Presented by

‡Rahul Chakraborty ‡Sourabh Banargee ‡Partha Chatterjee ‡Debadrita Dey ‡Debashree Chatterjee

Plant layout refers to the arrangement of physical facilities such as machines, equipment, tools, furniture etc. in such a manner so as to have quickest flow of material at the lowest cost and with the least amount of handling in processing the product from the receipt of raw material to the delivery of the final product.

y y y y y y y y y y y

Proper and efficient utilization of available floor space Transportation of work from one point to another point without any delay Proper utilization of production capacity Reduce material handling costs Utilize labour efficiently Reduce accidents Provide for volume and product flexibility Provide ease of supervision and control Provide for employee safety and health Allow easy maintenance of machines and plant. Improve productivity

y Product or line layout y Process or functional layout y Fixed position or location layout y Combined or group layout y Cellular layout

In this type of layout the machines and equipments are arranged in one line depending upon the sequence of operations required for the product. It is also called as line layout. The material moves one machine to another machine sequentially without any backtracking or deviation i.e. the output of one machine becomes input of the next machine. It requires a very little material handling. It is used for mass production of standardized products.

y Low cost of material handling, due to straight and y y y y


short route and absence of backtracking. Smooth and continuous operations Continuous flow of work Lesser inventory and work in progress Simple and effective inspection of work and simplified production control Optimum use of floor space Lower manufacturing cost per unit

y Higher Initial capital investment in special

purpose machine (SPM) y High overhead charges y Breakdown of one machine will disturb the production process. y Lesser flexibility of physical resources.

The assembly line developed for the Ford Model T had immense influence on the world. What was worked out at Ford was the practice of moving the work from one worker to another until it became a complete unit, then arranging the flow of these units at the right time and the right place to a moving final assembly line from which came a finished product. Regardless of earlier uses of some of these principles, the direct line of succession of mass production and its intensification into automation stems directly from what we worked out at Ford Motor Company between 1908 and 1913.

In this type of layout the machines of a similar type are arranged together at one place. This type of layout is used for batch production. It is preferred when the product is not standardized and the quantity produced is very small.

y Lower initial capital investment is required. y There is high degree of machine utilization, as a machine is y y y y

not blocked for a single product The overhead costs are relatively low Breakdown of one machine does not disturb the production process. Supervision can be more effective and specialized. Greater flexibility of resources.

y Material handling costs are high due to

backtracking y More skilled labour is required resulting in higher cost. y Work in progress inventory is high needing greater storage space

y A combination of process layout &

product layout is known as combined layout. y Manufacturing concerns where several products are produced in repeated numbers with no likelihood of continuous production.

Fixed position layout involves the movement of manpower and machines to the product which remains stationary. The movement of men and machines is advisable as the cost of moving them would be lesser. This type of layout is preferred where the size of the job is bulky and heavy. Example of such type of layout is locomotives, ships, boilers, generators, wagon building, aircraft manufacturing, etc.

y The investment on layout is very small. y The layout is flexible as change in job

design and operation sequence can be easily incorporated. y Adjustments can be made to meet shortage of materials or absence of workers by changing the sequence of operations.

y As the production period being very long so the capital

investment is very high. y Very large space is required for storage of material and equipment near the product. y As several operations are often carried out simultaneously so there is possibility of confusion and conflicts among different workgroups.

Cellular manufacturing is a type of layout where machines are grouped according to the process requirements for a set of similar items (part families) that require similar processing. These groups are called cells. Therefore, a cellular layout is an equipment layout configured to support cellular manufacturing. Processes are grouped into cells using a technique known as group technology (GT). Workers in cellular layouts are crosstrained so that they can operate all the equipment within the cell and take responsibility for its output. Sometimes the cells feed into an assembly line that produces the final product. An automated version of cellular manufacturing is the flexible manufacturing system (FMS). With an FMS, a computer controls the transfer of parts to the various processes, enabling manufacturers to achieve some of the benefits of product layouts while maintaining the flexibility of small batch production.

y Cost. Cellular manufacturing provides for faster processing

time, less material handling, less work-in-process inventory, and reduced setup time, all of which reduce costs. y Flexibility. Cellular manufacturing allows for the production of small batches, which provides some degree of increased flexibility. This aspect is greatly enhanced with FMSs. y Motivation. Since workers are cross-trained to run every machine in the cell, boredom is less of a factor. Also, since workers are responsible for their cells' output, more autonomy and job ownership is present.

Royal Enfield's manufacturing operations go through a series of modernization and improvement efforts, with a number of automated processes. The Company has put in place modern manufacturing practices like Cellular layouts, Statistical process controls and Flexible manufacturing systems. The Chennai manufacturing facility has received the ISO 9001 certification and for managing its operations in a clean and safe environment, it has obtained the ISO 14001-quality certification.

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