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Source Destination
Computer Network?
o “interconnected collection of autonomous
o What is the Internet?
– “network of networks”
– “collection of networks interconnected by routers”
– “a communication medium used by millions”
– Email, chat, Web “surfing”, streaming media
o Internet  Web
o Distributed system
The Big Picture of Networks
Why network?
Before networks:
– One large computer (mainframe) used for all
processing in businesses, universities, etc.

Smaller, cheaper computers…

– Personal computers or workstations on desktops
– Interconnecting many smaller computers is
advantageous! Why?
Why network?
Resource sharing!
– Hardware: printers, disks, terminals, etc.
– Software: text processors, compilers, etc.
– Data.
– Fault tolerance through redundancy
Load balancing
– Processing and data can be distributed over the network
Location independence
– Users can access their files, etc. from anywhere in the

 It’s much easier to protect centralized resources than

when they are distributed.
 Network itself as the target..
o Instant Messaging (Internet chat, text messaging
on cellular phones)
o Peer-to-Peer
o Internet Phone
o Video-on-demand
o Distributed Games
o Remote Login (SSH client, Telnet)
o File Transfer

• Business Applications
• Home Applications
• Mobile Users
• Social Issues
Business Applications of Networks

A network with two clients and one server.

Business Applications of Networks (2)

The client-server model involves requests and replies.

Home Network Applications

• Access to remote information

• Person-to-person communication
• Interactive entertainment
• Electronic commerce
Home Network Applications (2)

In peer-to-peer system there are no fixed clients and servers.

Home Network Applications (3)

Some forms of e-commerce.

Mobile Network Users

Combinations of wireless networks and mobile computing.

Major Trends in Computing
The Wider Agenda
log (people per computer)

Number Crunching
Data Storage

Minicomputer Productivity
to/from Physical
Various Rates of Improvement
Networking Scenario: Present
Networks today


Web servers
Networking Scenario: Future


Audio Video

Sensors Wireless Devices

Routers Mobile users

Web servers
Computers of the Future
Computers are integrated
– small, cheap, portable, embedded

Technology is in the background

– computer are aware of their environment and adapt (“location awareness”)
– computer recognize the location of the user and react appropriately (e.g., call
forwarding, fax forwarding, “context awareness”)

Advances in technology
– more computing power in smaller devices
– flat, lightweight displays with low power consumption
– new user interfaces due to small dimensions
– more bandwidth
– multiple wireless interfaces: wireless LANs, wireless WANs, regional wireless
telecommunication networks etc. (“overlay networks”)
Broadcast Networks

Types of transmission technology

• Broadcast links
• Point-to-point links
Broadcast Networks (2)

Classification of interconnected processors by scale.

Local Area Networks

Two broadcast networks

(a) Bus
(b) Ring
Metropolitan Area Networks

A metropolitan area network based on cable TV.

Wide Area Networks

Relation between hosts on LANs and the subnet.

Wide Area Networks (2)

A stream of packets from sender to receiver.

Wireless Networks

Categories of wireless networks:

• System interconnection
• Wireless LANs
• Wireless WANs
Wireless Networks (2)

(a) Bluetooth configuration

(b) Wireless LAN
Wireless Networks (3)

(a) Individual mobile computers

(b) A flying LAN
Home Network Categories
• Computers (desktop PC, PDA, shared peripherals
• Entertainment (TV, DVD, VCR, camera, stereo, MP3)
• Telecomm (telephone, cell phone, intercom, fax)
• Appliances (microwave, fridge, clock, furnace, airco)
• Telemetry (utility meter, burglar alarm, babycam).
Architecture of the Internet

Overview of the Internet.


Architecture of the original Ethernet.

Wireless LANs

(a) Wireless networking with a base station.

(b) Ad hoc networking.
Wireless LANs (2)

The range of a single radio may not cover the entire system.
Wireless LANs (3)

A multicell 802.11 network.

IEEE 802 Standards

The 802 working groups. The important ones are

marked with *. The ones marked with  are
hibernating. The one marked with † gave up.