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Temperature
measurement
Made by:
~086120319035 Joshi Vipul
~086120319036 Kelawala Rinav
~086120319037 Khelani Divya
~086120319038 Kosmbiya Jignesh
~086120319039 Kothwala Abhishek

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J Even though we may not be able to describe the system as it is undergoing a change we may certainly describe the two end states as equilibrium states. J Thermodynamics is the studies of systems in equilibrium and temperature is an important intensive property of such systems. there are no observable changes in pressure and volume of each one of them when they are allowed to interact as mentioned above. J The lowest temperature that is encountered is very close to 0 K and the highest temperature that may be measured is about 100000 K. Imagine two such systems that may interact through a wall that allows changes to take place in each of them. J Hence temperature sensors are based on many different principles and the study of these is the material of this sub module. J We take recourse to thermodynamics to provide a definition for temperature of a system. J The change will manifest as changes in pressure and/or volume. Hence the measurement of temperature is a very important activity in the laboratory as well as in industry. ô    J Temperature along with pressure is an important parameter that governs many physical phenomena. If. J This represents a very large range and cannot be covered by a single measuring instrument. the two systems are said to be in equilibrium with each other and are assigned the same temperature. J Consider a certain volume of an ideal gas at a specified pressure. however. A system is said to be in equilibrium if its properties remain invariant. When the sate of this volume of gas is disturbed it will eventually equilibrate in a new state that is described by two new values of volume and pressure. ñ . J Temperature is defined via the so called zero th law of thermodynamics.

thermometer. Assume that one of the coordinates of the system (Y) is fixed at a value equal to Y0. If the system is allowed to equilibrate with a system characterized by different isotherms. These multiplicity of sates must all be characterized by the same temperature and hence represent an isotherm. Y will be in equilibrium with a second system of fixed temperature (or a fixed state). These will then correspond to the respective temperaturesT1. We refer to X as the thermometric property and the system as a thermometer. T2 and so on. „ . X2 and so on. Consider a system whose state is fixed by two properties ²coordinates ² X and Y.a       arinciple of any thermometer may be explained using the facts indicated in figure 1. the property X will change as indicated by the points of intersectionX1. Then there is only one sate that will correspond to any given isotherm. It is observed that several pairs of values of X.

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¬ .Thermocouple thermometers using two wires of different materials Electric resistance:- Resistance thermometer using metallic materials like alatinum. x     aroperties that vary systematically with temperature may be used as the basis of a thermometer. Nickel etc. laser based methods. interferometry etc. Thermoelectric thermometer:- Based on thermoelectricity . Copper. Several are listed here. Thermistors consisting of semiconductor materials like Manganese- Nickel-cobalt oxide mixed with proper binders Thermal expansion:- Bimetallic thermometers Liquid in glass thermometer using mercury or other liquids aressure thermometer ayrometry and spectroscopic methods:- Radiation thermometry using a pyrometer Special methods like spectroscopic methods.

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J The range of the mercury thermometer is -39 degree Celsius to 340 degree Celsius. cooking kettles.. Hence the mercury rise up in the capillary tube. the volume of the mercury increases. steam lines.relatively small changes of the volume of the mercury will result in significant rise in capillary. J When the bulb is heated or brought in to contact with the heated substance. etc. J This kind of thermometer is used for temperature measurement in an application like open liquid tank. air- air-ducts. J The free surface of the mercury in the tube indicates the temperature of the bulb and hence the temperature of heated substance. J m . J Since the area of the capillary is much less than the area of the bulb . J The thermometers useally have a scale engraved directly on the glass tube indicate the temperature in Celsius.    J This type of thermometer consists of a bulb filled with mercury attached to the glass tube.

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J Remote indication up to 100 meter is possible. J aressure spring thermometer consists of mercury filled bulb. accuracy . mm . flexible capillary tube and the bourdon tube. The advantage of the pressure spring thermometer: J Simple and inexpensive design. J Fairly good response. J Due to this the free end of the bourdon tube moves on the calibrated scale and indicates the temperature. This expansion is proportional to the temperature. J Can be easily attached to pen recorder. the mercury level in the bulb expands and hence the pressure on the bourdon tube increases. J When the steel bulb is heated.     J The volume of a liquid increases when heated.and sensitivity.

The strip bends with it is subjected to heat. mÚ . Each piece of metal strip is having a different coefficient of expansion. etc. furnaces. Uses of bimetallic thermometer: For automatic control of home appliances.. The bimetallic strip is made of brace and invar metal. minimum possibility of damage. In industry the bimetallic strip is wound in the helical form. Typical range of bimetallic thermometer is - 74 degree Celsius to 540 degree Celsius. For measurement of temperature of engines. reaction chambers.D       Bimetallic strips consists of two pieces of different metals welded together. Advantages of bimetallic thermometer are: Simple and inexpensive design Quite rugged construction.

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The vessel is connected to a U tube manometer with a side tube and height adjustable reservoir as shown. The gas containing vessel is immersed in a constant temperature environment. The pressure of the gas has to be adjusted to a higher value than it was earlier by adjusting the height of the reservoir suitably so as to make the meniscus in the left limb of the U tube stay at the mark. The above experiment may be repeated by taking less and less gas to start with by making the pressure at the triple point of water to have a smaller and smaller value (the vessel volume is the same in all the cases). The right limb has a graduated scale attached to it as shown. The graduated scale helps in determining the pressure of the confined gas in terms of the manometer head. The volume is kept constant by making the meniscus in the left limb of the U tube always stay at the mark mad3e on the left limb of the U tube. mñ . Choose the pressure of the gas to have a definite value when the constant temperature environment corresponds to standard fixed state such as the triple point of water.    It consists of a certain volume of a gas contained in a rigid vessel. Now move the thermometer into an environment at the steam point (boiling point of water at one atmosphere).

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The electrical terminals are finally embedded before baking. Application of Thermistors:- Temperature measurement control. mixture in appropriate proportion. are pressed in to the desired shape with appropriate binders and finally sintered. For temperature compensation. The thermistor are smaller in size because their resistivity is high compared to the resistivity of the resistance wire. iron and uranium. As sensing elements in level switches. Thermistors are composed of sintered mixture of metallic oxides such as manganese. For gas analysis« mà . This metallic oxides are milled. washers and rods. Thermistor may be shaped in the form of beads. copper. nickel. disks. As sensing elements in flow meters.

 thermistor with k > 0 is said to have a positive temperature coecient (aTC).g.  thermistor with k < 0 is said to have a negative temperature coecient (NTC)..  simple model for the relationship between temperature and resistance is T = kR.  thermistor designed such that its resistance varies with temperature in a repeatable way. NTC thermistors are semiconductor materials with a well- denned variation electrical resistance with temperature Mass-produced thermistors are interchangeable: to within a tolerance the thermistors obey the same T = F(R) relationship. a       thermistor is an electrical resistor used to measure temperature. with a MultiMate Convert resistance to temperature with calibration equation m× . e. Measure resistance.

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 Sensor output is directly related to absolute temperature { no reference junction needed}. Relatively easy to measure resistance Sensors are interchangeable (0:5 C) Smaller in size Faster thermal response High sensitivity High accuracy and stability. m¬ .

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† Repeated measurements in rapid succession can cause thermistor to heat up More expensive than thermocouples: $20/each versus $1/each per junction More dicult to apply for rapid transients: slow response and self-heating m . † Measure voltage drop. then compute resistance from known current and measured voltage. aossible self-heating error: † Each measurement applies current to resistor from precision current source.

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~ Resistivity of the metal wire is low. Ú . iron. ~ Resistivity of a thermistors is high. ~ Resistance change for each degree temperature change ~ Resistance change for each is small. metallic oxides such as nickel and platinum. cobalt. Resistance Thermistors: thermometer: ~ They are made up of ~ Resistance wire is made sintered mixture of from metals like copper. ~ Can measure temperature up to 300 degree Celsius. nickel. manganese. ~ Resistance decreases as the temperature increases. degree temperature change is large. ~ Resistance increases as the temperature increases. copper and uranium. ~ Low time stability. ~ High time stability. ~ Can measure temperature up to 600 degree Celsius.

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which can be measured with galvanometer. The polarity and the magnitude of the current depends on the properties of the metals and junction temperature difference ÚÚ . two junction are formed. When one of the junction is heated the current flows in the circuit.a         When two dissimilar metals are joined together to form a closed loop circuit.

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The measuring junction is connected with voltmeter and reference junction with the help of extension wire. Úñ .        The measuring junction of the thermocouple is kept in a protective metal sheath and heat assembly. It shows the temperature of the measuring junction. The extension wire is also known as compensating lead. When the thermocouple is heated. s the voltmeter is calibrated for temperature. The properties of compensating leads must be same as that of the thermocouple but should have low resistance and must be cheaper. emf is produced which is measured by the voltmeter connected to it.

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s the ambient temperature changes. ڄ . This arrangement is called as cold junction compensation.  The emf is produced by the thermocouple is proportional to the temperature differences between the cold and hot junctions. the temperature of the cold junction also varies and it results in the variations in the emf produced by the thermocouple and results in the measurement error. This error can be reduced or eliminated by using the Wheatstone bridge circuit.

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   Rugged construction Faster measurement Easy in operation High accuracy Remote indication is possible Ú .

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Expensive accessories are required for the control applications ÚÃ . Temperature of the reference junction must be constant throughout the measurement or the temperature compensating devices should be used.      Span of the measurement is only 33% of maximum temperature to be measured. mplifiers are required in some application.

verage temperature of the different points can be measured by using more than one thermocouple parallel.       To measure the temperature of furnace in industry. For differential temperature measurement. Ú× . One thermocouple can be connected with two reading instruments. To measure temperature below 0 degree Celsius.

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The amount of energy radiated by the body depends on the temperature of the body. a      ll bodies above absolute zero temperature radiate the heat.µ ñ . This is called Stefan- Stefan-Boltzman·s law. Stefan- Stefan âThe amount of -Boltzman·s law states that radiant energy by the body is proportional to the forth power of the absolute temperature. This law can be used to measure the temperature of the body.

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The recorder attached with the thermopile also provides the graph of the temperature variations. Thermopile and the lens are fitted in the blackened tube. ñm .         a   The radiation pyrometer is designed to collect the radiation from the radiating object and focus it by means of mirrors os lens on to a detector. The detector usually a thermocouple or a thermopile produces emf proportional to a temperature and it is given to a suitable millivoltmeter. s the millivoltmeter is calibrated for temperature it shows the temperature of the body.

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Cooling is required to protect the instruments where the operating condition are very hot. High speed of response. No direct contact with the object required. aresence of smoke and dust particles in the vicinity may results in measurement error. Reasonable price. The calibration depends on the emissivity of the target material. Disadvantages:- Disadvantages:- The scale is highly non linier. ñÚ . a   - dvantages:- dvantages: Can measure very high temperature.

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s the current increases the temperature and the resistance of the filament increases. ñ„ . The radiation from the target surface is focused by an objective lens upon the plane filament of an electric bulb. a      The optical pyrometer consists of a filament lamp. The eye piece is adjusted until the filament is in sharp focus.  red filter is placed between the eyepiece and the filament allows only the narrow band of wave length to pass through it. n ammeter connected in series with the filament measure the current passing through it may be calibrated to the read the temperature of the filament and hence the temperature of the target. the filament is indistinguishable. When the intensity of the radiation from lamp is same as the intensity of the target. Filament is heated on passing current through it by changing the value of the reahostat.

To check and calibrate the radiation pyrometer. For measurement of temperature where direct contact of the sensor is not possible. In steel and metal industries for measurement of high temperature in refining and alloying process.    ´ a   Can measure very high temperature. ñ . To measure the temperature of the moving or stationary objects in steel and metal industries.

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