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**Electromagnetic Scattering by Surfaces of Arbitrary Shape
**

By: Sadasiva M. Rao, Donald R. Wiltson & Allen W. Glisson Presented By: Brian Cordill

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Overview

Method of Moment Summary Paper Presentation

Electric Field Integral Equation (EFIE) Triangle Subsectioning Basis Function Testing Procedure Matrix Element Calculation Efficiency Numeric Examples

Summary & Paper Evaluation

Method of Moments

Integral Equation

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Lf ! g

Sub-sectionalize the geometry

Choose Basis Functions

f !§ n fn E

§E

n

Lf n ! g

Choose Testing functions Create matrix equation

?lmn A?En A! ?gm A

Diagonal Terms

**£wm, §EnLfn ³ !£wm, g³
**

Inverse Matrix

lnn

Off-Diagonal Terms

?En A! ?lmn A ?gm A

UseE n to determine parameters of interest

1

l mn

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General Formulation Lf=g

Operator L operates on unknown quantity f yielding known quantity g

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Approximate f

**Approximate f by an infinite summation of weighted basis functions fn
**

f ! §E n f n

n

n n n

§E L f ! g

**Can either use:
**

Whole domain basis functions Subdivided basis functions

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Testing Procedure

The testing procedure uses symmetric products to produce N equations and N unknowns from 1 equation and N unknowns.

§E

n

n

w m ,L f n ! w m ,g

?l mn A?E n A ! ?gm A

Matrix I can

now be solved by inverting lmn

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Problem Statement

Is it possible to create a method to apply MoM to any arbitrary scattering surface? Will need unified:

Operator Basis Functions Testing Functions

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Problem Statement II

Sadasiva, Donald and Allen say yes! Stipulate by using EFIE and triangular subsectioning they can develop an appropriate basis and testing function.

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**Operator :Electric Field Integral Equation
**

E s ! j[A *

r Q A r
! 4T e jkR ´ J R dsd S

r 1 *r
! 4TI e jkR W dsd R

s y J ! j[W

n v E i E s
! 0

Basis Functions : Triangle Subsectioning

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Defined over two subsections that share a common edge. Current flows along p+ across ln and down p-

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Basis Function II

Current has no component normal to two of the boundaries. Why is this important?

Want to avoid discontinuous current. Impresses line charge to be present in the solution that is not present reality

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Basis Function III

**Component of current normal to the nth edges constant and continuous across the edge.
**

l n Nc An ! 2

Flux density normal to the edge is unit.

No discontinuity of current

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Basis Function IV

Since:

s x V n f n
s1 s Vn s xV n

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Test Procedure

Reuse basis function as testing function, i.e. Galerkin¶s method Take N symmetric products

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Test Procedure II

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Matrix Equation

ZI ! V

Efficient Numerical Evaluation of Matrix Elements

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Each Zmn requires the evaluation of up to 8 integrals.

Tn+ TnTm+ Tm-

Amn

e jkR m ¸ e jkR m Q ¨ ©´ f n ds ´ f n ds¹ ! ¹ © Rm Rm 4T ª n T Tn º e jkR m ¸ e jkR m Q ¨ ©´ f n ds ´ f n ds¹ ! © ¹ 4 T ª Rm Rm Tn Tn º e jkR m ¸ e jkR m 1 ¨ ©´ s y f n ds ´ s y f n ds¹ ! ¹ © Rm Rm 4Tj[I ª n T Tn º 1 ¨ e jkR m e jkR m ¸ ©´ s y f n ! ds ´ s y f n ds¹ ¹ 4 Tj[I © Rm Rm T Tn ª n º

Amn

¡

mn

mn

Efficient Numerical Evaluation of Matrix Elements II

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**Integrals are repeated for adjacent elements.
**

To+

Tn+ TnTm+ Tm-

Amn

e jkR m ¸ e jkR m Q ¨ ©´ f n ds ´ f n ds¹ ! ¹ Rm Rm 4T © T Tn º ª o e jkR m ¸ e jkR m Q ¨ ©´ f n ds ´ f n ds¹ ! © ¹ Rm Rm 4 T ª To Tn º

Amn

mn

e jkR m ¸ e jkR m 1 ¨ ©´ s y f n ds ´ s y f n ds¹ ! ¹ © Rm Rm 4Tj[I ª o T Tn º 1 ¨ e jkR m e jkR m ¸ ©´ s y f n ! ds ´ s y f n ds¹ ¹ 4 Tj[I © Rm Rm T Tn ª o º

¢ £

mn

Efficient Numerical Evaluation of Matrix Elements III

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Efficiency can be gained by evaluating face-pair combinations rather then edge-pair combination

Efficient Numerical Evaluation of Matrix Elements IV

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A1, A2 and A3 are interrelated and we can define a normalized area coordinates:

Note that p1, p2, and p3 subdivide triangle q into 3 sub-triangles, areas A1, A2 and A3.

Efficient Numerical Evaluation of Matrix Elements V

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Can now use the normalized area coordinates to recast the integrations

where

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Numerical Results

4 Representative Examples

Square Plate Bent Plate Circular Disk Sphere

Plate and disk examples evaluate the EFIE approach when edges are present. Circular disk presents an example with curved edges. Sphere exemplifies both a closed surface and a doubly curved surface.

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Numerical Results : Square Plate

Figure 5 : Current on a 0.15 P plate Figure 6 : Current on a 1.0 P plate Results match closely to other numerical techniques. Note : The number of patches for each result is not representative of convergence rate.

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Numerical Results : Square Plate II

Figure 7 : RCS of flat plate Not surprisingly give that the current matched well the so does the RCS.

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Numerical Results : Bent Plate

Figure 8 : Current on a plate bent 50º away from the incident wave.

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Numerical Results : Circular Disk

Figure 9 : Current on a Circular Disk

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Numerical Results : Sphere

Figure 10 : Current on a 0.2P Sphere

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Summary

**Developed a method of applying MoM to an arbitrary scattering body.
**

Utilized EFIE to handle both open and closed bodies. Developed a basis function that insures current continuity. Paid close attention to evaluating the moment matrix efficiently.

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Paper Evaluation

**Very clear if one has a strong working knowledge of MoM. Fell short in a few areas:
**

Did not address evaluating the diagonal terms of the moment matrix. Did not address EFIE¶s inability to handle closed bodies near resonance frequency.

Good stepping stone, but without addressing the above it falls shorts of its goal of evaluating on an arbitrary surface.

UCLA

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