Technological Environment

-Debashree Mukherjee

the Government sought to cultivate a scientific temper among the people of the country. In achieving the objectives of the said Policy. . The Scientific Policy Resolution of 1958 paved the way to implementation of science and technology for India¶s economic success.IntroductionIndia spends 1% of its GNP on science ad technology.

. To provide 100% tax exemption on R&D expenditure and rewarding indigenous technology with 50% depreciation rate. To develop import substitution technologies. To achieve significant energy savings and recycle industrial waste and thereby ensure ecological balance. To ensure a judicious balance between technology based and manual industries.Technological Policy of the GovernmentTo create a new class of technology based on business and industry.

knowledge levels. Appropriate Technology should be decided upon based on climatic conditions. economic condition and labour availability.Certain Key Issuestechnology is not always the best answer. Technology transfer is the process by which basic science research and fundamental discoveries are developed into practical and commercially relevant applications and products. Import of Technology ± Transplanted .

joint development to address government and private sector needs. What does it require? It basically involves a technical resource (e. The purpose of technology transfer: To strengthen the economy by accelerating the application of laboratory technology and resources to private and public needs and opportunities. Product improvement. and some interface connecting the two.g. facilities or capabilities are utilized to fulfill public and private needs..Technology TransferThe process by which existing knowledge. laboratory). small business).. and the development of major new products for the international marketplace are the results of successful technology transfer efforts. . service efficiencies. improved manufacturing processes.g. a user (e.

Sources include: Methods: Improving and updating technology. personnel exchange. conferences. innovating and improving technology. trade. transfer through international tender invitations.Sources and Methods of Technology TransferProjects. acquisition of companies. teaching and training. adopting and absorbing technology. etc. etc. . publications.

Kinds of TechnologyAn Emerging Technology is an innovative technology that currently is undergoing bench-scale testing. An Established Technology is a technology for which cost and performance information is readily available. Information about its cost and how well it works may be insufficient to support prediction of its performance under a wide variety of operating conditions. . in which a small version of the technology is tested in a laboratory. but lacks a long history of full-scale use. An Innovative Technology is a technology that has been field-tested and applied to a hazardous waste problem at a site. Only after a technology has been used at many different sites and the results fully documented is that technology considered established.

training that a new technology is properly implemented. vendors. . individuals who are being trained to perform any of the above noted functions. licensors and purchasers of technology. inventors. accepted and used to its full potential by a target user. packaging and dissemination. adaptation or translation. individuals responsible for technology transfer functions.Users/beneficiaries of Technology Transfer: technology transfer agents who are responsible for the search. individuals charged with budgeting responsibilities which encompass evaluating the cost of new technology. individuals charged with the responsibility of making decisions as to whether a technology is considered for implementation within the organization. individuals charged with strategic and business planning responsibilities within the organization.

It may be unsuitable for a particular environment.Problems of Technology TransferTransfer process may be incomplete or inaccurate. International Technology Transfer: refers to dissemination of technology from one developed country to another or from one developed country to a developing country or from UN to a developing country. .

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