ELECTRICAL GENERATION

GENERATION BY ‡ Thermal ‡ Hydro ‡ Nuclear ‡ Rewirable sources (eg. Wind, solar, natural gas)

ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION
Transmission levels 1) AC : 220KV, 132KV 2) DC : 400KV Distribution levels 1) AC : 66KV, 33KV, 11KV, 440V 2) DC : 110V

ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION
6.6KV / 220(132)KV

Prime mover

alternator

transformer

220(132)KV / 11KV

11KV / 440V

PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL
Voltage (V) : Potential difference between two points is called as voltage> It is measured in volts (V) Current (I) : Flow of electrons from negative to positive electrode through external load and conventional current flow is opposite to the flow of electrons. Current is measured in Amperes (A). Frequency (f) : No of cycles per second is called frequency. It is measured in Hertz = Cycles / second (Hz). Power (P) :The rate of doing work is called Power. Power is measured in watts (W).

PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL
Resistance(R) : The property of a substance due to which it opposes the flow of electricity (I.e. electrons) through it. Resistance is measured in Ohm (;). Conductance (G) : The property of a substance due to which it allows the flow of electrons through it. Conductance is measured in mho. Capacitance (C) : The property of a capacitor to store electricity is called as capacitance. It is measured in farad (F) Inductance (L) : The property of the coil due to which it opposes increase or decrease of current or flux through it. It is measured in henry (H)

PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL
Alternating voltage is generated by rotating a coil in a magnetic field or by rotating a magnetic field within a stationary coil

N A B

S

LOAD

TRANSFORMER
‡ Transformer is a device by which electrical power is transformed from one circuit to another circuit without change of frequency. ‡ It raises (step up) Low voltage to High voltage or it lowers (step down) high voltage to low voltage corresponding increase or decrease of current.

Transformer Construction
Transformer mainly consists of, ‡Primary winding . ‡Secondary winding. ‡Laminated core. Primary

Secondar y

Laminated core

MOTORS
It is a machine which converts electrical energy in to mechanical energy. Motors are devided into two groups 1) DC motors 2) AC Motors

DC MOTORS
Series motor Shunt motor Compound motor

Commutator Field winding

DC MOTORS
SERIES MOTOR
‡ Field winding and armature winding are in series ‡ High starting torque T w I
2

‡ Variable speed motor with inverse characteristic. Low speed at high loads and dangerously high speed at low and no load and where the load is suddenly thrown off and it should not be belt driven. ‡ Applications : For traction work i.e. electric locomotives, Rapid transit systems, trolley car etc.

DC MOTORS
SHUNT MOTOR
‡ Field winding and armature winding are in parallel ‡ Low starting torque T w I ‡ Approximately constant speed. ‡ Applications : For driving constant speed line shafting, lathes, centrifugal pumps, machine tools, blowers and fans, reciprocating pumps etc.

DC MOTORS
COMPOUND MOTOR
‡ Compound motors have both series and shunt windings. ‡ CUMULATIVE COMPOUND MOTOR : Series field helps the shunt field i.e. series field is in the same direction. ‡DIFFERENTIAL COMPOUND MOTOR : Series field opposes the shunt field.

AC MOTORS
Synchronous motors A) Induction motors ‡ Squirrel cage ‡ Slip ring Asynchronous motors B) Commutator motors ‡ Series motors ‡ Compensated motors ‡ Shunt motors
Document By SANTOSH BHARADWAJ REDDY ‡Repulsion-start induction Email: help@matlabcodes.com ‡ Repulsion induction Engineeringpapers.blogspot.com More Papers and Presentations available on above site

‡ Repulsion motors

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