Metabolic Disorders

David Marcinkowski Dairy Cattle Technology AVS346

Metabolic Disorders of Dairy Cattle 

Milk Fever Udder Edema Ketosis Fat Cow Syndrome Retained Placenta Displaced Abomasum Rumen Acidosis Laminitis

DMI at Calving

8% cows.8% of cows. 67% of herds 1990 Hoard's survey .greater tendency Lowly heritable.10% or more Jerseys .Occurrence        Wisconsin SRS . 82% herds Older cows.Milk Fever . . can be managed! 75% of cases occur between 1 and 24 hours post calving Less than 5% beyond 48 hr .

Calcium Movement in High Producing Cow Milk Production .

cold ears. Mg . dry muzzle In coordination while walking. K.Symptoms     Fever is not a symptom Lack of appetite.2. down and unable to rise Canadian staging system:    Standing but wobbly Down on chest and drowsy Down on side and unresponsive   Blood calcium: Normal is 8-10 mg/100 ml  6. listless.and 3 from above  Also causes imbalance of P. inactive GI tract.5 mg/100 ml in stages 1. dull.5.5 and 4. 5.Milk Fever .

Milk Fever ± Cause    Milk production causes extra drain on blood Calcium Compensatory metabolic pathways don¶t react fast enough Two sources of Ca   Dietary Bone stores ± action of Parathyroid Hormone      Prefresh diet affects speed of PTH response Low Ca in prefresh diet stimulates PTH Alkaline diets inhibit PTH Acidic diets stimulate PTH Diets high in K alkaline .

Milk Fever Treatment  IV Calcium Gluconate ± slowly   Different types high in P. Mg. Calcium Chloride in some gels may cause throat abcesses if not given carefully Partial milking not only useless it predisposes the animal to mastitis . K Can be given sub-Q     30% of treatment relapse Oral Calcium gels not good once cow is down but good preventative and may help with relapses.

5 ± Metabolic acidosis .DCAD    Dietary Cation Anion Difference (Na + K) ± (S + Cl) Positive DCAD   Urine pH 7.5 Mild Metabolic Acidosis ± Mobilize Ca better from bone Urine pH under 5.0-8.0 Alkalosis ± Prone to Milk Fever Urine pH 5.Kidney overload  Negative DCAD    Test urine pH to evaluate dry cow ration  .5-6.

Anionic Salts      Ammonium Chloride Ammonium Sulfate Calcium Chloride Magnesium Sulfate Magnesium Chloride .

Milk Fever .must be masked Solicit help of competent nutritionist  If forced by circumstance .5% of DM Phosphorus <45 g/day or 0.35% of DM This severely limits alfalfa inclusion! Work best when dietary Ca > 150 g/day Very unpalatable .anionic salts    .Prevention  MANAGE the dry cow feeding program!    Calcium < 50 grams/day or 0.

Milk Fever Disease Complex .

Ketosis     Disorder results from inadequate energy intake When blood glucose low cow mobilizes fat stores Fat breakdown results in ketone production Ketones build up in blood and liver .

Ketosis .Causes  Acetonemia   acetoacetic acid Beta-Hydroxybutyric acid Milk production .secondary  Energy needs exceed dietary intake       Cow draws on body fat stores Fat cows Poor feeds Affects 3-17% of cows .primary Illness .

Energy Imbalance .


Clinical Signs           10-60 da. PP (avg = 28) Sweet smell  Breath. urine.Ketosis . milk Loss of appetite especially concentrates Rumen inactivity Dull and listless Loss in body weight Decreased milk production Lack of coordination Nervous ketosis Milk/Urine test strips    Urine is 4X higher in ketones than milk Normal cows may show high on a urine test Milk better .

Blood Components of Normal and Ketotic Cows (mg/dl) Normal Blood Glucose Ketones Plasma NEFA Triglycerides 3 14 32 8 52 3 28 42 Ketotic McGill University ± 324-450A .

Treatments   IV glucose  Very short lived effect Corticosteroids  Produce glucose from protein stores Propylene glycol  Drenches  Gels  Add to fresh cow ration Sodium propionate Hormonal Treatment   Oral sugar precursors   .Ketosis .

Ketosis .Prevention           Avoid over conditioned cows Balance diet Avoid dietary changes at calving Maximize feed intake Feed palatable feeds Feed high quality forages Limit competition between cows Lead feed concentrates  Up to 10 lb Feed TMR to prevent sorting Feed niacin (6g/day) 2 weeks before calving .

Fat Cow Syndrome .

Fat Cow Syndrome   Also known as Fatty Liver Syndrome Symptoms similar to ketosis   Add poor response to treatments Mastitis and poor immune function Negative energy balance leads to fat mobilization     So is cause  Ruminant livers have limited capacity of utilizing fat Triglycerides build up in liver Treatment same as ketosis  Cull .

0  Don¶t change BCS during the dry period .5 Dry <=4.Prevention   Minimize negative energy balance postcalving Manage BCS of late lactation and dry cows    Avoid fat cows Late Lactation <=3.

Retained Placenta     Selenium Vitamin E Proper BCS Avoid Milk Fevers .

Displaced Abomasum     DA.24 . LDA. twisted stomach Occurs around calving Normally on right Two types   left .85% right .very serious mechanical metabolic  Theories     Incidence 3-15% of cows Heritability .

DA .

Factors Affecting DA¶s .

fat cow syndrome .Clinical Signs         Off feed Depression Dehydration Secondary ketosis Asymmetrical bloating Little manure produced Arched back Other illness  Milk fever. mastitis.DA .

Treatment and Prevention  Treatments     Do nothing Rolling Blind stitching Surgery    Fiber in diet .DA .particle size Dry cow and close up rations Prevention   Lead feeding Slug feeding vs. TMR  Prevention of other disorders .

Acidosis   Nutritional imbalances causing low ph in rumen Caused by   Low fiber High concentrate  Slug feeding of grain   Clinical and Subclinical .SARA Two types    Periparturient  Under 30 DIM Ration formulation and delivery 30+ dim .

Metabolic Acidosis .

Rumen Adaptations Due to ph .

Acidosis Prevention       No good treatment ± Prevention Key! Lead feeding of concentrates Encourage DMI Maintain adequate fiber in ration Feed TMR Add buffers to ration   Bicarb Magox .

painful Subclinical ± no symptoms for 1-3 months Chronic ± long term .Laminitis  Non infectious inflammation of the vascular tissue lamina of the hoof    Acute ± sudden onset.


Causes        Acidosis Gram negative bacteria in rumen die and release endotoxins Histamine released Constriction and dilation of capillaries Edema Damaged capillaries destroyed Synthesis of keratin affected .

General Prevention of Metabolic Diseases     Keep DMI high Keep adequate forage/fiber in diet Avoid ration changes Lead feed concentrates .