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NETWORK OF COMPETENCE IN FORMATION

OF SURFACE PROPERTIES

MOLPRINT MOLECULAR UNDERSTANDING
OF PRINTABILITY
Jarl B. Rosenholm, Åbo Akademi University (coordinator)
Martti Toivakka, Åbo Akademi University
Kai-Erik Peiponen, University of Joensuu
Jussi Timonen, University of Jyväskylä (University of Oulu)
Matti Murtomaa, University of Turku
Heidi Fagerholm, Top Analytica, Turku

NETWORK OF COMPETENCE IN FORMATION
OF SURFACE PROPERTIES

MOLPRINT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT
PARTNERS
M-real Oyj
StoraEnso Oyj
Omya Oy
Ciba Specialty (Raisio) Chemicals Oy
Hansaprint Oy
KSV Instruments Oy

MOLPRINT
Paper grade
New printing tech-
niques require a
range of coated and
Photographic
noncoated paper paper Newpapers
qualities.
Advanced inks are New
Coated fine
paper
papers
pigment based, Uncoated fine
solvent based or paper
Recycled paper
water based, which
should set fast
without mottling Printing speed

MOLPRINT WHY The diverging requirements set by new printing techniques has made the traditional specification standards used by paper manufacturers (Bendtsen. HOW Paper qualities aimed for different printing techniques are characterised thoroughly with physico-chemical and structural means in two. in order to establish new common standards for the printers and for the paper makers. HST) unsatisfactory. Cobb. which is considered to be the greatest obstacle for a fast development of this industry. .and three-dimensions. PPS.

MOLPRINT The research has to account for all the process stages intin g t pr I nk -Je PRINTING METHOD A or Dig ital CALENDERING / SURFACE SIZING / COATING BASE PAPER / SC / COATED PAPER / PACKAGES Of f s e CALENDERING / SURFACE SIZING / COATING t or fl exo p rintin PRINTING METHOD B g .

transport and setting of printing ink  Optical properties related to visual response  Heat transport and electric/hydrostatic conductivity .and 3D.MOLPRINT WHAT will be done  Chemical and physical surface and bulk properties  Surface (2D) and cross-sectional (3D) structure  2D.

X To p An alytica X (X ) X Jo U / P hysics X JyU / P hys ics + O u lu * X (X ) TY / P h ysics X * O ulu U n iv.MOLPRINT M an ufacturing Ink S tru ctu re O p tica l C on du ctivity An alys es U p-s caling tran spo rt S urfac e prop ertie s (h eat & WHO Adso rptionC ro ss. ele ctric) s ec tion is doing S tru cture P hysic al C he m ical T ech niqu es P rin tab ility ÅA / P ap er X (X ) ÅA / P hys.C he m ./ O ptoele ctronicOs:ptical C oh ere nc e T o m ograph y .

MOLPRINT Pigment Coated Papers Laboratory of Paper Coating and Converting. the project strives to identify those chemical and morphological properties of inks and coated paper surface that control the printability and quality of coated paper products . emulsified inks. Åbo Akademi University To understand the interactions that occur in various printing processes between printing liquids (inks. foun- tain solutions) and pigment coated papers Through use of both experiments and mathematical modeling.

ink setting and ink adhesion are investigated Ink constituents are separated chromatographically The “microstructure” and chemistry in commercial inks is analyzed and consequences for the printability and print quality is evaluated Properties ink/fountain solution emulsions are measured .MOLPRINT HOW it will be done Influence of ink constituents and paper surface characteristics on the ink tack development.

MOLPRINT EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Hg-porosimetry Thin-layer wicking (TLW) Thin-layer chromatography (TLC. print density etc. gloss. Rotogravure Flexo Heat/coldset offset . into latex) Tack.

including heterogeneity caused by chemistry Clarify the influence of nonuniformities on dominant mechanisms that control printability and print quality .MOLPRINT MODELING: Current models ignore chemistry! Develop 2D surface and 3D bulk model of coating structure.

A mathematical model is developed: • which describes the liquid transport and ink setting processes • serves as a new specification for printers and paper makers . Åbo Akademi University Relate the surface energy and structure with the dynamic 2D- spreading and setting of inks on pigment coated papers Investigate the simultaneous fast 2D.and 3D-penetration of model solutions into the bulk paper structure (ink-jet printing).MOLPRINT Ink and Solvent Interaction and their Transport during Printing Department of Physical Chemistry.

e.g.MOLPRINT HOW it will be done The surface energy and spreading is measured as wetting (Θ ) The surface structure and interaction energy with AFM The setting speed. with D-QCM The penetration is investigated as 2D-3D-liquid flow The amount of liquid absorbed is evaluated from volumetric and/or geometric considerations The binding of ink is characterized spectrometrically .

2 80 mätn. 1 mätn.MOLPRINT HP-H 2O-0. 3 θ 60 mätn.18 µl 120 100 mätn. 5 20 mätn. 6 0 0 50 100 150 200 tid[s] . 4 40 mätn.

MOLPRINT -1 0 1 1  * cos 0 -1 cos  .

Ltd Characterize the physical surface and cross-sectional structure of paper and coating layers – molecular structure Identify the surface chemical structure of paper and coating layers – macroscopic properties The relationship between these properties –how should “printability” be defined Identify the most suitable analytical techniques for studying of the above mentioned relationships .MOLPRINT Interfacial structures – Process aspect Top Analytica.

MOLPRINT HOW it will be done The paper manufacturing is investigated step-by-step. surface properties. including: Base paper structure ⇒ Structure after calendering ⇒ ⇒ Structure after surface sizing/coating ⇒ Printabilty In between these steps. interaction between process chemicals and pigments and the interaction between the ink and the surface is analyzed . from the base paper to the printed product as case studies.

5 nm Na + Mg + K 290 285 280 Binding Energy (eV) (SEM)-EDX ~ µ m 100 µ m .MOLPRINT EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES TOF-SIMS < 2 nm ESCA 2 .

O 200 µ m .MOLPRINT EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES Blue = CaCO3 Green = Kaolin Red / Brown = C.

which is related to the average gloss of a surface. such devices are not sensitive to detect gloss in normal direction which is the usual geometry for visual evaluation namely that of reading news papers or magazines. University of Joensuu Unfortunately. The gloss depends on various paper and printing variables such as the micro-roughness and texture of paper. Unfortunately.MOLPRINT Optical measurement of print quality Department of Physics. . absorption of ink and spectro- scopic properties of the ink. There are conventional glossmeters that give information on relatively large area and provide a number. the variation of gloss deteriorates the print quality.

Department of Physics. Dissertations 42 (2004)). It is free of the problems related to the conventional glossmeters (see. This device is sensitive to small gloss variation of planar and curved surfaces.MOLPRINT HOW is it done We have developed a novel glossmeter that is based on detection of local gloss variation by a diffractive element based glossmeter (DOG). University of Joensuu. . Kari Myller ” A glossmeter based on a diffractive optical element”. it can be utilized for detection shown in figure of average gloss from a macroscopic surface. The setup of DOG is Furthermore.

It provides.MOLPRINT HOW it will be done • The key point of the DOG is the diffractive optical element (DOE). DOE is exploited as an analyser of the amplitude and phase of the reflected light field from the print. e. which is a computer-generated hologram and fabricated using modern electron beam lithography.: • Information on the quality of the print itself such as gloss variation. • Information on anisotropy of the surface morphology on print area. Thus. it is an useful device for quality inspection of prints .g.

• To relate these morphological changes to printing quality .MOLPRINT Effect of nip pressure and calandering on the surface morphology and bulk structure of paper Department of Physics. University of Jyväskylä • Understand morphological changes induced in the structure of paper by nip pressure and calandering.

University of Jyväskylä resolution ~ 0.MOLPRINT HOW it will be done X-ray Microtomography (XMT) Department of Physics. University of Oulu resolution ~ 10 µ m penetration depth ~ 40 µ m .9 µ m complete 3-D internal structure Optical coherence tomography (OCT) Optoelectronics and Measurement Techniques Laboratory.

MOLPRINT X-ray Microtomography (XMT) Uses X-rays to microfocu X-ray CCD produce 2D s X-ray sample camera shadowgrams tube from multiple angles object manipulat Reconstructs or 3D images from shadow- Computer grams 3D image Nondestructive – no sample preparation needed Sample sizes from 2mm-68 mm with respective voxel sizes 0.9-20 µ m .

MOLPRINT Structure of paper with a coating layer using XMT Penetration of coating layer in base paper The numerical characteristics of the internal structure (morphology and composition) from the 3D-volume .

MOLPRINT Optical coherence tomography (OCT). Optoelectronics and Measurement Techniques Laboratory. University of Oulu .

. for example: • xerography. University of Turku Electrostatics play an important role in. gravure printing.MOLPRINT Heat transport and electrical conduction Laboratory of Industrial Physics.) Thermo-analytical properties: • heat conduction in paper and polymers • high printing speed −> small melting time . laser and ink jet printing • further handling of printouts • future products & processes (intelligent papers and packages. ..

composition etc. on the electrostatic properties Development of new thermo-analytical methods • heat conduction in polymers and papers with different composition & morphology .MOLPRINT HOW it will be done Development of new electrostatic methods for studying: • electrical conduction and charge decay • charging properties of papers and polymers • effects of moisture. morphology.

MOLPRINT Effect of surface coverage of a glass pipe by small particles on the triboelectrification of magnesium stearate doped glucose powder _1015153502_001.jpg .

MOLPRINT Thank you for your attention! .