Word ¶Acetate· derived from  Acet Acetic acid  Ate Chemical salt Hence  Acetate Salt of acetic acid


Compound of cellulose and acetic acid Cellulose Acetate Cellulose Triacetate 54 ² 55 % combined acetic acid 60 % combined acetic acid

ACETATE POLYMER  These are polymers of cellulose whose ²OH have been acetylated Cellulose triacetate produced first so known as primary acetate Primary acetate is then hydrolyzed to produce cellulose acetate known as secondary acetate   .

ACETATE POLYMER Po ACETATE ‡ 40% crystalline ‡ 60% amorphous So ACETATE ‡ 60% crystalline ‡ 40% amorphous .

HISTORY First developed in ENGLAND during world war I by Henri and Camille Dreyfus Commercial production was begun in US in 1924 under the trade mark of CELANESE ‡ ‡ .

A small amount of sulfuric acid is added as a catalyst ‡ This dope is mixed with excess water.MANUFACTURING ACETYLATION OF CELLULOSE ‡ Cotton linters or wood chips are converted into sheets of pure cellulose ‡ Cellulose is steeped in glacial acetic acid under a controlled temperatures for a period of time ‡ Then it is mixed with acetic anhydride. causing the white flakes of cellulose acetate to be precipitate .

ACETYLATION OF CELLULOSE       These flakes are then dissolved in acetone and filtered several times to remove impurities This result pure white spinning solution If delustered yarn is to produce small amount of titanium dioxide is added Spinning solution is extruded in column of warm air through spinneret and solvent recovered Filaments are stretched and wound onto beams. cones. or bobbins ready for use This technique of spinning is called DRY SPINNING .


PHYSICAL FORMS OF ACETATE   Filament yarn ‡ Monofilament yarn ‡ Multifilament yarn Textured yarn Spun yarn(size of filaments are reduced in 1 ² 6 inches)  .

Tow Multifilament Multifilament Multifilament Estron SIR Eastmen chemical products Inc . Eastmen chemical products Inc Eastmen chemical products Inc TYPE Multifilament Multifilament .TRADEMARKS OF ACETATE FIBERS TRADE MARK Avtex acetate Celanese acetate Chromspun Estron MANUFACTURER Avtex fibers Inc. Staple. Celanese fibers marketing Co.

GENERAL CAHRACTERISTICS       Shrink resistant Wrinkle resistant Easily washable Generally washable at high temperatures Maintains creases and pleats well Particularly effective in clothing where crease or pleat retention is important. . such as skirts and dresses.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Handle  Soft  Smooth  Crisp and resilient Comfort  Breatheable  Dries quickly  No static cling Drape  Good .

2 to 1.PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Luster Light reflection creates a exellent appearance Performance  Colorfast to perspiration staining  Colorfast to dry cleaning  Air and vapor permeable Tenacity  Weak fiber with breaking tenacity of 1.4 g/denier  Rapidly loses strength when wet  .

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Abrasion  Poor abrasion resistance Heat setting  Triacetate softens on heating  Sticking and glazing can occur during ironing at temperatures above 180oC  Show more resistant to glazing after heat setting at high melting point at 300oC .

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES  Effect of acid  Resistant to weak acid  Dissolved in strong acid including glacial acetic acid even at low temperatures Effect of alkali  Cellulose acetate is saponified by the action of alkali  Triacetate is more resistant to alkali. Only mild surface saponification occurs with sosium hydroxide at elevated temperatures.  Delustring occurs at temperatures above 85oC  .

 .CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Effect of solvent  These fibers are swollen by certain chemicals. This technique is used in carrier dyeing  Tetrachloroethylene solvent is used for dry cleaning purposes.

finish Bleaching Heat setting .PRE-TREATMENT PROCESSES     Scouring/ Desizing S.

5 .PRE-TREATMENT SCOURING o o  1 ² 2 ml/L detergents at 60 C ² 80 C are sufficient  pH must not exceed 9.

PRE-TREATMENT S.hydroxide at 80oC ² 85oC for 60 ² 90 min depending on machinery type and liquor ratio Advantages  Improved soil resistance  Improved resistance to glazing  Increased resistance to gas fume fading  Increased fastness to wet and dry rubbing .FINISH    Partially saponify the fiber to reduce acetyl value from 62% to 59% Carried out with 3 ² 6 g/L sod.

This type of bleaching is followed by anti chlor treatment.PRE-TREATMENT BLEACHING o  Historically sodium chlorite applied at 75 ² 85 C at pH 4 with oxalic or formic acid.  Hydrogen peroxide gives low degree of whitness specially in blends with natural fibers.  pH should not exceed 10  bleach activator may be added to give sufficient whitness   TAED(tetra acetylethylenediamine) SNOBS(sodium nonanoyloxybenzenesulphonate) .

PRE-TREATMENT HEAT SETTING  Dry heat ²setting is most common method using hot air as heat transfer medium at stenters  Air flow must be balanced  Wide width must be supported to avoid snagging and distortion  Occurs rapidly in range 210oC ² 220oC  Slowly in range of180oC ² 210oC .

acid or electrolyte ‡ Time ‡ Temperature Most important parameter to control dyeing is TEMPERATURE .DYEING  PARAMTERS TO CONTROLL DYEING ‡ Addition of chemicals such as alkali .

To maintain uniform dispersion during dyeing.DYE BATH ADDITIVES Dispersing agent ‡ ‡ ‡ To assist in dye size reduction. Although dispersing agent is grinded with disperse dye yet additional dispersing agent is added as a wise precaution. .

Increased fiber penetration. Increased leveling. . Less tendency of listing and ending in jigger machine.DYE BATH ADDITIVES Leveling agent ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Increased migration.

‡ Use for dark to medium shades with disperse dye ‡ Improved penetration of dye ‡ Improved wet fastness ‡ Diethyl phthalate mostly recommended .DYE BATH ADDITIVES Carrier ‡ Preferably used for triacetate fibers.

DYE ² FIBER INTERACTION  The dye-fibre affinity is the result of different types of interactions: Hydrogen bonds Dipole-dipole interactions Van der Waals forces ‡ ‡ ‡ .

DYE ² FIBER INTERACTION  Hydrogen bonds Disperse dyes have hydrogen atoms in their molecule.  . which are capable of forming hydrogen bonds with oxygen and nitrogen atoms on the fiber. Dipole-dipole interactions Dipole-dipole interactions result from the asymmetrical structure of the dye molecules. which makes possible electrostatic interactions between dipoles on the dye molecules and polarized bonds on the fiber.

These forces are very important in polyester fibres.  .DYE ² FIBER INTERACTION Van der Waals forces Van der Waals forces take effect when the molecules of the fibre and colourant are aligned and close to each other.

ACETATE PRODUCTS TO BE DYE    Loose fiber/stock Yarn Fabric  Dyeing on jigger  Dyeing winch  Dyeing on jet .

LOOSE FIBER/STOCK DYEING     Liquor is circulated for a short time under ambient temperature. then drained Dye bath is set at 40oC with dispersing agent and pH 5 ² 6 with acetic acid or buffer Temperature is raised to 85oC for acetate 98oC for triacetate 110oC in case of pressurized machine Liquor flow is from in to out throughout the dyeing process .

hydrosulphite 2 g/L sod carbonate Detergent (non ionic) Temperature 40oC for acetate and 55oC for triacetate  Neutralizing and washing .LOOSE FIBER/STOCK DYEING      Temperature is maintained atleast for 1 hour Dyebath then drained Rinse cold Rinse warm at 40oC Heavy shade are soaped or mild reduction clear ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 2 g/L sod.

YARN DYEING    Wound on a perforated cone Winding density is kept low Same conditions are given as in case of loose fiber/stock .

FABRIC DYEING ON JIGGER        Half of dispersed and sieved dye is added pH is adjusted to 5 ² 6 Temperature is raised At dyeing temperature rest of the half dye is added Appropriate time is given depending on shade depth Dyebath is drained Rinsing through warm water .

wet conditions lead to fabric extension Open jiggers leads to cooling of fabric rolls ‡ ‡ ‡ Reduced dyeing rate Specially at selvedges Ending is more common REMEDIES  Use saturated steam  Used high pressure jigger or close lid jigger .PROBLEMS IN JIG DYEING   Tension under hot.

FABRIC DYEING ON WINCH      Dyebath is set at 40oC and pH 5 ² 6 with suitable dispersing agent Fabric lubricant and anti crease agents must be added Circulation time for 10 min are given Dispersed and sieved dye is added Temperature is raised ‡ ‡ to 85oC for acetate to boil for triacetate  Temperature must be raised at rate of 1oC /min .

FABRIC DYEING ON WINCH    Appropriate dyeing time is given depending on shade depth (30 ² 60 min) Dyeing bath then cooled at rate of 2oC / min at 55oC and then drained Rinsing followed by reduction clearing SPAECAIL CARES IN WINCH DYEING  Fabric must not prone to rope creasing or formation of ¶crack mark·  Care must be taken to avoid crease formation  Fabrics must be pre relaxed to dyeing .

FABRIC DYEING ON JET   Same procedure as followed in winch dyeing but soft gentle action must be given in jet SPECAILITY ‡ Temperature can be raised to130oC ‡ Dyeing can be carried without carrier ‡ Wide range of dyestuff can be used .

FASTNESS PROPERTIES  Wet fastness ‡ Poor to moderate  Light fastness ‡ Moderate to good .

LIGHT FASTNESS  ‡ Catalytic fading Individual dye show good light fastness but combination shade show poor light fastness Anomalous fading In combination shade fading of one dye is catalyzed by other dye Tetra substituted anthraquinone derivatives most frequently act as activator  ‡ ‡ .

. mostly based on diphenylacetamide.ABNORMAL FADING  ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Gas fume fading Also known as abnormal fading Fading on long term storage Anthraquinone based dye show this type of fading To prevent this gas fading inhibitor is used.


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