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**BMCG 2123 Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, UTeM Taufik Week 2
**

1/28/2011 BMCG 2123 Heat Transfer 1

Learning Objectives

**At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
**

Explain multidimensionality and time dependence of heat transfer. Obtain the differential equation of heat conduction in various coordinate systems. Solve one-dimensional heat conduction problems and obtain the temperature distributions within a medium and the heat flux, Analyze one-dimensional heat conduction in solids that involve heat generation.

1/28/2011 BMCG 2123 Heat Transfer 2

Introduction

Although heat transfer and temperature are closely related, they are of a different nature. Temperature has only magnitude it is a scalar quantity. Heat transfer has direction as well as magnitude it is a vector quantity. We work with a coordinate system and indicate direction with plus or minus signs.

Introduction

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The driving force for any form of heat transfer is the temperature difference. The larger the temperature difference, the larger the rate of heat transfer. Three prime coordinate systems:

± rectangular (T(x, y, z, t)) , ± cylindrical (T(r, J, z, t)), ± spherical (T(r, J, U, t)).

Introduction Continue Classification of conduction heat transfer problems: steady versus transient heat transfer. multidimensional heat transfer. . heat generation.

Steady versus Transient Heat Transfer Steady implies no change with time at any point within the medium Transient implies variation with time or time dependence .

± two dimensional.or one-dimensional depending on the relative magnitudes of heat transfer rates in different directions and the level of accuracy desired. In the most general case. heat transfer through a medium is three-dimensional.Multidimensional Heat Transfer Heat transfer problems are also classified as being: ± one-dimensional. . However. some problems can be classified as two. ± three-dimensional.

The rate of heat conduction through a medium in a specified direction (say. in the x-direction) is expressed by Fourier s law of heat conduction for one-dimensional heat conduction as: & ! kA dT Qcond dx (W) (2-1) Heat is conducted in the direction of decreasing temperature. and thus the temperature gradient is negative when heat is conducted in the positive xdirection. .

the rate of heat conduction at that point can be expressed by Fourier s law as & ! kA dT Qn (W) (2-2) dn .General Relation for Fourier s Law of Heat Conduction The heat flux vector at a point P on the surface of the figure must be perpendicular to the surface. and it must point in the direction of decreasing temperature If n is the normal of the isothermal surface at point P.

General Relation for Fourier s Law of Heat Conduction-Continue In rectangular coordinates. the heat conduction vector can be expressed in terms of its components r r r r as (2-3) ! i j k n x y z which can be determined from Fourier s law as ® & ! kA xT Q x ±x xx ± ± & ! kA xT (2-4) ¯Qy y xy ± ± & ! kA xT Q ±z z xz ° .

Heat generation is a volumetric phenomenon. The total rate of heat generation in a medium of volume V can be determined from & & (2-5) E ! e dV (W) gen ´ gen V . The rate of heat generation units : W/m3 or Btu/h · ft3. ± fuel elements of nuclear reactors. ± exothermic chemical reactions. The rate of heat generation in a medium may vary with time as well as position within the medium.Heat Generation Examples: ± electrical energy being converted to heat at a rate of I2R.

in W/cm3. and b) The heat flux on the outer surface of the wire as result of this heat generation.Exercise 1 The resistance wire of a 1200-W hair dryer is 80 cm long and has diameter of D = 0. Determine: a) the rate of heat generation in the wire per unit volume. 1/28/2011 BMCG 2123 Heat Transfer 12 .3 cm.

Solution 1 a) The rate of heat generation: e gen ! gen ! wire .

D / 4 .

3cm) / 4 cm L T 80 T 2 gen 2 ! 1200 W ! 212 W/cm 3 b) The heat flux on the outer surface: ! s E gen 1/28/2011 ! E gen T ire 1200 W ! ! 15.3c )(80c ) 2 BMCG 2123 Heat Transfer 13 . (0.9 W / c T (o.

Plane Wall Rate of Rate of Rate of heat .One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equation .element gen (2-6) (Eelement ! (t .heat + generation heat conductio conduction inside the at x+(x n element at x Rate of change = of the energy content of the element & & Qx Qx (x & .

element ! element (t (2-6) The change in the energy content and the rate of heat generation can be expressed as ® Eelement ! Et (t Et ! mc .( & Q & & Qx x (x gen .

t (t ( ± ¯& & & E ± gen.element ! egenVelement ! egen A(x ° t ! Vc (x .

taking the limit as (x 0 and (t 0. t (t t (2-7) (2-8) Substituting into Eq. 2 6. we get & & x & egen A(x ! VcA(x x (x t (t (t t (2-9) Dividing by A(x. and from Fourier s law: 1 x ¨ xT © kA xx A xx ª xT ¸ & egen ! V c ¹ xt º (2-11) .

E! (2-14) Vc The one-dimensional conduction equation may be reduces to the following forms under special & d 2T egen conditions ! 0 (2-15) 2 1) Steady-state: dx k 2) Transient.The area A is constant for a plane wall the one dimensional transient heat conduction equation in a plane wall is (2-13) Variable conductivity: x ¨ k x ¸ egen ! V c x © ¹ & Constant xx ª xx º & x 2T egen 1 xT ! conductivity: 2 xx k E xt xt k . no heat generation: d 2T 3) Steady-state. no heat generation: 2 dx x 2T 1 xT ! 2 xx E xt !0 (2-16) (2-17) .

element ! ( & gen r r (r element (t (2-18) .Long Cylinder Rate of Rate of Rate of heat .One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equation .heat + generation heat conductio conduction inside the at r+(r n element at r Rate of change = of the energy content of the element & Q & .

element ! element (t (2-18) The change in the energy content and the rate of heat generation can be expressed as ® Eelement ! Et (t Et ! mc .( &Q & & Qr r (r gen.

Tt (t Tt ! VcA(r .

we get & & r r (r & A(r ! VcA(r Tt (t Tt egen (t (2-21) Dividing by A(r.Tt (t Tt (2-19) ( ± ¯& & & E (2-20) ± gen. taking the limit as (r 0 and (t 0. and from Fourier s law: 1 x ¨ xT ¸ xT & (2-23) © kA ¹ egen ! V c A xr ª xr º xt .element ! egenVelement ! egen A(r ° Substituting into Eq. 2 18.

no heat generation: d ¨ dT ©r dr ª dr . the one dimensional transient heat conduction equation in a plane wall becomes 1 x ¨ xT ¸ xT (2-25) & © rk xr ¹ egen ! V c xt Variable conductivity: r xr ª º Constant conductivity: 1 x ¨ xT © r xr r xr ª & ¸ egen 1 xT ¹ k ! E xt º (2-26) The one-dimensional conduction equation may be reduces to the following forms under special & conditions 1 d ¨ dT ¸ egen (2-27) © r dr ¹ k ! 0 1) Steady-state: r dr ª º 2) Transient.Noting that the area varies with the independent variable r according to A=2TrL. no heat generation: 1 x ¨ xT © r xr r xr ª ¸ 1 xT ¹ ! E xt º ¸ ¹!0 º (2-28) (2-29) 3) Steady-state.

Sphere Variable conductivity: Constant conductivity: 1 x ¨ 2 xT © r k xr 2 r xr ª xT ¸ & ! Vc ¹ egen xt º (2-30) & 1 x ¨ 2 xT ¸ egen 1 xT © r xr ¹ k ! E xt 2 r xr ª º (2-31) .One-Dimensional Heat Conduction Equation .

n element energy y+(y. y. and at x.heat + heat generation = change conductio conduction inside the of the at x+(x.General Heat Conduction Equation & & & Q Q Qx (x Qy (y Qz (z Egen . content of z+(z and z the element element (2-36) (t .element ! ( Qx & & & y z Rate of Rate of Rate of heat Rate of .

no heat generation: 2 2 2 ! 0 xx xy xz . no heat generation: xx 2 xy 2 xz 2 ! E xt x 2T x 2T x 2T Steady-state.Repeating the mathematical approach used for the one-dimensional heat conduction the threedimensional heat conduction equation is determined to be Twodimensional Constant conductivity: & x 2T x 2T x 2T egen 1 xT 2 2 ! 2 xx xy xz k E xt Threedimensional (2-39) 1) Steady-state: 2) 3) & x 2T x 2T x 2T egen 2 2 ! 0 (2-40) 2 xx xy xz k (2-41) (2-42) x 2T x 2T x 2T 1 xT Transient.

K. obtain the differential equation that describes the variation of the temperature in the wire during steady state operation. and length L = 50 cm is used to boil water by immersing it in water. 1/28/2011 BMCG 2123 Heat Transfer 23 .Exercise 2 A 2-kW resistance heater with thermal conductivity k = 15 W/m. diameter D = 0.4 cm. Assuming the variation of thermal conductivity of the wire with temperature to be negligible.

1/28/2011 BMCG 2123 Heat Transfer 24 . it is reasonable to expect the temperature in the wire to vary in the radial r direction only and thus the heat transfer to be one-dimensional. Then we have T=T(r) during steady operation since the temperature in this case depends on r only. Also heat is generated uniformly in the wire and the conditions on the outer surface of the wire are uniform.Analysis The resistance wire of a water heater is considered to be a very long cylinder since its length is more than 100 times its diameter. Therefore.

Solution 1 The rate of heat generation in the wire per unit volume: e gen ! E gen ¡ ! E gen T .

2 V ire /4 .

.

5m .004m / 4 0.0.

the differential equation that governs the variation of temperature in the wire is simply Eq. T 2 ! 2000W ! 0.2-27 e 1 d ¨ dT ©r r dr ª dr gen ¸ !0 ¹ k º Which steady one-dimensional heat conduction equation in cylindrical coordinates for the case of constant thermal conductivity. 1/28/2011 BMCG 2123 Heat Transfer 25 .318 x10 9 W/m 3 Nothing that the thermal conductivity is given to be constant.

Cylindrical Coordinates 1 x ¨ xT © rk r xr ª xr ¸ 1 xT ¨ xT ¸ x ¨ xT ¹ 2 ©k ¹ ©k º r xJ ª xJ º xz ª xz xT ¸ & ¹ egen ! V c xt º (2-43) .

Spherical Coordinates 1 x ¨ 2 xT ¸ 1 1 x ¨ xT ¸ x ¨ xT ¸ xT & © kr xr ¹ r 2 sin 2 U xJ © k xJ ¹ r 2 sin U xU © k sin U xU ¹ egen ! V c xt 2 r xr ª º ª º ª º (2-44) .

Boundary and Initial Conditions Specified Temperature Boundary Condition Specified Heat Flux Boundary Condition Convection Boundary Condition Radiation Boundary Condition Interface Boundary Conditions Generalized Boundary Conditions .

t) = T1 T(L. t) = T2 (2-46) The specified temperatures can be constant. the specified temperature boundary conditions can be expressed as T(0. for example. . or may vary with time.Specified Temperature Boundary Condition For one-dimensional heat transfer through a plane wall of thickness L. which is the case for steady heat conduction.

and negative if it is in the opposite direction. . can be expressed by Fourier s law of heat conduction as dT &! k q ! dx Heat flux in the positive x-direction (247) The sign of the specified heat flux is determined by inspection: positive if the heat flux is in the positive direction of the coordinate axis.Specified Heat Flux Boundary Condition The heat flux in the positive xdirection anywhere in the medium. including the boundaries.

t 2 !0 xx . t ) !0 xx xT L . t ) k !0 xx or xT (0.Two Special Cases Insulated boundary Thermal symmetry xT (0.

(2-49) (2-50) .

t ) k ! h1 ?Tg1 T (0.Convection Boundary Condition Heat conduction at the surface in a selected direction Heat convection at the surface in the same direction = and xT (0. t ) A xx xT ( L. t ) k ! h2 ?T ( L. t ) Tg 2 A xx (2-51a) (2-51b) .

t ) 4 k ! I1W «Tsurr . t ) 4 Tsurr .1 T (0. t ) 4 k ! I 2W «T ( L. t ) 4 » ½ xx and (2-52a) xT ( L.Radiation Boundary Condition Heat conduction at the surface in a selected direction = Radiation exchange at the surface in the same direction xT (0.2 » ½ xx (2-52b) .

(2) an interface (which is a surface) cannot store any energy. t) and (2-53) xTA ( x0 . t ) k A ! kB (2-54) xx xx .Interface Boundary Conditions At the interface the requirements are: (1) two bodies in contact must have the same temperature at the area of contact. t) = TB(x0. TA(x0. and thus the heat flux on the two sides of an interface must be the same. t ) xTB ( x0 .

expressed as Heat transfer to the surface in all modes = Heat Generation in Solids The quantities of major interest in a medium with heat generation are the surface temperature Ts and the maximum temperature Tmax that occurs in the medium in steady operation. The boundary condition in such cases is again obtained from a surface energy balance.Generalized Boundary Conditions In general a surface may involve convection. and specified heat flux simultaneously. radiation. Heat transfer from the surface In all modes .

Heat Generation in Solids -The Surface Temperature Rate of heat transfer from the solid Rate of energy generation within the generation solid within = (2-63) For uniform heat &! e V & gen the medium (2-64) (W) The heat transfer rate by convection can also be expressed from Newton s law of cooling as - & Q ! hAs .

Ts Tg Ts ! Tg & egenV hAs (W) (2-65) (2-66) .

cylinder ! Tg 2h For a solid sphere of radius r0 (As=4Tr02 and V=4/3Tr03) Ts .Heat Generation in Solids -The Surface Temperature For a large plane wall of thickness 2L (As=2Awall and V=2LAwall) & egen L (2-67) Ts . sphere ! Tg & egen r0 3h (2-69) . plane wall ! Tg h For a long solid cylinder of radius r0 (As=2Tr0L and V=Tr02L) & egen r0 (2-68) Ts .

we get & egen dT 2 & k . dT & kAr ! egenVr dr (2-70) Substituting these expressions into the above equation and separating the variables.Heat Generation in Solids -The maximum Temperature in a Cylinder (the Centerline) The heat generated within an inner cylinder must be equal to the heat conducted through its outer surface.

2T rL ! egen T r L p dT ! rdr 2k dr .

Integrating from r =0 where T(0) =T0 to r=ro (Tmax.cylinder ! T0 Ts ! & egen r02 4k (271) .

Exercise 3 A 2-kW resistance heater with thermal conductivity k = 15 W/m. If the outer surface temperature of the resistance wire is Ts = 105oC. determine the temperature at the center of the wire. ± Thermal conductivity is constant ± Heat generation in the heater is uniform 1/28/2011 BMCG 2123 Heat Transfer 39 . diameter D = 4 mm. Assumption: ± Heat transfer is steady since there is no change with time ± Heat transfer is one-dimensional since there is thermal symmetry about the center line and no change in the axial direction. and length L = 0.K.5 m is used to boil water.

Solution 3 The heat generation per unit volume: e gen ! E gen ! Vwire .

.

.

002m 0.5m T .0.

2 gen Tr0 2 L ! 2000W ! 0.318 x10 9 W/m 3 The center temperature of the wire using Eq.2-71 T0 ! Ts e gen r02 4k ! 105 o .

318 x10 W / m 0. .002m .

0 4.

W / m. C 15 9 3 o 2 ! 126 o C 1/28/2011 BMCG 2123 Heat Transfer 40 .

k(T) The thermal conductivity of a material. varies with temperature. This is also common practice for other temperaturedependent properties such as the density and specific heat.Variable Thermal Conductivity. in general. An average value for the thermal conductivity is commonly used when the variation is mild. .

the average value of the thermal conductivity in the temperature range between T1 and T2 can be determined from T kave ´ ! 2 T1 k (T )dT (2-75) T2 T1 The variation in thermal conductivity of a material with can often be approximated as a linear function and expressed as k (T ) ! k0 (1 F T ) (2-79) F the temperature coefficient of thermal conductivity.Variable Thermal Conductivity for OneDimensional Cases When the variation of thermal conductivity with temperature k(T) is known. .

.Variable Thermal Conductivity For a plane wall the temperature varies linearly during steady onedimensional heat conduction when the thermal conductivity is constant. This is no longer the case when the thermal conductivity changes with temperature (even linearly).

K and = 9. determine the rate of heat conduction through the plate. One side of the plate is maintained at a constant temperature of 600 K while the other side is maintained at400 K.1 m.Exercise 4 A 2-m-high and 0.1 1/28/2011 BMCG 2123 Heat Transfer 44 . as shown in Figure 2.1. Thermal conductivity of the bronze plate can be assumed to vary linearly in the temperature range as K(T)=k0(1+ T) where k0 = 38 W/m.21x10-4 K-1. Disregarding the effects and assuming steady one-dimensional heat transfer.7-m-wide bronze plate whose thickness is 0. Figure 2.

Solution 4 The average thermal conductivity of the medium is simply the value at the average temperature: T T1 ¸ ¨ k avg ! k Tavg ! k 0 ©1 F 2 ¹ © 2 ¹ ª º .

.

600 400 K » ! 55.K « ! .5 W/m.

21x10 4 K 1 ¼ 2 ½ .K ¬1 9.38W / m.

2-76: ! k avg A T1 T 2 L ! . The rate of heat conduction through the plate using Eq.

55.5W / m.K .

7m 1/28/2011 .2mx 0.

1m ! 155 kW 45 BMCG 2123 Heat Transfer .600 400 K 0.

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