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PowerPoint Slides

Krajewski/Ritzman/Malhotra

by Jeff Heyl © 2010 Pearson Education

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5–1

Costs of Quality

considered a defect

Prevention costs

Appraisal costs

Internal failure costs

External failure costs

Ethics and quality

Total Quality Management

Customer

satisfaction

Total Quality Management

Customer satisfaction

Conformance to specifications

Value

Support

Psychological impressions

Employee involvement

Cultural change

Teams

Total Quality Management

Continuous improvement

Kaizen

A philosophy

Not unique to quality

Problem solving process

The Deming Wheel

Plan

Act Do

Study

Figure 5.2 – Plan-Do-Study-Act Cycle

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5–6

Six Sigma

Process average OK; Process variability OK;

too much variation process off target

X X

X X X

XX XX

X X X

X

X

X X

X X

Process

on target with

Reduce low variability Center

spread process

XX

X

X

X XX

X

Figure 5.3 – Six-Sigma Approach Focuses on Reducing Spread and Centering the Process

Six Sigma Improvement Model

Define

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control

Acceptance Sampling

Acceptable quality level (AQL)

Linked through supply chains

Acceptance Sampling

Buyer Sigma to achieve internal

Manufactures process performance

furnaces fan

mo

tors

Sigma to achieve internal

Manufacturers process performance

furnace fan motors

fan

Motor inspection TARGET: Buyer’s specs bla

des

Supplier

Manufactures

Yes Accept No fan blades

motors? Blade inspection TARGET: Firm A’s specs

Yes No

Accept

blades?

Performance Approaches in a Supply Chain

Statistical Process Control

Variation of outputs

Performance measurement – variables

Performance measurement – attributes

Sampling

Sampling distributions

Sampling Distributions

divided by the total number of observations

∑x i

x= i =1

n

ere

n = total number of observations

x = mean

Sampling Distributions

observation in a sample and the smallest. The

standard deviation is the square root of the

variance of a distribution. An estimate of the

process standard deviation based on a sample is

given by

(∑ x ) 2

∑( x − x) 2

∑ i−

x 2

n

i

σ= i

or σ =

n −1 n −1

where

Sample and Process Distributions

Mean

Distribution of

sample means

Process

distribution

25 Time

Figure 5.6 – Relationship Between the Distribution of Sample

Means and the Process Distribution

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 – 14

Causes of Variation

Common causes

Random, unavoidable sources of variation

Location

Spread

Shape

Assignable causes

Can be identified and eliminated

Change in the mean, spread, or shape

Used after a process is in statistical control

Assignable Causes

Average

Time

(a) Location

Distribution for the Lab Analysis Process

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 – 16

Assignable Causes

Average

Time

(b) Spread

Distribution for the Lab Analysis Process

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 – 17

Assignable Causes

Average

Time

(c) Shape

Distribution for the Lab Analysis Process

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 – 18

Control Charts

performance

Mean

Upper control limit

Lower control limit

Steps for a control chart

1. Random sample

2. Plot statistics

3. Eliminate the cause, incorporate improvements

4. Repeat the procedure

Control Charts

UCL

Nominal

LCL

Assignable

causes likely

1 2 3

Samples

Distribution: Observations from Three Samples

Control Charts

UCL

Variations

Nominal

LCL

Sample number

Control Charts

UCL

Variations

Nominal

LCL

Sample number

Control Charts

UCL

Variations

Nominal

LCL

Sample number

Control Charts

UCL

Variations

Nominal

LCL

Sample number

Control Charts

control charts

A type I error occurs when a process is

thought to be out of control when in fact it

is not

A type II error occurs when a process is

thought to be in control when it is actually

out of statistical control

These errors can be controlled by the

choice of control limits

SPC Methods

R-Chart

where

R = average of several past R values and

the central line of the control chart

D3, D4 = constants that provide three

standard deviation (three-sigma) limits for the

given sample size

Control Chart Factors

TABLE 5.1 | FACTORS FOR CALCULATING THREE-SIGMA LIMITS FOR

| THE x-CHART AND R-CHART

Size of Factor for UCL and LCL Factor for LCL for Factor for UCL for R-

Sample (n) for x-Chart (A2) R-Chart (D3) Chart (D4)

2 1.880 0 3.267

3 1.023 0 2.575

4 0.729 0 2.282

5 0.577 0 2.115

6 0.483 0 2.004

7 0.419 0.076 1.924

8 0.373 0.136 1.864

9 0.337 0.184 1.816

10 0.308 0.223 1.777

SPC Methods

x-Chart

where

x = central line of the chart, which can

be either the average of past sample means or

a target value set for the process

A2 = constant to provide three-sigma

limits for the sample mean

Steps for x- and R-Charts

1. Collect data

2. Compute the range

3. Use Table 5.1 to determine R-chart

control limits

4. Plot the sample ranges. If all are in

control, proceed to step 5. Otherwise,

find the assignable causes, correct them,

and return to step 1.

5. Calculate x for each sample

Steps for x- and R-Charts

control limits

7. Plot the sample means. If all are in

control, the process is in statistical

control. Continue to take samples and

monitor the process. If any are out of

control, find the assignable causes,

correct them, and return to step 1. If no

assignable causes are found, assume

out-of-control points represent common

causes of variation and continue to

monitor the process.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 – 30

Using x- and R-Charts

EXAMPLE 5.1

The management of West Allis Industries is concerned about the

production of a special metal screw used by several of the

company’s largest customers. The diameter of the screw is critical

to the customers. Data from five samples appear in the

accompanying table. The sample size is 4. Is the process in

statistical control?

SOLUTION

Step 1: For simplicity, we use only 5 samples. In practice,

more than 20 samples would be desirable. The data

are shown in the following table.

Using x- and R-Charts

Data for the x- and R-Charts: Observation of Screw Diameter (in.)

Observation

Sample 1 2 3 4 R x

Number

1 0.5014 0.5022 0.5009 0.5027 0.0018 0.5018

2 0.5021 0.5041 0.5024 0.5020 0.0021 0.5027

3 0.5018 0.5026 0.5035 0.5023 0.0017 0.5026

4 0.5008 0.5034 0.5024 0.5015 0.0026 0.5020

5 0.5041 0.5056 0.5034 0.5047 0.0022 0.5045

Average 0.0021 0.5027

the lowest value from the highest value. For example,

in sample 1 the range is 0.5027 – 0.5009 = 0.0018 in.

Similarly, the ranges for samples 2, 3, 4, and 5 are

0.0021, 0.0017, 0.0026, and 0.0022 in., respectively. As

shown in the table, R = 0.0021.

Using x- and R-Charts

Step 3: To construct the R-chart, select the appropriate

constants from Table 5.1 for a sample size of 4. The

control limits are

5.10. None of the sample ranges falls outside the

control limits so the process variability is in statistical

control. If any of the sample ranges fall outside of the

limits, or an unusual pattern appears, we would search

for the causes of the excessive variability, correct

them, and repeat step 1.

Using x- and R-Charts

Figure 5.10 – Range Chart from the OM Explorer x and R-Chart Solver for the

Metal Screw, Showing That the Process Variability Is in Control

Using x- and R-Charts

Step 5: Compute the mean for each sample. For example, the

mean for sample 1 is

= 0.5018 in.

4

0.5026, 0.5020, and 0.5045 in., respectively. As shown in

the table, x = 0.5027.

Using x- and R-Charts

Step 6: Now construct the x-chart for the process average. The

average screw diameter is 0.5027 in., and the average

range is 0.0021 in., so use x = 0.5027, R = 0.0021, and A2

from Table 5.1 for a sample size of 4 to construct the

control limits:

Figure 5.11.

The mean of sample 5 falls above the UCL, indicating

that the process average is out of statistical control and

that assignable causes must be explored, perhaps using

a cause-and-effect diagram.

Using x- and R-Charts

Figure 5.11 – The x-Chart from the OM Explorer x and R-Chart Solver for the

Metal Screw, Showing That Sample 5 is out of Control

An Alternate Form

another form of the x-chart may be used:

where

σx = σ/ n

σ = standard deviation of the process distribution

n = sample size

x = central line of the chart

z = normal deviate number

Using Process Standard Deviation

EXAMPLE 5.2

For Sunny Dale Bank the time required to serve customers at the

drive-by window is an important quality factor in competing with

other banks in the city.

Mean time to process a customer at the peak demand period

is 5 minutes

Standard deviation of 1.5 minutes

Sample size of six customers

Design an x-chart that has a type I error of 5 percent

After several weeks of sampling, two successive samples

came in at 3.70 and 3.68 minutes, respectively. Is the

customer service process in statistical control?

Using Process Standard Deviation

SOLUTION

x = 5 minutes

σ = 1.5 minutes

n = 6 customers

z = 1.96

directly to the x-chart. The control limits are

Using Process Standard Deviation

For a type I error of 5 percent, 2.5 percent of the curve will

be above the UCL and 2.5 percent below the LCL

From the normal distribution table (see Appendix 1) we find

the z value that leaves only 2.5 percent in the upper portion

of the normal curve (or 0.9750 in the table)

So z = 1.96

The two new samples are below the LCL of the chart,

implying that the average time to serve a customer has

dropped

Assignable causes should be explored to see what caused

the improvement

Application 5.1

Webster Chemical Company produces mastics and caulking for

the construction industry. The product is blended in large

mixers and then pumped into tubes and capped.

Webster is concerned whether the filling process for tubes of

caulking is in statistical control. The process should be

centered on 8 ounces per tube. Several samples of eight tubes

are taken and each tube is weighed in ounces.

Tube Number

Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Avg Range

1 7.98 8.34 8.02 7.94 8.44 7.68 7.81 8.11 8.040 0.76

2 8.23 8.12 7.98 8.41 8.31 8.18 7.99 8.06 8.160 0.43

3 7.89 7.77 7.91 8.04 8.00 7.89 7.93 8.09 7.940 0.32

4 8.24 8.18 7.83 8.05 7.90 8.16 7.97 8.07 8.050 0.41

5 7.87 8.13 7.92 7.99 8.10 7.81 8.14 7.88 7.980 0.33

6 8.13 8.14 8.11 8.13 8.14 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.130 0.03

Avgs 8.050 0.38

Application 5.1

Assuming that taking only 6 samples is sufficient, is the process

in statistical control?

Conclusion on process variability given R = 0.38 and n = 8:

The range chart is out of control since sample 1 falls outside the

UCL and sample 6 falls outside the LCL. This makes the x

calculation moot.

Application 5.1

Consider dropping sample 6 because of an inoperative scale,

causing inaccurate measures.

Tube Number

Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Avg Range

1 7.98 8.34 8.02 7.94 8.44 7.68 7.81 8.11 8.040 0.76

2 8.23 8.12 7.98 8.41 8.31 8.18 7.99 8.06 8.160 0.43

3 7.89 7.77 7.91 8.04 8.00 7.89 7.93 8.09 7.940 0.32

4 8.24 8.18 7.83 8.05 7.90 8.16 7.97 8.07 8.050 0.41

5 7.87 8.13 7.92 7.99 8.10 7.81 8.14 7.88 7.980 0.33

Avgs 8.034 0.45

average?

Application 5.1

actually in control.

Control Charts for Attributes

defective

Sampling involves yes/no decisions so the

underlying distribution is the binomial distribution

The standard deviation is

σp = p( 1− p ) / n

p = the center line on the chart

and

UCLp = p + zσp and LCLp = p – zσp

Using p-Charts

The number of defectives is counted

The proportion defective p is calculated

If the proportion defective falls outside the UCL, it

is assumed the process has changed and

assignable causes are identified and eliminated

If the proportion defective falls outside the LCL,

the process may have improved and assignable

causes are identified and incorporated

Using a p-Chart

EXAMPLE 5.3

Hometown Bank is concerned about the number of wrong

customer account numbers recorded

Each week a random sample of 2,500 deposits is taken and

the number of incorrect account numbers is recorded

The results for the past 12 weeks are shown in the following

table

Is the booking process out of statistical control?

Use three-sigma control limits, which will provide a Type I

error of 0.26 percent.

Using a p-Chart

Numbers Numbers

1 15 7 24

2 12 8 7

3 19 9 10

4 2 10 17

5 19 11 15

6 4 12 3

Total 147

Using a p-Chart

p= = = 0.0049

Total number of observations 12(2,500)

Using a p-Chart

Step 2: Calculate the sample proportion defective. For sample 1,

the proportion of defectives is 15/2,500 = 0.0060.

Step 3: Plot each sample proportion defective on the chart, as

shown in Figure 5.12.

Fraction Defective

.0091 X

UCL

X X

X

.0049 X X

X Mean

X

X

.0007

X X

X LCL

| | | | | | | | | | | |

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Sample

Figure 5.12 – The p-Chart from POM for Windows for Wrong Account Numbers,

Showing That Sample 7 is Out of Control

Application 5.2

A sticky scale brings Webster’s attention to whether caulking

tubes are being properly capped. If a significant proportion of the

tubes aren’t being sealed, Webster is placing their customers in

a messy situation. Tubes are packaged in large boxes of 144.

Several boxes are inspected and the following numbers of

leaking tubes are found:

1 3 8 6 15 5

2 5 9 4 16 0

3 3 10 9 17 2

4 4 11 2 18 6

5 2 12 6 19 2

6 4 13 5 20 1

7 2 14 1 Total = 72

Application 5.2

Calculate the p-chart three-sigma control limits to assess

whether the capping process is in statistical control.

p= = = 0.025

Total number of tubes 20( 144 )

σp = = = 0.01301

n 144

UCL p = p + zσ p = 0.025 + 3( 0.01301) = 0.06403

all fall within the control limits.

Control Charts for Attributes

service encounter

The underlying distribution is the Poisson

distribution

The mean of the distribution is c and the

standard deviation is √c

Using a c-Chart

EXAMPLE 5.4

The Woodland Paper Company produces paper for the

newspaper industry. As a final step in the process, the paper

passes through a machine that measures various product

quality characteristics. When the paper production process is

in control, it averages 20 defects per roll.

a. Set up a control chart for the number of defects per roll.

For this example, use two-sigma control limits.

b. Five rolls had the following number of defects: 16, 21, 17,

22, and 24, respectively. The sixth roll, using pulp from a

different supplier, had 5 defects. Is the paper production

process in control?

Using a c-Chart

SOLUTION

a. The average number of defects per roll is 20. Therefore

Using a c-Chart

Figure 5.13 – The c-Chart from POM for Windows for Defects per Roll of Paper

b. Because the first five rolls had defects that fell within the

control limits, the process is still in control. Five defects,

however, is less than the LCL, and therefore, the process is

technically “out of control.” The control chart indicates that

something good has happened.

Application 5.3

At Webster Chemical, lumps in the caulking compound could

cause difficulties in dispensing a smooth bead from the tube.

Even when the process is in control, there will still be an

average of 4 lumps per tube of caulk. Testing for the presence of

lumps destroys the product, so Webster takes random samples.

The following are results of the study:

1 6 5 6 9 5

2 5 6 4 10 0

3 0 7 1 11 9

4 4 8 6 12 2

limits for this process.

Application 5.3

6 + 5 + 0 + 4 + 6 + 4 + 1+ 6 + 5 + 0 + 9 + 2

c= =4

12

σc = 4 =2

UCL c = c + zσ c = 4 + 2( 2 ) = 8

LCL c = c − zσ c = 4 − 2( 2 ) = 0

Process Capability

the process to meet the design

specification for the product or service

Design specifications are often expressed

as a nominal value and a tolerance

Process Capability

Nominal

value

Process distribution

Lower Upper

specification specification

Minutes

20 25 30

Upper and Lower Specifications

Process Capability

Nominal

value

Process distribution

Lower Upper

specification specification

Minutes

20 25 30

Upper and Lower Specifications

Process Capability

Nominal value

Six sigma

Four sigma

Two sigma

Lower Upper

specification specification

Mean

Process Capability

how well a process is centered and

whether the variability is acceptable

Cpk = Minimum of ,

3σ 3σ

where

σ = standard deviation of the process distribution

Process Capability

process variability is the cause of

problems

Cp =

6σ

Determining Process Capability

and calculate the mean and the

standard deviation of the process

output distribution.

Step 2. Use the data from the process

distribution to compute process

control charts, such as an x- and an

R-chart.

Determining Process Capability

random samples from the process and plot

the results on the control charts. If the

sample statistics are within the control limits

of the charts, the process is in statistical

control. If the process is not in statistical

control, look for assignable causes and

eliminate them. Recalculate the mean and

standard deviation of the process

distribution and the control limits for the

charts. Continue until the process is in

statistical control.

Determining Process Capability

results are acceptable, the process is capable

and document any changes made to the

process; continue to monitor the output by

using the control charts. If the results are

unacceptable, calculate the process capability

ratio. If the results are acceptable, the process

variability is fine and management should

focus on centering the process. If not,

management should focus on reducing the

variability in the process until it passes the

test. As changes are made, recalculate the

mean and standard deviation of the process

distribution and the control limits for the

charts and return to step 3.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 – 68

Assessing Process Capability

EXAMPLE 5.5

The intensive care unit lab process has an average

turnaround time of 26.2 minutes and a standard deviation of

1.35 minutes

The nominal value for this service is 25 minutes with an

upper specification limit of 30 minutes and a lower

specification limit of 20 minutes

The administrator of the lab wants to have four-sigma

performance for her lab

Is the lab process capable of this level of performance?

Assessing Process Capability

SOLUTION

The administrator began by taking a quick check to see if the

process is capable by applying the process capability index:

26.2 – 20.0

Lower specification calculation = = 1.53

3(1.35)

30.0 – 26.2

Upper specification calculation = = 0.94

3(1.35)

process capability index told her that the process was not

capable. However, she did not know whether the problem was

the variability of the process, the centering of the process, or

both. The options available to improve the process depended

on what is wrong.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 – 70

Assessing Process Capability

capability ratio:

30.0 – 20.0

Cp = = 1.23

6(1.35)

1.33. Consequently, she initiated a study to see where

variability was introduced into the process. Two activities,

report preparation and specimen slide preparation, were

identified as having inconsistent procedures. These

procedures were modified to provide consistent performance.

New data were collected and the average turnaround was now

26.1 minutes with a standard deviation of 1.20 minutes.

Assessing Process Capability

performance, as indicated by the process capability ratio:

30.0 – 20.0

Cp = = 1.39

6(1.20)

problems to resolve:

Cpk = Minimum of , = 1.08

3(1.20) 3(1.20)

Application 5.4

Webster Chemical’s nominal weight for filling tubes of caulk

is 8.00 ounces ± 0.60 ounces. The target process capability

ratio is 1.33, signifying that management wants 4-sigma

performance. The current distribution of the filling process is

centered on 8.054 ounces with a standard deviation of

0.192 ounces. Compute the process capability index and

process capability ratio to assess whether the filling process

is capable and set properly.

Application 5.4

Cpk = Minimum of ,

3σ 3σ

= Minimum of = 1.135, = 0.948

3(0.192) 3(0.192)

Recall that a capability index value of 1.0 implies that the firm

is producing three-sigma quality (0.26% defects) and that the

process is consistently producing outputs within

specifications even though some defects are generated. The

value of 0.948 is far below the target of 1.33. Therefore, we

can conclude that the process is not capable. Furthermore,

we do not know if the problem is centering or variability.

Application 5.4

Cp = = = 1.0417

6σ 6(0.192)

Recall that if the Cpk is greater than the critical value (1.33 for

four-sigma quality) we can conclude that the process is

capable. Since the Cpk is less than the critical value, either the

process average is close to one of the tolerance limits and is

generating defective output, or the process variability is too

large. The value of Cp is less than the target for four-sigma

quality. Therefore we conclude that the process variability must

be addressed first, and then the process should be retested.

Quality Engineering

originated by Genichi Taguchi that involves

combining engineering and statistical

methods to reduce costs and improve

quality by optimizing product design and

manufacturing processes.

The quality loss function is based on the

concept that a service or product that

barely conforms to the specifications is

more like a defective service or product

than a perfect one.

Quality Engineering

Loss (dollars)

specification value specification

International Standards

management by specifying what the firm

does to fulfill the customer’s quality

requirements and applicable regulatory

requirements while enhancing customer

satisfaction and achieving continual

improvement of its performance

Companies must be certified by an external

examiner

Assures customers that the organization is

performing as they say they are

International Standards

environmental program by specifying what

the firm does to minimize harmful effects

on the environment caused by its activities

The standards require companies to keep

track of their raw materials use and their

generation, treatment, and disposal of

hazardous wastes

Companies are inspected by outside,

private auditors on a regular basis

International Standards

sales opportunities

ISO certification is preferred or required by

many corporate buyers

Internal benefits include improved

profitability, improved marketing, reduced

costs, and improved documentation and

improvement of processes

The Baldrige Award

Award promotes, recognizes, and

publicizes quality strategies and

achievements by outstanding

organizations

It is awarded annually after a rigorous

application and review process

Award winners report increased

productivity, more satisfied employees and

customers, and improved profitability

The Baldrige Award

1. Leadership

2. Strategic Planning

3. Customer and Market Focus

4. Measurement, Analysis, and Knowledge

Management

5. Workforce Focus

6. Process Management

7. Results

Solved Problem 1

The Watson Electric Company produces incandescent

lightbulbs. The following data on the number of lumens for 40-

watt lightbulbs were collected when the process was in control.

Observation

Sample 1 2 3 4

1 604 612 588 600

2 597 601 607 603

3 581 570 585 592

4 620 605 595 588

5 590 614 608 604

b. Since these data were collected, some new employees were

hired. A new sample obtained the following readings: 570,

603, 623, and 583. Is the process still in control?

Solved Problem 1

SOLUTION

a. To calculate x, compute the mean for each sample. To

calculate R, subtract the lowest value in the sample from the

highest value in the sample. For example, for sample 1,

x= = 601

4

R = 612 – 588 = 24

Sample x R

1 601 24

2 602 10

3 582 22

4 602 32

5 604 24

Total 2,991 112

Average x = 598.2 R = 22.4

Solved Problem 1

The R-chart control limits are

LCLR = D3R = 0(22.4) = 0

based on the new data. The range is 53 (or 623 – 570), which

is outside the UCL for the R-chart. Since the process

variability is out of control, it is meaningless to test for the

process average using the current estimate for R. A search

for assignable causes inducing excessive variability must be

conducted.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 – 85

Solved Problem 2

data entry clerks. Each working day their supervisor verifies

the accuracy of a random sample of 250 records. A record

containing one or more errors is considered defective and

must be redone. The results of the last 30 samples are shown

in the table. All were checked to make sure that none was out

of control.

Solved Problem 2

Records Records

1 7 16 8

2 5 17 12

3 19 18 4

4 10 19 6

5 11 20 11

6 8 21 17

7 12 22 12

8 9 23 6

9 6 24 7

10 13 25 13

11 18 26 10

12 5 27 14

13 16 28 6

14 4 29 11

15 11 30 9

Total 300

Solved Problem 2

b. Samples for the next four days showed the following:

Tues 17

Wed 15

Thurs 22

Fri 21

likely to be?

Solved Problem 2

SOLUTION

a. From the table, the supervisor knows that the total

number of defective records is 300 out of a total sample of

7,500 [or 30(250)]. Therefore, the central line of the chart is

300

p= = 0.04

7,500

p( 1− p ) 0.04(0.96)

UCL p = p + z = 0.04 + 3 = 0.077

n 250

p ( 1 − p ) = 0.04 − 3 0.04(0.96) = 0.003

LCL p = p − z

n 250

Solved Problem 2

Tues 17 0.068

Wed 15 0.060

Thurs 22 0.088

Fri 21 0.084

supervisor should look for the problem and, upon identifying

it, take corrective action.

Solved Problem 3

The Minnow County Highway Safety Department monitors

accidents at the intersection of Routes 123 and 14. Accidents at

the intersection have averaged three per month.

a. Which type of control chart should be used? Construct a

control chart with three sigma control limits.

b. Last month, seven accidents occurred at the intersection. Is

this sufficient evidence to justify a claim that something has

changed at the intersection?

Solved Problem 3

SOLUTION

a. The safety department cannot determine the number of

accidents that did not occur, so it has no way to compute a

proportion defective at the intersection. Therefore, the

administrators must use a c-chart for which

UCLc = c + z c = 3 + 3 3 = 8.20

LCLc = c – z c = 3 – 3 3 = –2.196

in this case is adjusted to zero.

and LCL of the chart. We conclude that no assignable

causes are present and that the increase in accidents was

due to chance.

Solved Problem 4

Pioneer Chicken advertises “lite” chicken with 30 percent fewer

calories. (The pieces are 33 percent smaller.) The process

average distribution for “lite” chicken breasts is 420 calories,

with a standard deviation of the population of 25 calories.

Pioneer randomly takes samples of six chicken breasts to

measure calorie content.

b. The product design calls for the average chicken breast to

contain 400 ± 100 calories. Calculate the process capability

index (target = 1.33) and the process capability ratio.

Interpret the results.

Solved Problem 4

SOLUTION

a. For the process standard deviation of 25 calories, the

standard deviation of the sample mean is

σ 25

σx = = = 10.2 calories

n 6

Solved Problem 4

b. The process capability index is

Cpk = Minimum of ,

3σ 3σ

= Minimum of = 1.60, = 1.07

3(25) 3(25)

The process capability ratio is

Upper specification – Lower specification 500 – 300

Cp = = = 1.33

6σ 6(25)

Because the process capability ratio is 1.33, the process

should be able to produce the product reliably within

specifications. However, the process capability index is 1.07,

so the current process is not centered properly for four-sigma

performance. The mean of the process distribution is too close

to the upper specification.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 – 95

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 5 – 96

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