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1.The above is a story of cultures in contact during the past 1,500years. 2.Political,social and cultural forces influence a language-¶the sociology of language¶. language-
The Indo-Iranian languages including Hindi and Sanskrit.Indo ±European and Germanic influences English is a member of the Indo ±European family of languages. The Germanic languages.They are as follows: Latin and the modern Romance languages. The Slavic languages. The Balticlanguages of Latvian and Lithuanian(but not Estonian) The Celtic languages.and Greek .
Dutch. North Germanic evolved into the modern Scandinavian languages of Swedish.Norwegian and Icelandic West Germanic is the ancestor of modern German.Germanic Group English is in the Germanic group of languages which consists of 3 distinct sub-groups: East Germanic spoken by peoples who migrated back to southeastern Europe.Flemish.Frisian and English .No East Germanic language is spoken today and the only written surviving East Germanic language is Gothic.Danish.
Majority of words in modern English are foreign not Old English roots.Old English(500-1100AD) English(500 West Germanic invaders from Jutland and Southern Denmark.the Angles Saxons.and Jutes. .began settling down in the British Isles in the 5th &6th centuries AD. Some of the Old English words are µwater¶ and µstrong¶.
Middle English(1100-1500) English(1100 William the Conqueror. conquered England and the Anglo Saxons in 1066AD. . They spoke a mixture of Old English and French which came to be known as Middle English.the Duke of Normandy.
. This period brought many classical Latin and Greek words into the Language.One was the Great Vowel Shift and the other was the advent of the printing press. Two other major factors influenced English.Early Modern English(1500-1800) English(1500 The Renaissance had an impact on English.
Late Modern English(1800English(1800Present) The main difference between early and late modern English is vocabulary. .second was the British Empire.. 2 historical factors contributed to this«first the Industrial Revolution and the start of the technological society. Late ±Modern English has many more words.
Why English?English is far more world wide in its distribution than all other spoken languages. .English as a World Language(5/8) When a language becomes powerful as English it becomes a World language. The most useful language to learn for international travel and now is the de facto language of diplomacy. It is an official language in 52 countries as well as many small colonies and territories.
Strong political and military predominance of the US after WW2 resulted in economic and cultural influence.English as a World Language How did it happen? As a result of the Industrial Revolution. British economic dominance in the 19th century which resulted in the colonization of many countries. .
.satellite technologies and optical fiber«concept of information superhighway. World has evolved into a global village and the need for a standard language.Global Power of English Search for information and the need for global communication. Computer.
(Braj B.and above all its suitability as a flexible medium for literary and other types of creativity across languages and cultures´.English as an International language ³The reason for the dominance of English is its propensity for acquiring new identities.its power of assimilation.its manifestation in a range of varieties.its adaptability to µdecolonization¶as a language.Kachru) .
English as an international language A language that has a large number of native speakers.Hindi and Arabic might be international languages.Spanish. Mandarin. Unless these languages are spoken by a large number of native speakers. . Since English is widely accepted.it is the international language par excellence.it will not be accepted.English.
Features of an international language ³An international language is one used by people of different nations to communicate with one another´(Smith) .
Unlike elite µlingua franca¶.BruttBrutt-Griffler¶s model of an international and world language. Tends to establish itself alongside local languages in multilingual contexts. It is the product of the development of world econocultural system. The fact that it is spread by many individuals acquiring the language. .its not confined to the elites but to various levels.
McArthur¶s circle of World English« .Streven¶s world map of English«.Kachru¶s three-circle model of World Englishes«.The spread of English µIt has happened so quickly¶-David Crystal in English as a global language. Models and descriptions of the spread of English«.