UWI- School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module

Information Technology (IT) Module
The ¶Sheppie· Approach To Learning Information Technology Fundamentals

Lecture Notes
Prepared by D. F. Les Pierre-Luke

version 1.0

Certificate and Associate Degree Programme
University of The West Indies Open Campus

UWI- School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module

Lecture Notes
The Sheppie' Approach to Learning Series Sheppie'
‡ The Sheppie' Approach to Learning Series, was developed with the understanding that the adult learner has special needs. ‡ It is an attempt to initiate some form of organization towards learning the material while having time to do ¶extra· research. ‡ The ¶extra· will supplement what has already been documented, putting the student at an advantage for any assignment or evaluation given. ‡ Note-taking is an obvious distraction from attentive listening in the classroom. Therefore, lecture notes aid in removing the attention of the pen and paper approach to focus more on what is being said or discussed in the classroom. ‡ The preparation of the ´Lecture notes Seriesµ is also an attempt to standardize each lecture, based on the broad course outline for the dissemination of knowledge on the particular course of study.
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Prepared by D. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke

UWI- School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module

Introduction & Familiarization
‡ Breaking the ¶Ice·
² Students· Introduction ² Tutor·s Introduction ² Brief discussion on a broad perspective of . . .
‡ The Course Content ‡ Students Requirements

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Prepared by D. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Unit 1 Computer Systems & Concepts 4 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .UWI. F.

UWI- School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module

Introduction to IT
‡ IT Concepts & Definitions
² Data:
‡ basic raw elements of or unrecognized, unprocessed facts

² Information:
‡ processed data that is relevant, useful, meaningful to people and necessary for decision-making.

² ystem:
‡ The interrelation of components working together for the same purpose towards a specific goal

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Prepared by D. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke

UWI- School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module

Introduction to IT
‡ IT Concepts & Definitions
² Information Systems Defined:
‡ A collection of people, procedures, software and hardware, aimed at making more efficient the various processes within an organization to ensure that information is available to decision makers. ‡ *A set of interrelated components working together to collect, retrieve, process, store and disseminate information for the purpose of facilitating planning, control, coordination, analysis and decisionmaking in businesses and other organizations.
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Prepared by D. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke

UWI- School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module

Introduction to IT
‡ IT Concepts & Definitions
² Computer
‡ A machine/device for manipulating data according to a list of instructions know as a programme. It uses the IPO concept. ‡ Physical device that takes data as an input, transforms the data by executing stored instructions, and outputs information to a number of devices

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‡ A string of eight bits that the computer stores as a unit is called a ¶byte·. 8 Prepared by D. the presents of an electronic or magnetic signal means ¶1· and its absence signifies ¶0·. F.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Introduction to IT ‡ IT Concepts & Definitions ² Computer Systems ‡ A combination of hardware and software that employ the use of programmable devices to store. ² Binary Digits ‡ A binary digit is called a bit and represents either a ¶0· or a ¶1·. In the computer. retrieve and process data. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .UWI.

UWI. Output concept is what is used by all systems regardless of the type. Processing. ² Input ² raw data is captured/collected and entered into a system ² Process ² work is done to transform/convert/manipulate the data into something meaningful ² Output ² Information/processed data is transmitted/distributed in a useful form 9 Prepared by D.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Introduction to IT ‡ IT Concepts & Definitions ² IPO Concept ‡ Input. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . operating with predefined rules.UWI. ² Formal Systems ‡ System resting on accept and fixed definitions of data and procedures. 10 Prepared by D. F.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Introduction to IT ‡ IT Concepts & Definitions ² Feedback ‡ Output that is returned to the appropriate members of the organization to help them evaluate or correct input.

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . F.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Introduction to IT ‡ IT Concepts & Definitions ² Information Systems literacy ‡ Broad-based understanding of information systems that includes behavioral knowledge about organizations and individuals using information systems as well as technical knowledge about. 11 Prepared by D. focusing on understanding how computer-based technologies work.UWI. ² Computer Literacy ‡ Knowledge about information technology.

F.UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . 12 Prepared by D.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Overview of Computer Systems Development ‡ Hardware ² Provides the underlying physical foundation for the firm·s IT Infrastructure ‡ Software ² Consists of the detailed preprogramming instructions that control and coordinate the computer hardware components in an information system. ‡ Databases ² A collection of data organized to service many software applications at the same time by storing and managing data so that they appear to be in one location.

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Overview of Computer Systems Development ‡ Networks ² The organization of Telecommunication components in various forms of topological connectivity. 13 Prepared by D. ‡ Communication ² Consists of both physical devices and software that links the various pieces of hardware and transfers data from one physical location to another.UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . F.

UWI. F. It consists of the following: ‡ The computer·s processing unit ‡ Input devices ‡ Output devices ‡ Storage devices ‡ Physical media to link all devices together 14 Prepared by D. processing and output activities in an information system. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Hardware ‡ Computer Hardware ² The physical equipment used for input.

UWI. 15 Prepared by D.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Hardware ‡ Hardware Devices ² ² ² ² ² Input and Data Capture Devices Processing Devices Output Devices Primary & Secondary Storage Devices Communication Devices Figure shows the hardware components of a computer system. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .

Bar Code. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke 16 . F.UWI. ² Examples of Input Devices ‡ Keyboard ‡ Computer Mouse ‡ Touch Screen ‡ Pointing Devices (cursors) ‡ Trackball ‡ Touch Pad ‡ Track Point ‡ Joystick ‡ Scanners (Flatbed.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Hardware ‡ Hardware Devices ² Input and Data Capture Devices ‡ Converts data into a computer-usable form. handheld. fingerprint) ‡ Microphone ‡ Digital Camera Prepared by D.

numbers and letters occur and it controls the other parts of the computer system. F. It has two main parts: ² ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit) performs the computer·s principal logic and arithmetic operations ² CU (Control Unit) controls and coordinates the other parts of the computer system 17 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .UWI.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Hardware ‡ Hardware Devices ² Processing Devices ‡ The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the part of the computer system where the manipulation of symbols.

UWI. ‡ It has (3) three functions: ² Stores all or part of the software programme that is being executed ² Stores the operating system programmes that manage the operations of the computer ² Holds data that the programme is using 18 Prepared by D. or Primary Storage or Main Memory is where data and programme instructions are stored temporarily during processing. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Hardware ‡ Hardware Devices ² Processing Devices ‡ Primary Memory.

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . ‡ RAM is volatile. 19 Prepared by D.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Hardware ‡ Hardware Devices ² Processing Devices ‡ Primary Storage is also called RAM (Random access memory) ‡ It is called RAM because it can directly access any randomly chosen location in the same amount of time. It is used for general purpose computers to store important or frequently used programmes. ROM chips come from the manufacturer with programmes already burned in or stored.UWI. ‡ ROM (Read Only Memory) can only be read from. F. it cannot be written to.

UWI. ‡ Cache Memory is an area of high-speed memory used by the CPU for the temporary storage of frequently used data to allow faster access. 20 Prepared by D.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Hardware ‡ Hardware Devices ² Processing Devices ‡ Primary memory is divided into storage locations called bytes ‡ Primary Storage is composed of semiconductors. ² Computer Processing ‡ The processing capability of the CPU plays a large role in determining the amount of work that a computer system can accomplish. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . F. which are integrated circuits made by printing thousands and even millions of tiny transistors on small silicon chips.

21 Prepared by D. logic. ‡ The speed and performance of a computer·s microprocessors help determine a computer·s processing power and are based on the number of bits that can be processed at one time. ‡ These microprocessors integrate all of the memory. and control circuits for an entire CPU onto a single chip. F. which is the ´word lengthµ. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Hardware ‡ Hardware Devices ² Computer Processing ‡ Microprocessor are semiconductor chips that are used by contemporary CPUs.UWI.

UWI.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Hardware 22 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . F.

F. measured in megahertz. 23 Prepared by D. ‡ Megahertz (MHz) stand for millions of cycles per second. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .UWI. primary storage and other devices (data bus width).School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Hardware ‡ Hardware Devices ² Computer Processing ‡ The amount of data that can be moved between the CPU. and cycle speed.

F.UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Hardware Figure showing the CPU and Primary Storage 24 Prepared by D.

Dotmatrix. LaserJet. InkJet. Plasma. Thermal Wax) ‡ Plotters (Pen.UWI.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Hardware ‡ Hardware Devices ² Output Devices ‡ Displays data after they have been processed. ² Examples of Output Devices ‡ Monitors ((CRT) Cathode Ray Tube. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . (LCD) Liquid Crystal Display) ‡ Printers (Inkjet. LaserJet) ‡ Audio Output (Speakers) 25 Prepared by D. Flat Panel Display. F. Daisywheel.

F. it is not volatile. ‡ Storage devices are also called secondary storage devices because unlike primary storage. 26 Prepared by D.UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Hardware ‡ Hardware Devices ² Storage Devices ‡ Are peripheral devices because they are outside the main computer system unit. data is stored permanently until removed by the user or corrupted by a computer virus or system malfunctioning.

F.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Hardware ‡ Hardware Devices ² Storage Devices ‡ General Categories: ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² Magnetic Storage Optical Storage Flash (Solid State) Storage Removable Storage Hard Disk Drive (HDD) Floppy Drive (FDD) Magnetic Tape Zip Disk ‡ Magnetic Storage 27 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .UWI.

F.UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Hardware ‡ Hardware Devices ² Storage Devices ‡ Optical Storage ² CD-ROM /R /RW ² DVD-ROM /R /RW ‡ Flash (Solid State) Storage ² ² ² ² ² Compact Flash SmartMedia Memory Stick Multimedia Card (MMC) Secure Digital (SD) Card ‡ Removable Storage ² All of the above except HDDs 28 Prepared by D.

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Hardware ‡ Hardware Devices ² Storage Devices ‡ Different types of secondary storage devices fill different user needs: ² Storage Speed ² Large amounts of data ² Compatibility with other users· computers ² Portability ² Compatibility with a range of other consumer electronic devices 29 Prepared by D. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .UWI.

UWI. F.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Hardware 30 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . ² The SAN creates a large central pool of storage that can be shared by multiple servers so that users can rapidly share data across the SAN.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Hardware ‡ Hardware Devices ² Storage Devices ‡ Network Storage ² Storage Area Networks (SANs)places multiple storage devices on a separate highspeed network (Fiber Channel) dedicated to storage purposes. ² The SAN connects different kinds of storage devices.UWI. such as tape libraries and disk arrays 31 Prepared by D. F.

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Hardware ‡ Hardware Devices ² Hardware Components/ Physical Media and Connectivity ‡ The System Unit ² Essentially the ´bodyµ of the computer system. where the memory storage area (RAM) random access memory and (CPU) Central Processing Unit are located. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . ² It holds the computer·s motherboard. F. It is the containment of the various components that work together to make a computer usable. 32 Prepared by D.UWI.

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Hardware ‡ Hardware Devices ² Hardware Components/ Physical Media and Connectivity ‡ The System Unit Main Components: ² ² ² ² ² ² ² Power Supply Unit Motherboard or System Board Internal Drive Bays Cooling Fan External Drive Bays Speaker Expansion Cards 33 Prepared by D.UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . F.

UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Hardware ‡ Hardware Devices ² Hardware Components/ Physical Media and Connectivity ‡ The System Unit Main Components: ² Peripheral Ports Listing: » PS/2 » USB » Ethernet » Serial » Parallel » VGA » Game » Speakers » Microphone » Line-in jack » IEEE 1394 34 Prepared by D. F.

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Computer Systems ‡ Historic Perspective ² Generation of Computers ‡ Generational History (1951 ² Today) ‡ Pre-Generational History (before 1951) ² 1st Generation (1951-1957) ‡ Vacuum tubes ² 2nd Generation (1958-1963) ‡ Transistor Circuits ² 3rd Generation (1964-1969) ‡ Integrated Circuits ² 4th Generation (1970-1990) ‡ Large Scale Integrated Circuits (LSIC) ² 5th Generation (1991-Today) ‡ People and Computer Connect re Internet and WWW and a great reduction in computer size. 35 Prepared by D. F.UWI.

factories. or research laboratories ² Microcomputer (PC) ‡ Small desktop or laptop/portable computer that can be carried from room to room.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Computer Systems ‡ Categories of Computers & Computer Systems ² Mainframe ‡ Largest category of computers used for major business processing ² Midrange ‡ Middle-size computer that is capable of supporting the computing needs of smaller organizations or of managing networks of other computers. 36 Prepared by D.UWI. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . ² Minicomputer ‡ Middle-range computer used in systems for universities.

² Servers ‡ Used to manage internal company networks or websites ‡ Server Farms ² Multiple servers running various applications for a organization housed in one location. ² Work Station ‡ Desktop computer with powerful graphics and mathematical capabilities and the ability to perform several complicated tasks at once.UWI.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Computer Systems ‡ Categories of Computers & Computer Systems ² Super Computer ‡ Highly sophisticated and powerful computer that can perform very complex computations extremely rapidly. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . 37 Prepared by D. F.

‡ Peer-to-Peer Computing ² Form of distributed processing that links computers via the Internet or private networks so that they can share processing tasks.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Computer Systems ‡ Categories of Computers & Computer Systems ² Computer Networks ‡ Client/Server Computing ² A model for computing that splits processing between ´clientsµ and ´serversµ on a network. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . 38 Prepared by D. assigning functions to the machine most able to perform the function.UWI. F.

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Computer Systems Figure showing Client/Server computing 39 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .UWI. F.

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . F.UWI.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Computer Systems ‡ Rationale and Uses of Computers ² ² ² ² ² ² ² Speed Accuracy General productivity Data Storage Publishing Accounting Administration Management 40 Prepared by D.

UWI.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Computer Systems ‡ Emerging Technologies ² Security Systems ² Finger Prints ² Retinal Eye Scanners ² Others . F. . 41 Prepared by D. Students are asked to research these and other technologies fitting the period of study. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . Software & Word Processing 42 Prepared by D.UWI. F.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Unit 2 Computer Interfaces.

43 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .UWI. ² Software is installed on hardware and not the reverse and can be likened unto the human relationship between a man and a woman. It is impossible for one to function without the other. F. ² Hardware and Software share a symbiotic relationship.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software ‡ Introduction ² Hardware would be of no use or significance without software.

44 Prepared by D. ² Software is a term used to refer to a programme or programmes ² The purpose of software is to convert data into information.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software ‡ Computer Software Defined ² The detailed instructions that control the operation of a computer system. F. which has a physical form. ² Software is intangible unlike hardware. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .UWI.

UWI. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software ‡ Software Programme ² A software program is a series of statements or instructions to the computer. ² Individuals who specialize in this task are called programmers 45 Prepared by D. ² The process of writing or coding programs is termed programming.

F.UWI.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software ‡ Computer Software ² Functions of Software ‡ manage the computer resources of the organization. ‡ provide tools for human beings to take advantage of these resources ‡ act as an intermediary between organizations and stored information 46 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .

F.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software ‡ Classification of Software ² System Software ‡ A set of generalized programs that manage the computer·s resources. and peripheral devices. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .UWI. communications links. 47 Prepared by D. such as the central processor. ² Application Software ‡ Describes the programs that are written for or by users to apply the computer to a specific task.

Application software must work through the system software in order to operate. ‡ The system software surrounds and controls access to the hardware. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software ‡ Classification of Software ² Interrelationships ‡ Systems Software and Application Software are interrelated. 48 Prepared by D.UWI.

repetitive tasks. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . » Routine Operations » Manage Data E.g.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software ‡ Classification of Software ² System Software Categories: ‡ Operating System ‡ Language Translators ² Interpreters ² Compilers ‡ Utility Programmes ² System software consisting of programs for routine. MS Windows Explorer 49 Prepared by D. which can be shared by many users. F.UWI.

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software ‡ Classification of Software ² System Software ‡ The system software that manages and controls the computer·s activities is called the Operating System. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . ‡ The Operating System is the computer system·s chief manager.UWI. 50 Prepared by D.

F.UWI. and telecommunication links.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software ‡ Classification of Software ² Operating System Functions ‡ It allocates and assigns system resources: ² It provides locations in primary memory for data and programs and controls the input and output devices such as printers. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . terminals. 51 Prepared by D. ‡ it schedules the use of computer resources and computer jobs: ² It decides when to schedule jobs submitted and when to coordinate the scheduling in various areas of the computer so that different parts of different jobs can be worked on at the same time.

and of any unauthorized attempts to access the system. of what programs have been run. 52 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software ‡ Classification of Software ² Operating System Functions ‡ it monitors computer system activities: ² It keeps track of each computer job and may also keep track of who is using the system.UWI. F.

F.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software 53 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .UWI.

² Source code » The program in the high-level language before translation into machine language. or C into machine language that the computer can execute. F.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software ‡ Classification of Software ² System Software: ‡ Language Translators ² Translate high-level language programs written in programming languages such as COBOL.UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . 54 Prepared by D. FORTRAN.

UWI. 55 Prepared by D. F. Interpreter languages are very slow to execute because they are translated one statement at a time. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software ‡ Classification of Software ² System Software: ‡ Language Translators ² Interpreter » which translates each source code statement one at a time into machine code during execution and executes it.

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . 56 Prepared by D.UWI. but is used to translate only assembly language into machine code.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software ‡ Classification of Software ² System Software: ‡ Language Translators ² Compiler » translates source code into machine code called object code. the object code modules are joined with other object code modules in a process called linkage editing ² Assembler » Similar to a compiler. F. Just before execution by the computer.

‡ Virtual Storage ² Handing programs more efficiently by dividing the programs into small fixed.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software ‡ Classification of Software ² Operating Systems Capabilities ‡ Multiprogramming ² A method of executing two or more programs concurrently using the same computer. The CPU executes only one program but can service the input/output needs of others at the same time. F. 57 Prepared by D.or variable-length portions with only a small portion stored in primary memory at one time.UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software ‡ Classification of Software ² Operating Systems Capabilities ‡ Time Sharing ² The sharing of computer resources by many users simultaneously by having the CPU spend a fixed amount of time on each user·s program before proceeding to the next. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . ‡ Multiprocessing ² An operating system feature for executing two or more instructions simultaneously in a single computer system by using multiple central processing units. F.UWI. 58 Prepared by D.

allowing users to modify the program code to make improvements or fix errors.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software ‡ Classification of Software ² Open Source Software ‡ Software that provides free access to its program code. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .UWI. 59 Prepared by D.

60 Prepared by D.UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . Application Software is used on a daily basis. F. ‡ Many different programming languages and software tools can be used to develop application software.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software ‡ Classification of Software ² Application Software ‡ Primarily concerned with accomplishing the tasks of end users.

UWI- School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module

Software
‡ Classification of Software
² Application Software
‡ Programming Languages
² Machine language or the First
generation of computer languages, which requires the programmer to write all program instructions in the 0s and 1s of binary code, and specify storage locations for every instruction and item of data used.

² Assemble Language is a
programming language developed in the 1950s that resembles machine language but substitutes mnemonics for numeric codes.

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UWI- School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module

Software
‡ Classification of Software
² Application Software
‡ Programming Languages
² Third Generation Languages (Business & Scientific work):
» » » » » COBOL C and C++ Basic FORTRAN Pascal

² Query language is s high-level computer language used to retrieve specific information from databases or files.

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UWI- School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module

Software
‡ Classification of Software
² Application Software
‡ Programming Languages
² Fourth Generation Languages consists of a variety of software tools that enable end users to develop software applications with minimal or no technical assistance or that enhance professional programmer·s productivity.

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·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software ‡ Classification of Software ² Application Software ‡ Contemporary Tools for Software Development ² ² ² ² Object-Oriented Programming Java HTML and XML XHTML 64 Prepared by D.UWI. F.

UWI. ² Email ² Web Browsers ² Groupware: » provides functions and services that support the collaborative activities of work groups 65 Prepared by D.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software ‡ Classification of Software ² Application Software ‡ Productivity Tools: ² ² ² ² ² Word Processing Spreadsheets Data Management Presentation Graphics Integrated Software Packages » Combine the functions of the most important PC software packages. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . F.

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . investment management. materials management. plant maintenance. production planning. 66 Prepared by D.UWI. financial accounting. F.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software ‡ Classification of Software ² Application Software ‡ Enterprise Integration Software ² Enterprise Software » Set of integrated modules for applications such as sales and distribution. and human resources that allow data to be used by multiple functions and business processes.

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . ² Web server » Software that manages requests for Web pages on the computer where they are stored and that delivers the page to the user·s computer.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software ‡ Classification of Software ² Application Software ‡ Enterprise Integration Software ² Middleware » Software that connects two disparate applications. 67 Prepared by D. F.UWI. allowing them to communicate with each other and to exchange data.

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software ‡ Classification of Software ² Application Software ‡ Enterprise Integration Software ² Enterprise Application Integration Software » Software that ties together multiple applications to support enterprise integration.UWI. F. 68 Prepared by D.

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Interfaces ‡ Graphical User Interface ² The part of an operating system users interact with that uses graphic icons and the computer mouse to issue commands and make selections.UWI. 69 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . F.

² Types of Computer Interfaces ‡ Graphical ‡ Menu Driven ‡ Command Prompt 70 Prepared by D.UWI. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Interfaces ‡ Computer Interfaces ² Are that part of the computer system (hardware and applications) that users interact for information.

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module File Management ‡ File Structure A computer system organizes data in a hierarchy that starts with bits and bytes and progresses to fields. Bytes ‡ Field ‡ Record ‡ File ‡ Database ‡ Entities ‡ Attributes ‡ Key Field 71 Prepared by D. records. F. and databases. files.UWI. ² File Organization Terms and Concepts ‡ Bits.

a number.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module File Management ‡ File Organization Terms and Concepts ² Bits . such as the student·s name. represents a single character. F. which can be a letter. ² Record . and the grade.A group of related fields. or a complete number (such as a person·s name or age) is called a field. the course taken.A grouping of characters into a word.A group of bits.Represents the smallest unit of data a computer can handle ² Bytes .UWI. comprises a record. the date. a group of words. 72 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . or another symbol ² Field .

a group of records of the same type is called a file ² Database . updated. or sorted. ² Attributes . place.UWI. thing. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .A group of related files makes up a database ² Entity .A piece of information describing a particular entity.A field in a record that uniquely identifies instances of that record so that it can be retrieved. ² Key Field . or event about which information must be kept. 73 Prepared by D.A person.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module File Management ‡ File Organization Terms and Concepts ² File . F.

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . F.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module File Management ‡ File Organization 74 Prepared by D.UWI.

UWI. F.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module File Management ‡ File Organization ² Traditional File Environment Problems ‡ Data Redundancy ‡ Data Confusion ‡ Programme-Data Dependence ‡ Lack of Flexibility ‡ Poor Security ‡ Lack of Data-sharing and Availability 75 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module File Management ‡ File Management Activities ² ² ² ² ² ² Backups Transfer/Move Copy Delete Creation Rename 76 Prepared by D. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .UWI.

F. which link letters or other text documents with names and addresses in a mailing list. and column width among other features. This eliminates the need to retype an entire page to incorporate corrections. style checkers (to analyze grammar and punctuation). ² Most word processing software has advanced features that automate other writing tasks: spelling checkers. margins. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . character size. ² It has formatting options to make changes in line spacing. ² It allows the user to make changes in the document electronically in memory. and mail merge programs.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Word Processing ‡ Word Processing ² Software that stores text data electronically as a computer file rather than on paper. thesaurus programs.UWI. ² The newest versions of this software can create and access Web pages 77 Prepared by D.

UWI. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Word Processing ‡ Using a Word Processor ² Key Tasks ‡ Document Creation ‡ Document Editing ² ² ² ² Entering Data Formatting Data Editing Data Deleting Data ‡ Document Printing 78 Prepared by D.

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Word Processing The figure shows a typical MS Word Document 79 Prepared by D.UWI. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .

80 Prepared by D.UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . F.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Word Processing ‡ Course Work Assignment ² Document Creation with research information re: Information Technology ² Formatting of this information using all basic features of the Word Processor.

UWI.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Unit 3 Introduction to Spreadsheets & Databases .

² The power of the electronic spreadsheet is evident when one changes a value or values because all other related values on the spreadsheet will be automatically recomputed. with the capability of easily recalculating numerical data.UWI. F. ² Electronic spreadsheet software provides computerized versions of traditional financial modeling tools such as the accountant·s columnar pad. 82 Prepared by D.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Spreadsheets ‡ Spreadsheets ² Software displaying data in a grid of columns and rows. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . and calculator. pencil.

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Spreadsheets ‡ Spreadsheets ² Spreadsheets are valuable for applications in which numerous calculations with pieces of data must be related to each other. ² Spreadsheets also are useful for applications that require modeling and ´what-ifµ analysis. 83 Prepared by D. After the user has constructed a set of mathematical relationships. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . A number of alternatives can easily be evaluated by changing one or two pieces of data without having to re-key in the rest of the worksheet.UWI. F. the spreadsheet can be recalculated instantaneously using a different set of assumptions.

or pie charts. F. 84 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . ² The newest versions of this software can read and write Web files. bar graphs.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Spreadsheets ‡ Spreadsheets ² Many spreadsheet packages include graphics functions that can present data in the form of line graphs.UWI.

UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . F.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Spreadsheets Figure shows a typical MS Excel Worksheet 85 Prepared by D.

F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Spreadsheets ‡ Using Spreadsheet Software ² Key Terms/Tasks ‡ Rows/Columns ‡ Cells ‡ Worksheet ‡ Workbook ‡ Formulae ‡ Entering Data ‡ Calculating Data 86 Prepared by D.UWI.

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . and combining information for reports ² Although spreadsheet programs are powerful tools for manipulating quantitative data.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Databases ‡ Databases ² Software used for creating and manipulating lists. 87 Prepared by D. data management software is more suitable for creating and manipulating lists and for combining information from different files.UWI. creating files and databases to store data. PC data management packages have programming features and easyto-learn menus that enable nonspecialists to build small information systems. F.

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Databases ‡ Databases ² Data management software typically has facilities for creating files and databases and for storing.UWI. F. and manipulating data for reports and queries. modifying. 88 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Databases Figure shows a typical MS Access Interface 89 Prepared by D.UWI. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .

F.UWI.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Databases ‡ Databases ² Key Terms (An extension of File Management) ‡ Records ‡ Data Elements ‡ Attributes ‡ Files ‡ Tables ‡ Tuple ² an ordered lists of elements/ records that are doubled sequencially ‡ Data Dictionary ‡ SQL ² Structured Query Language ‡ Datamining ‡ Data Warehouse ‡ Datamart 90 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Databases ‡ Using Databases Software ² Creating a Database ‡ Data Structure ² Field Length/Width/Size ² Field Type ² Primary Key ‡ Queries ‡ Printing the data 91 Prepared by D. F.UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .

animation.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Presenting Information ‡ Electronic Presenta tion ² Presentation Graphics (ePresentations) ‡ Software to create professional-quality graphics presentations that can incorporate charts. and video clips. ‡ Presentation graphics software allows users to create professional-quality graphics presentations. 92 Prepared by D. photos. sound. and video clips. ‡ The leading presentation graphics packages include capabilities for computer-generated slide shows and for translating content for the Web. animation. ‡ This software can convert numeric data into charts and other types of graphics and can include multimedia displays of sound. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . photos.UWI. F.

F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .UWI.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Presenting Information Figure shows a typical MS PowerPoint Interface: Slide shows the Cover Design of this Lecture Notes Document 93 Prepared by D.

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Presenting Information ‡ Electronic Presentation ² Using e-Presentations (Presentation Graphics) ‡ Slides ‡ Transitions ‡ Formatting slides ‡ Animation ‡ Timing 94 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . F.UWI.

though not Information Technology Specialists. The most important criteria are as follows: ‡ Appropriateness ‡ Efficiency ‡ Compatibility ‡ Support 95 Prepared by D. they should be able to use clear criteria in selecting application and system software for the organization. F.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software Selection ‡ Appropriate Software Selection ² Managers. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .UWI.

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software Selection ‡ Appropriate Software Selection ² Appropriateness ‡ Application software should also be easy to maintain and change. and flexible enough so that it can grow with the organization. F.UWI. 96 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . These organizational considerations have direct long-term cost implications.

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . such as BASIC or Java or fourth-generation languages may prove too slow and expensive in terms of machine time for systems that must handle many thousands of transactions per second 97 Prepared by D. F.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software Selection ‡ Appropriate Software Selection ² Efficiency ‡ Some programming languages are more efficient in the use of machine time than others and there are instances where such considerations outweigh personnel costs. Languages with slow compilers or interpreters.UWI.

the firm·s operating system software must be compatible with the software required by the firm·s mainstream business applications.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software Selection ‡ Appropriate Software Selection ² Compatibility ‡ Application software must be able to run on the firm·s hardware and operating system platform.UWI. 98 Prepared by D. Mission-critical applications typically have large volumes of transactions to process and require robust operating systems that can handle large complex software programs and massive files. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . Likewise.

a programming language must be easy for the firm·s programming staff to learn. and development aids.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Software Selection ‡ Appropriate Software Selection ² Support ‡ In order to be effective. It is also important to purchase package software that has widespread use in other organizations and is supported by many consulting firms and services. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . and the staff should have sufficient knowledge of that software so that they can provide ongoing support for all of the systems based on that software.UWI. debugging. Another kind of support is the availability of software editing. 99 Prepared by D. F.

UWI. F.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Unit 4 Information & The Internet 100 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .

UWI. F. it has been the catalyst for successful businesses worldwide. ² The Internet is accessible via networked computers and other electronic devices. Ever since its inception. 101 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . ² Telecommunications and telecommunication systems are being used globally. data must be effectively communicated.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Information ² To receive full benefit from information. ² Data communication is done via networked computers using advanced technologies to ensure that what is sent is what is received. making the world seem smaller by the minute. ² The combination of telecommunications and the Internet has been a major force in the way businesses and government manage their respective affairs.

It includes . music) transmission using computers to transmit data from one location to another. 102 Prepared by D. . usually over some distance. video.UWI. text. . F.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Telecommunications ² The communication of information by electronic means. ‡ Voice Transmission via telephone lines ‡ Digital Data (audio. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .

UWI.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Telecommunications System ² A collection of compatible hardware and software arranged to communicate information from one location to another 103 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . F.

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . ‡ Terminals or any input/output devices that send or receive data. such as telephone lines.UWI. F. 104 Prepared by D. ‡ Communications channels. Communications channels use various communications media. fiber-optic cables. and wireless transmission. coaxial cables.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Telecommunications System ² Components of Telecommunications System ‡ Computers to process information. the links by which data or voice are transmitted between sending and receiving devices in a network.

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Telecommunications System ² Components of Telecommunications System ‡ Communications processors. multiplexers. F. controllers. ‡ Communications software. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . and front-end processors. such as modems. 105 Prepared by D. which provide support functions for data transmission and reception. which controls input and output activities and manages other functions of the communications network.UWI.

UWI- School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module

Information

Figure shows examples of routers

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UWI- School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module

Information

Figure shows Components of a Telecommunications System

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UWI- School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module

Information
‡ Telecommunications System
² Functions of Telecommunications Systems
‡ The system transmits information. ‡ Establishes the interface between the sender and the receiver. ‡ Routes messages along the most efficient paths. ‡ Performs elementary processing of the information to ensure that the right message gets to the right receiver.
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UWI- School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module

Information
‡ Telecommunications System
² Functions of Telecommunications Systems
‡ Performs editorial tasks on the data (such as checking for transmission errors and rearranging the format). ‡ Converts messages from one speed (say, the speed of a computer) into the speed of a communications line or from one format to another. ‡ Controls the flow of information

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F. 110 Prepared by D.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Telecommunications System ² Protocol ‡ A set of rules and procedures that govern transmission between the components in a network. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . This can only be done with the correct protocols. ‡ A telecommunications network usually contains hardware and software components that are diverse but work together to transmit information.UWI.

F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . ‡ To verify that a message requires retransmission because it cannot be correctly interpreted. ‡ To verify correct receipt of the transmitted message. ‡ To secure the attention of the other device. 111 Prepared by D. and ‡ To perform recovery when errors occur.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Telecommunications System ² Protocol Functions: ‡ To identify each device in the communication path.UWI.

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Telecommunications System ² Electromagnetic Signals ‡ Information travels through a telecommunications system in the form of electromagnetic signals. which are represented as on²off electrical pulses. F. used for data communications. ² Types of Signals ‡ Analog . 112 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .A discrete waveform that transmits data coded into two discrete states as 1-bits and 0-bits.UWI.A continuous waveform that passes through a communications medium. used primarily for voice communications ‡ Digital .

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .UWI. ‡ Because all digital signals must be translated into analog signals before they can be transmitted in an analog system a modem is necessary. 113 Prepared by D.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Telecommunications System ² Modem ‡ A device for translating digital signals into analog signals and vice versa. F. ‡ Modem is an abbreviation for MOdulation/DEModulation.

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information Figure shows functions of a modem ² transmitting digital data through a telephone wire network. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .UWI. 114 Prepared by D. F.

F.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Telecommunications System ² Communication Processors ‡ Front-end processor A special-purpose computer dedicated to managing communications for the host computer in a network. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . ‡ Concentrator Telecommunications computer that collects and temporarily stores messages from terminals for batch transmission to the host computer. 115 Prepared by D.UWI.

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Telecommunications System ² Communication Processors ‡ Controller A specialized computer that supervises communications traffic between the CPU and the peripheral devices in a telecommunications system. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . F. 116 Prepared by D.UWI. ‡ Multiplexer A device that enables a single communications channel to carry data transmissions from multiple sources simultaneously.

UWI. coaxial cable. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . and other wireless transmission 117 Prepared by D. ‡ A channel can use different kinds of telecommunications transmission media: twisted wire. fiber optics. terrestrial microwave.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Telecommunications System ² Communications Channels ‡ Communications channels are the means by which data are transmitted from one device in a network to another. satellite.

F.UWI.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Telecommunications System ² Communications Channels ‡ Transmission media: ² Twisted wire e.g. Cable TV wire ² Fiber optics (See next slide) ² Backbone ² Wireless Transmission » Microwave (Terrestrial) » Satellite (Orbit) ² Other wireless transmission » » » » Cellular telephones Smart phone Personal Digital Assistants Paging Systems 118 Prepared by D.g. Cat5 Network wire ² Coaxial cable e. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information Figure shows Fiber-optic cable ² Strands of glass fibers 119 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . F.UWI.

120 Prepared by D.UWI. ² Bandwidth » The transmission capacity of a communications channel as measured by the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies that can be transmitted by that channel.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Telecommunications System ² Communications Channels ‡ Transmission Speed ² Baud » A change in signal from positive to negative or vice versa that is used as a measure of transmission speed. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .

F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information 121 Prepared by D.UWI.

² Networks also can be classified by their geographic scope and the type of services provided 122 Prepared by D. F. or topology. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Communications Networks ² There are different ways to organize telecommunications components to form a network and hence provide multiple ways of classifying networks. ² Networks can be classified by their shape.UWI.

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . ‡ There are three (3) basic or most common topologies: ² The Star Network ² The Bus Network ² The Ring Network 123 Prepared by D.UWI.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Communications Networks ² Network Topologies ‡ Topology is the shape or configuration of a network. F.

All communications between network devices must pass through the host computer 124 Prepared by D.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Communications Networks ² Network Topologies ‡ Star Network ² A network topology in which all computers and other devices are connected to a central host computer.UWI. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .

UWI.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information Figure shows a Star Network topology 125 Prepared by D. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Communications Networks ² Network Topologies ‡ Bus Network ² Network topology linking a number of computers by a single circuit with all messages broadcast to the entire network 126 Prepared by D.UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . F.

F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .UWI.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information Figure shows a Bus Network topology 127 Prepared by D.

F.UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Communications Networks ² Network Topologies ‡ Ring Network ² A network topology in which all computers are linked by a closed loop in a manner that passes data in one direction from one computer to another 128 Prepared by D.

UWI. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information Figure shows a Ring Network topology 129 Prepared by D.

UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . 130 Prepared by D. ² PBXs carry voice and data to create local networks.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Communications Networks ² Network Topologies ‡ PBX (Private Branch Exchange) ² A central switching system that handles a firm·s voice and digital communications. F. ² A special-purpose computer designed for handling and switching office telephone calls at a company site.

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Communications Networks ² Network Topologies ‡ PBX (Private Branch Exchange) ² PBXs can store. ² A letter could be written on a PC in your office. F. then dial up the local copying machine and have multiple copies of your letter created. 131 Prepared by D.UWI. and they also can be used to switch digital information among computers and office devices. and redial telephone calls. send it to the printer. hold. transfer. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .

F. and they have been widely used to link PCs.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Communications Networks ² Network Topologies ‡ LANs (Local Area Networks) ² LANs are telecommunications networks that require dedicated channels and that encompasses a limited distance. ² LANs require their own communications channels 132 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . ² Most LANs connect devices located within a 2.UWI.000-foot radius. usually one building or several buildings in close proximity.

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information Figure shows a Local Area Network (LAN) 133 Prepared by D. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .UWI.

May consist of a variety of wired. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . and microwave technologies. satellite. 134 Prepared by D. F.UWI.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Communications Networks ² Network Topologies ‡ WANs (Wide Area Networks) ² Telecommunications network that spans a large geographical distance. microwave. ² WANs may consist of a combination of switched and dedicated lines. and satellite communications.

² A peer-to-peer network treats all processors equally and is used primarily in small networks. F. used primarily in small networks.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Communications Networks ² Network Topologies ‡ Peer-to-Peer Network ² Network architecture that gives equal power to all computers on the network. 135 Prepared by D.UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . Each computer on the network has direct access to each other·s workstations and shared peripheral devices.

printers. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . and computing devices can communicate with each other and even operate each other without direct user intervention. ² Wireless phones.UWI. F. pagers. 136 Prepared by D. computers.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Communications Networks ² Network Topologies ‡ Bluetooth ² A wireless networking standard that is useful primarily for creating small personal area networks linking up to eight devices within a 10 meter area using low-power radio-based communication.

137 Prepared by D. fixed bundles of data and routes them in the most economical way through any available communications channel. ‡ Frame Relay ² A shared network service technology that packages data into bundles for transmission but does not use error-correction routines.UWI.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Communications Networks ² Network Services ‡ Packet Switching ² Technology that breaks blocks of text into small. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . F. Cheaper and faster than packet switching.

F.UWI. image. video. and data to support a wide range of service over the public telephone lines. ‡ ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) ² International standard for transmitting voice. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . allowing data to be transmitted between computers from different vendors at any network speed. 138 Prepared by D.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Communications Networks ² Network Services ‡ ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) ² A networking technology that parcels information into eight-byte cells.

F. SDSL) ‡ Cable Modems ² Modem designed to operate over cable TV lines to provide high-speed access to the Web or corporate intranets. (ADSL.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Communications Networks ² Network Services ‡ DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) ² A group of technologies providing high-capacity transmission over existing copper telephone lines.UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . 139 Prepared by D.

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . 140 Prepared by D.UWI.544 megabits per second.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Communications Networks ² Network Services ‡ T1 ² A dedicated telephone connection comprising 24 channels that can support a data transmission rate of 1. Also designates a communications medium that can transmit multiple channels of data simultaneously. F. Each channel can be configured to carry voice or data traffic. ‡ Broadband ² High-speed transmission technology.

companies maintain separate networks for voice. ² Traditionally. but today. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . products are now available to create converged networks which can deliver voice. 141 Prepared by D. data.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information ‡ Communications Networks ² Network Convergence ‡ Converged Network ² Network with technology to enable voice and data to run over a single network. data. and video. and video in a single network infrastructure.UWI.

F.UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Information 142 Prepared by D.

implementation of internetworking. and entertainment. An international network of networks.S. F. creating a dynamic and usable environment for productivity. communications. Department of Defense network to link scientists and university professors around the world. ² It is a network infrastructure that allows a variety of services to function.UWI. ² The Internet began as a U.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module The Internet ‡ An introduction to the Internet ² The Internet the most well-known. and the largest. linking hundreds of thousands of individual networks all over the world. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . 143 Prepared by D.

An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a commercial organization with a permanent connection to the Internet that sells temporary connections to subscribers.UWI. There is no formal management organization. and the emerging digital firm. ² Internet technology is providing the primary infrastructure for electronic commerce. ² Access is through an Internet Service Provider. 144 Prepared by D. ² No one owns the Internet. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module The Internet ‡ An introduction to the Internet ² The Internet provides access to several electronic services that are now used as the preferred way businesses and governments worldwide do business. electronic business.

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module The Internet ‡ Internet Technology ² The Internet is based on client/server technology. ² A client uses the Internet to request information from a particular Web server on a distant computer and the server sends the requested information back to the client via the Internet. are stored on servers. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .UWI. ² All the data. including e-mail messages and Web pages. F. ² Internet2 ‡ A new network with new protocols and transmission speeds that provides an infrastructure for supporting highbandwidth Internet applications. 145 Prepared by D. ² Individuals using the Net control what they do through client applications such as Web browser software.

UWI. F.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module The Internet ‡ Internet Services ² ² ² ² ² ² ² WWW (World Wide Web) E-mail FTP Telnet Search Engines Chatting (Instant Messaging) Usenet newsgroups 146 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module The Internet 147 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .UWI. F.

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module The Internet ‡ Key Applications of EBusiness & E-Commerce ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² E-Mail Groupware Voicemail Facsimile (FAX) Digital Information Services Teleconferencing Data-conferencing Video-conferencing Electronic data Exchange 148 Prepared by D.UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . F.

making it easy to link resources that are half-a-world apart. ² It can handle all types of digital communication. F. and sound. hypermedia. ² The Web uses graphical user interfaces for easy viewing. and displaying information using a client/server architecture. ² The Web combines text. It is based on a standard hypertext language called Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module The Internet ‡ WWW (World Wide Web) ² The Web is a system with universally accepted standards for storing. graphics. which formats documents and incorporates dynamic links to other documents stored in the same or remote computers. formatting. 149 Prepared by D.UWI. retrieving. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . probably on another computer somewhere else in the world. F. click on it. ² Users are free to jump from place to place following their own logic and interest. and immediately be transported to another document.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module The Internet ‡ WWW (World Wide Web) ² Using these links. the user only points at a highlighted keyword or graphic. 150 Prepared by D.UWI.

so anyone using a browser can access any of the millions of Web sites. ² The browser also includes an arrow or back button to enable the user to retrace his or her steps. 151 Prepared by D. ² Browsers use hypertext·s point-and-click ability to navigate or surf³move from site to site on the Web³to another desired site. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . navigating back. F. ² The standard is universally accepted.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module The Internet ‡ Web Browsers ² Web browser software is programmed according to HTML standards. site by site.UWI.

which has a home page³a text and graphical screen display that usually welcomes the user and explains the organization that has established the site. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . ² The person in charge of an organization·s Web site is called a Webmaster. F. with all the pages of a company. 152 Prepared by D.UWI. the home page leads users to other pages.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module The Internet ‡ Web Sites ² Those who offer information through the Web (having a web presence) must establish a website. ² Most Web sites/pages offer a way to contact the organization or individual. ² For most organizations.

org.tt.uwi. which points to the address of a specific resource on the Web. ² Http defines how messages are formatted and transmitted and what actions Web servers and browsers should take in response to various commands.tt. ² www.uwi. ² The URL must go after the following: ´http://www.edu is the domain name identifying the Web server storing the Web pages. which is the communications standard used to transfer pages on the Web.org.edµ in that order and syntax. 153 Prepared by D.UWI. the user must specify a uniform resource locator (URL). ² Http stands for hypertext transport protocol.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module The Internet ‡ Searching the ¶Web· ² To access a Web site. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .

UWI. locating information on the Web is a critical function. ‡ search engines . As such. ‡ broadcast or ´pushµ technology. ² The principal methods of locating information on the Web are ‡ Web site directories. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . F. 154 Prepared by D. which is a method of obtaining relevant information on networks by having a computer broadcast information directly to the user based on pre-specified interests.a tool for locating specific sites or information on the Internet.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module The Internet ‡ Searching the ¶Web· ² No comprehensive catalog of Web sites exists.

F. ² An intranet is an internal organizational network that can provide access to data across the enterprise. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . 155 Prepared by D. ² Intranets can create networked applications that can run on many different kinds of computers throughout the organization.UWI.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module The Internet ‡ Intranets ² Organizations can use Internet networking standards and Web technology to create private networks called intranets. including mobile handheld computers and wireless remote access devices. ² It uses the existing company network infrastructure along with Internet connectivity standards and software developed for the World Wide Web.

examine its characteristics. 156 Prepared by D. and reject unauthorized messages or access attempts.UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . ² The firewall is programmed to intercept each message packet passing between the two networks. which are security systems with specialized software to prevent outsiders from invading private networks. F. including the Internet.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module The Internet ‡ Intranet Technology ² The WWW or Web is open to anyone. ² The Firewall consists of hardware and software placed between an organization·s internal network and an external network. but an intranet is private and is protected from public visits by firewalls.

UWI. ² The company can use firewalls to ensure that access to its internal data is limited and remains secure. F.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module The Internet ‡ Extranets ² Private intranets that are extended to authorized users outside the company. 157 Prepared by D. making sure that only authorized people can access the site. ² Authorized clients of an organization could link to a portion of a company·s intranet from the public Internet to obtain information about the cost and features of its products and services. ² Firewalls can also authenticate users. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module The Internet Figure shows An example of a Business Organization's Extranet Configuration 158 Prepared by D. F.UWI.

F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .UWI.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module The Internet ‡ Organizations Benefits of The Internet Connectivity and Global Reach Reduced Communication Costs Lower Transaction Costs Reduced Agency Costs Interactivity. Flexibility. and Customization ² Accelerated Distribution of Knowledge ² ² ² ² ² 159 Prepared by D.

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . 160 Prepared by D.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module The Internet ‡ Internet Security ² On-line systems and those utilizing telecommunications are especially vulnerable because data and files can be immediately and directly accessed through computer terminals or at many points in the telecommunications network. F.UWI. ² The Internet poses additional problems because it was explicitly designed to be easily accessed by people on different computer systems.

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module The Internet ‡ Internet Security ² Computer Viruses ‡ Rogue software programs that can spread rampantly from system to system. clogging computer memory or destroying programs and data. or personal pleasure. ‡ Many of these viruses have been spread by individuals called hackers who try to gain unauthorized access to computer networks for profit. criminal mischief. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .UWI. 161 Prepared by D. F.

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . or personal pleasure.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module The Internet ‡ Internet Security ² Hackers ‡ Persons who gain unauthorized access to a computer network for profit. 162 Prepared by D. F. criminal mischief.UWI.

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module The Internet Figure shows Telecommunication Vulnerabilities 163 Prepared by D.UWI. F.

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module The Internet ‡ Mitigation for Intrusion ² Antivirus Software ‡ Software designed to detect. F. 164 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . ² Intrusion Detection System ‡ Tools to monitor the most vulnerable points in a network to detect and deter unauthorized intruders. and often eliminate.UWI. computer viruses from an information system.

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module The Internet ‡ Mitigation for Intrusion ² Encryption ‡ The coding and scrambling of messages to prevent their being read or accessed without authorization. ² Message Integrity » The ability to ascertain that a transmitted message has not been copied or altered. ² Authentication ‡ The ability of each party in a transaction to ascertain the identity of the other party. F. 165 Prepared by D.UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . ² Digital Signature » A digital code that can be attached to an electronically transmitted message to uniquely identify its contents and the sender. F.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module The Internet ‡ Mitigation for Intrusion ² Authentication ‡ Digital signatures and digital certificates help with authentication. ² Digital Certificate » An attachment to an electronic message to verify the identity of the sender and to provide the receiver with the means to encode a reply. 166 Prepared by D.UWI.

telecommunications.UWI. physical facilities. organizational structure. F. manual procedures and individual applications. personnel. 167 Prepared by D. ‡ The IS Auditor must have a thorough understanding of operations.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module The Internet ‡ Mitigation for Intrusion ² MIS Audit ‡ Identifies all the controls that govern individual information systems and assesses their effectiveness. data security objectives. control systems. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .

money.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Ethical & Social Issues ‡ Ethics ² Principles of right and wrong that can be used by individuals acting as free moral agents to make choices to guide their behaviour ² Information technology and Information Systems have indeed raise new questions for both individuals and societies within the ethical arena. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . ² They create opportunities for intense social change. threatening existing distributions of power. rights and obligations. F. 168 Prepared by D.UWI.

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . social and political issues raised by Information Technology and Information Systems are: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Information Rights & Obligations Property Rights & Obligations Accountability & Control System Quality Quality of Life 169 Prepared by D. F.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Ethical & Social Issues ‡ Moral Dimensions ² The five major ethical.UWI.

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . organizations or the state.UWI. F. 170 Prepared by D.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Ethical & Social Issues ‡ Information Rights ² The rights that individuals and organizations have with respect to information that pertains to themselves. ‡ Privacy ² the claim of individuals to be left alone. free from surveillance or interference from other individuals.

·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . copyright and patent law. designed to ensure that inventors of new machines or methods are rewarded for their labour while making wide-spread use of their inventions.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Ethical & Social Issues ‡ Intellectual Property Rights ² Intangible property created by individuals or corporations that is subject to protections under trade secret. 171 Prepared by D.UWI. provided it is not based on information in the public domain. ‡ Copyrights ² a statutory grant that protects creators of intellectual property against copying by others for any purpose for a minimum of 70 years. ‡ Trade Secrets ² any intellectual work or product used for a business purpose that can be classified as belonging to that business. F. ‡ Patents ² A legal document that grants the owner an exclusive monopoly on the ideas an invention for 20 years.

‡ Responsibility ² accepting the potential costs. 172 Prepared by D. ‡ Liability ² The existence of laws that permit individuals to recover the damages done to them by other actors. duties. ‡ Due Process ² A process in which laws are well-known and understood and there is an ability to appeal to higher authorities to ensure that laws are applied correctly.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Ethical & Social Issues ‡ Accountability ² The mechanisms for assessing responsibility for decisions made and actions taken.UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . systems and organizations. F. and obligations for the decisions one makes.

data that is inputted to the system·s database must be fraught with integrity. 173 Prepared by D.UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Ethical & Social Issues ‡ Systems Quality ² Software errors and bugs ‡ All software have errors and bugs but they must be undetectable so that they don·t cause unnecessary interruptions to the user. Therefore. ² Hardware or facility failures ‡ They are caused naturally or otherwise and systems should be put in place to eradicate them. ² Poor Input data quality ‡ Garbage in is garbage out. F.

Work and Leisure ‡ Dependence and Vulnerability ‡ Computer Crime and Abuse ‡ Employment: Trickle-Down Technology & Reengineering Job Loss 174 Prepared by D.UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Ethical & Social Issues ‡ Quality of Life: Equity. F. Access and Boundaries ² Negative Social Consequences of Systems: ‡ Balancing Power: Center Versus Periphery ‡ Rapidity of Change: Reduced Response Time to Competition ‡ Maintaining Boundaries: Family.

g. and dry and irritated eyes ² Technostress ² Stress induced by computer use. CTS (Carpal Tunnel Syndrome) ² CVS (Computer Vision Syndrome) ² Eyestrain condition related to computer display screen use. ‡ Health Risks: RSI. F. blurred vision. Access and Boundaries ² Negative Social Consequences of Systems: ‡ Equity and Access: Increasing Racial and Social Class Cleavages ² Digital Divide ² Large disparities in access to computers and the Internet among different social groups and different locations. CVS and Technostress ² RSI (Repetitive Stress Injury) ² occupational disease that occurs when muscle groups are forced through repetitive actions with highimpact loads or thousands of repetitions with low-impact loads. symptoms include aggravation. headaches. hostility toward humans. impatience and enervation 175 Prepared by D.UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . E.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Ethical & Social Issues ‡ Quality of Life: Equity.

176 Prepared by D.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Ethical & Social Issues ‡ Internet Challenges to Privacy ² Cookies ‡ Tiny files deposited on a computer hard drive when a user visits certain Web sites. F. It slows down the natural performance of the computer system and over time can corrupt the system files and eventually crashing the hard disk. Used to identify the visitor and track visits to the Web site. ² Spy-ware ‡ Harmful software that is designed to be installed on a computer hard drive when a user visits certain Web sites that tracks the participation while on the Internet.UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . ² Web Bugs ‡ Tiny graphic files embedded in email messages and Web pages that are designed to monitor online Internet user behaviour.

School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Ethical & Social Issues ‡ Mitigation for Internet Challenges ² Legislation ² New Technologies ²Privacy Protection Tools ‡ Managing Cookies ‡ Blocking ads ‡ Encrypting e-mail or data ‡ Anonymizers 177 Prepared by D. F. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke .UWI.

F.UWI.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Ethical & Social Issues ‡ Computer Crime ² The commission of illegal acts through the use of a computer or against a computer system ‡ Computer Abuse ² The commission of acts involving a computer that may not be illegal but are considered unethical. 178 Prepared by D. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . ² Spamming ‡ The practice of sending unsolicited email and other electronic communication ² Hacking ‡ The exploitation of Web site security weaknesses to obtain access to proprietary data such as customer information and passwords.

F.UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . 179 Prepared by D.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Ethical & Social Issues ‡ Software Piracy ² The illegal access to or usage of software using unlicensed software.

topics under the five moral dimensions.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Ethical & Social Issues ‡ Management Actions ² A Corporate Code of Ethics ‡ A written document designed and developed by management that outlines. ‡ Communicated to all employees of the Digital Firm.UWI. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . F. 180 Prepared by D. in detail.

‡ 181 Prepared by D. Clinton A.. ·Sheppie· Les Pierre-Luke . Computing Fundamentals. 2000.2. 2006/2007. Prentice Hall..UWI. UWI-School of Continuing Studies. Management Information Systems: Managing The Digital Firm.School of Continuing Studies ² Information Technology Module Bibliography ‡ Laudon.. 2002/2003. Kenneth C. Jane P. Seventh & Eighth Edition. & Laudon. Pearson. Information Technology Booklet. ‡ Benjamin. Version 2. F.

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