Industrial Automation | Automation | Sensor

Industrial Automation

T Rajendran

Industrial Automation
 Control

Systems  Process Control  Industrial Control  Computer Integrated Manufacturing  Systems Modeling  Systems Engineering  Real Time Programming  Software tools

Expectation of Automation
 High

Reliability  Fast Trouble shooting  Simple Operation  Easily Configurable  High Accuracy  Optimization functions and processing of operating data  Flexibility

Process Controls

PC

Integrated Control & Management systems

IS MIS 1960-70 1970-80 1980…

History
 Pioneering

period – 60 – Electronic devices  Direct Digital control  Microcomputer  Computer controlled Process plants
– Centralized – Distributed – Process Models – Advanced Control (AI)

Process Controls

Water out

Process Control
Set point (desired value) Temp sensor + Deviation (error) Control Signal generation

Steam out

Water in Steam in

Basic principles of controller loop
 Memory

- Set Point  Comparator for set point (measured value MV) as reported by transmitter  Deviation = error  Amplifier – amplifies the control deviations – output of the controller

Process Control
 Open

Loop Control  Closed Loop control

Process Control
 Two

position control  Multi position control  PID Proportional control (proportional, integral or derivative)  Ratio control  Cascade control

Controller Operation
Set point Control element sensor process error controller

Control signal

Measured value

Auto/manual

Position control

High set point Low set point

Control value

Control actions
No control Proportional only

PID

PI

Set point

Time

Instrumentation

Instrumentation
    

Pressure Flow liquid level Temperature Pneumatic and control valves

Transducers
 

Sensors high / low limits of measurand

Transducers
To measure / sense  to convert measured value to a useful output

Transducers

Measurement
– Type of measurand – Number of measurements – Sensing measurement – Transduction element – Range of measurement – Specific format – Amplified – Conversion of AC to DC

Conversion

Transducers
  

Conventional Silicon Fiber Optic

Transducers
  

Conventional Silicon Fiber Optic Displacement / motion transducers Temperature Transducers Pressure Transducers Liquid level Transducers Liquid Flow

    

Intelligent Sensors
On-chip signal processing  MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) sensors  BIOSENSORS  NANOSENSORS

NANOSENSORS & future trends

1 nm = 1 millionth of a mm

Building Blocks in Automation

Building blocks
The Processor  Analog & Digital I/O modules  interrupts, Timers/counters  Display controls  SCADA (Supervisory control and data acquisition systems)

Processing System
 The

use of Microprocessors (calculator chips & Mini computers)  Architecture
– Input, Memory, Output, MicrpP
 

Address bus, Data bus, control bus 8 , 16, 32, 64 bits Microprocessors & microcontrollers

Analog & Digital I/O modules
 Basic

signals

Analog inputs

Control outputs

Display outputs Digital inputs

Timer / counter inputs Interrupt inputs

Analog & Digital I/O modules
 Basic

signals

Analog inputs

Control outputs

Display outputs Digital inputs

Timer / counter inputs Interrupt inputs

Inside look of a real time sysytem
Analog input module
Display outputs Analog inputs

Control outputs
Processor & memory module

Digital inputs

Interrupt controller

Timer / counter

Interrupt inputs

Timer / counter inputs

I/O modules
 Analog

input

– From Sensors – Measurand like flow, position, temperature … – Signal may be amplified, filtered or/and isolated
 Digital

input

– Refer to ON-OFF status of valves, linit switches.. (1 bit )

I/O modules
 Interrupt

input

– Draw attention of real time system towards abnormal situations – Attends to interrupt and resumes normal work
 Timer

/ Counter

– Clock input or Gate input to enable/ disable timer/counters – Output of timer/counter can be used as interrupts

I/O signals
 Display

output signals

– LED, LCD, VDU, alarms – Status of process, limits sets – May control or operator assisted
 Control

output signal

– Required to drive the control valves, motors etc – May be simple ON/OFF or fine control of motor speed, position, displacement, flow.. – Analog signals / digital actuators

Analog input
 The

module continuously scans the analog input signals in the pre defined order and frequency  Amplifies -> converts to digital -> processor and memory module for processing  EPROM or switches  Local intelligence

Digital Input
 Directly

accepted by processor  N bits in parallel  Local intelligence

Analog Output
 Digital

multiplexer  Digital to Analog converter  Master processor executes two I/O instructions
– Write Data byte/word in digital output port – Write address byte/word in address port

Interrupt control
 Interface

between no. of interrupting devices and master processor  Priorities allocation- static or dynamic.

Timer / Counter
 Number

of timers and counters which may be cascaded or used independently  Count in the form of data byte/word  Clock from the processor or external

Display Control module
 Manual

entry sub module  CRT controller sub module  LED / LCD control sub module  Alarm annunciator sub module  Printer controller sub module

SCADA
 Supervisory

Control And Data Acquisition Systems
– Channel scanning – Conversion into engineering units – Data processing

CAD / CAM / CIM

CIM
Robots

cad

fe

simul ation

fms

CNC

MeM
Sche dudle

ERP cim draf ting

Shop floor data

Prod plan

Tool design

Process planning

CAD / CAM / CIM
 CIM,

Concurrent Engineering  Product Life Cycle Management  Engineering Modeling  CIM databases  Computer aided process planning  IT & ERP  Manufacturing automation – PLC, CNC, Robots

CAD/CAM/CIM
 Flexible

Manufacturing  Shop Floor Data Collection  Simulation

Concurrent Engineering
 DESIGN

software

– Solid Modeling – Assembly modeling – Sheet metal design – Drafting – Tolerance analysis – Mechanism Design – Mould Design – Thermal Analysis – Piping Design – Optimization – Tool Design

Concurrent Engineering
 Process  ERP  Shop  PLM  EDM

Planning

Floor Data Collection

Concurrent Engineering
 Visualization

/ Simulation

– Factory simulation – Rapid prototyping – Plastic injection moulding – Forming – Forging – Casting

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