing for cast restorations ____________

Candelilla. fats.COMPOSITION  Natural waxes produced from: Plants: Carnuba. castorwax Additional components: gums. montan. 3 . Japan wax Carnuba. Candelilla. oils.  Minerals: paraffin. resins. microcrystalline montan.  Insects: Beeswax  Animals: spermaceti    Synthetic waxes: Acrawax C.

Flow: is the movement of the wax as molecules slip over each other. The operator can control the viscosity of wax by controlling temperature. 4 .g. bite registration wax. E. Melting range and flow of the wax are important in wax manipulation by operator.PROPERTIES Melting range: a range of temperatures at which each component of the wax will start to soften and then flow.

increases with increase in temperature.PROPERTIES Ductility: Ductility: like flow. if excess residue remains after melted wax is removed. inaccuracies may occur. Excess residue: for the sake of accuracy in the object produced. (lost wax technique procedure) 5 .

Dimensional change: waxes expand when heated.  If wax is allowed to stand for a long time. contract when cooled. unacceptable expansion occurs.  6 . How: If wax is heated well beyond melting range or unevenly. This property is important especially for pattern waxes (e. the release of residual stresses will lead to dimensional changes and inaccuracies.PROPERTIES 4. inlay wax).g. Thermal expansion of waxes is highest among dental materials. This is why pattern wax should be invested within 30 minutes of carving.

CLASSIFICATION OF WAXES According to origin ‡Mineral ‡Plant ‡Insect ‡Animal 7 .

According to use Pattern wax Inlay Processing wax Boxing Impression wax Corrective wax Casting wax:‡.up WaxBaseplate wax wax (Carding wax) Utility wax Sticky wax impression wax Bite registration wax 8 .Sheets ‡ Ready Shapes ‡ Wax.

PATTERN WAXES Used to form the general predetermined size and contour of an artificial dental restoration which is to be constructed of a more durable material as cast gold alloys. 9 . cobalt-chromium-nickel alloys.

 Inlay waxes: are used to produce patterns for metal casting using the lost wax technique. 10 .

Ideal Requirements of Inlay casting wax ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ When softened. the wax should be uniform. A definite color contrast facilitates proper finishing of margins. 11 . There should be no graininess or hard spots in the plastic material. There should be no flakiness or roughening of the surface when the wax is moulded after softening. The color should contrast with the die. The wax should not pull or chip during carving.

The flow should be more than 75% at 45°C & 45° less than 1% at 37°C. It should be sufficiently plastic slightly above mouth temp. The wax pattern should be completely rigid & dimensionally stable at all times until it is eliminated. & become rigid when cooled at mouth temp.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ During burnout(500°C).. it should vaporize burnout(500° completely without residue. 37° 12 .

Type I: placed directly in the prepared tooth in the I: direct waxing technique.Classification(ADA Sp. medium.  These waxes are supplied as pellets and sticks.  Type II: melted on a die outside the mouth in the II: indirect technique (more commonly used). Hard. This wax has a low melting range. soft depending on melting range. No. They are blue and green in color. 13 . 4).

inc..improves smoothness.main ingredient.dec. dec.40-60% . gives glossiness Candelilla wax Colouring agents 14 . toughness Carnauba wax -25% . flow at mouth temp. 40establishes MP Gum dammar -1% .Composition:      Paraffin wax .

37° type II : it hardens at 30°C.cools & hardens at 37°C. 15 . more suitable for 30° laboratory work Thermal Properties: thermal conductivity: Low COTE: High.melts & flow 45° well.Properties   Flow: type I : when heated at 45°C.

It cannot be totally eliminated. ‡ To avoidavoid1.use warm instruments for carving.minimal carving and change in temp 3. Invest immediately. 2. 4.Wax Distortion: ‡ Most serious problem ‡ Due to release of stresses in the pattern.minimal storage of pattern. 16 .

Properties: tacky. Supplied in sheets or preformed shapes. Casting wax: used to construct the metal framework for partial and complete dentures. shapes. highly ductile 17 .

 Baseplate wax: sheets of wax pink in color. These sheets are layered to produce the form on which denture teeth are set 18 .

5% Natural or Synthetic 3% Microcrystalline 2. Classification: Type I: soft Type II: medium Type III: hard  Composition 80% Ceresin Beeswax 12% Carnauba 2.5% 19 .

PROCESSING WAX  Boxing wax: used to form the base portion of a gypsum model. 20 . Easily manipulated at room temperature.

used to cover sharp brackets and wires in orthodontic appliances. layered in sheets for bite registration. 21 . comes in ropes. Utility wax: also called periphery wax. Used to adjust impression trays. and easily manipulated at room temperature.

When heated. Sticky wax: comes in orange sticks that are hard and brittle at room temperature. gypsum. become soft and sticky. Used to adhere components of metal. resin during fabrication and repair. 22 .

23 .IMPRESSION WAXES  Corrective impression wax: used with other impression materials for edentulous impressions. Flows at mouth temperature. to correct undercut areas.

needs careful handling.5-22% at 37°C. Bite registration: to produce wax bite registration for articulation of models.537° 24 . Susceptible to distortion.ranges from 2. 2. FlowFlow.

MANIPULATION  Softened evenly in:    Warm hands Dry heat Flame     Added in layers into an object Should be invested within 30 minutes of carving Utility and boxing wax should remain dry to allow to stick when manipulated. Should be stored at or slightly below room temperature 25 .

5. leaving an impression of wax pattern in the empty case 26 . An impression of the preparation is taken and poured 2. Wax pattern is carved Wax or plastic sprue is attached to pattern Pattern and sprue are encased in investment ring. into high strength stone to form a die. 3. wax pattern and sprue are heated in a burnout oven. into which investment gypsum is poured Once investment sets. 4. causing wax and sprue to vaporize (lost wax).Lost wax technique 1.

sprue removed. Metal cools. 7. 6.Lost wax technique continue. into the empty wax pattern space. casting cleaned and polished and now ready for cementation 27 . Molten metal is poured through the empty channel formed by sprue.

Lost wax technique 28 .

THANK YOU«« 29 .

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