METABOLIC ACIDOSIS

Irish Grace A. Dayao
III-BN

Dra. Ramos

‡Is a condition that occurs when the body produces too much acids or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body.METABOLIC ACIDOSIS ‡Is a pH imbalance in which the body has accumulated too much acid and does not have enough bicarbonate to effectively neutralize the effects of the acid. .

inadequate conservation of bicarbonate.y Metabolic acidosis (primary base bicarbonate [HCO3] deficiency) reflects an excess of acid (hydrogen) and a deficit of base (bicarbonate) resulting from acid overproduction. and excretion of acid. . loss of intestinal bicarbonate. or anaerobic metabolism.

e. and drug therapy. salicylate intoxication (after initial stage).) High anion gap acidosis ² occurs in diabetic ketoacidosis.g. paraldehyde intoxication.Metabolic acidosis is classified into two groups: 1. acetazolamide (Diamox). . renal failure.g.. severe malnutrition or starvation. poisoning. e. alcoholic lactic acidosis. high-fat. NH4Cl.. lowcarbohydrate diets/lipid administration.

..) Normal anion gap acidosis ² is associated with loss of bicarbonate form the body. acidifying drugs (e. as may occur in renal tubular acidosis. ammonium chloride). hyperalimentation.g. vomiting/diarrhea. and ileostomy and use of IV sodium chloride in presence of preexisting kidney dysfunction. smallbowel/pancreatic fistulas.2.

. as can happen with severe diarrhea.) Diabetic acidosis (also called diabetic ketoacidosis and DKA) . which are acidic.) Hyperchloremic acidosis . build up during uncontrolled diabetes. 2.results from excessive loss of sodium bicarbonate from the body.Causes: TYPES OF METABOLIC ACIDOSIS 1.develops when substances known as ketone bodies.

It can be caused by: ‡Alcohol ‡Cancer ‡Exercising for a very long time ‡Liver failure ‡Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) ‡Medications such as salicylates ‡Prolonged lack of oxygen from shock.) Lactic acidosis . or severe anemia ‡Seizures .TYPES OF METABOLIC ACIDOSIS 3.is a buildup of lactic acid. heart failure.

Other causes of metabolic acidosis disease (distal tubular acidosis and proximal renal tubular acidosis) ‡Diabetic ketoacidosis ‡Swallowing antifreeze ‡Too much aspirin consumption ‡Severe dehydration ‡Cyanide poisoning ‡Kidney .

Signs and symptoms: y y y y y y y Rapid breathing (Kussmaul respirations) Confusion Lethargy Headache Nausea and vomiting Sleepiness Shock or death(severe metabolic acidosis) *most symptoms are caused by the underlying disease or condition that is causing the metabolic acidosis. .

Exams and Tests y Arterial blood gas y Urine pH y Complete Blood Count .

Arterial blood gas ² arterial pH below 7. Complete blood count ² can be done to help assess possible causes as well .35 confirms metabolic acidosis Urine pH ² can reveal acidity or alkalinity of urine pH.

V. y Sodium Bicarbonate (baking soda) y Alkalinising Agents y Dialysis therapy . to improve the acidity of the blood.Treatment y Sodium Bicarbonate may be injected thru I.

Nursing Priorities y Achieve homeostasis. . y Provide information about condition/prognosis and treatment needs as appropriate. y Prevent/minimize complications.

fruits and vegetables) y 1-3 liters of water/day y Keep your life as stress-free as possible y Consult doctor for a healthy diet and exercise program .Prevention y Eating a balanced diet (low-fat meats.

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