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ARCHITECT AND TOWN-PLANNER
GAURI MORE IV TH YEAR B.ARCH
ASIA AND AFRICA 4. HIS THEORY : EKISTIKS 3. LIST OF WORKS IN EUROPE .INDEX 1. ABOUT DOXIADIS 2. CONCLUSION . MAJOR WORK : ISLAMABAD D 5.
and cultural. Doxiadis d FOLLOWING IS A LIST OF HIS WORK IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES : AFRICA Sudan Land and water use survey for a 90.the physical environment. anthropos. Chingola. Master plan. C. organized in five ekistic elements: nature. Master plans and programs for Greater Khartoum and Port Sudan.A. It is generally a more academic field than "urban planning". Chililabombwe. and occasionally aesthetics.. for the cities of Lusaka. It includes regional. buildings and infrastructure. Kafue. Plans for Marsa el Brega. Master plan and program for the development of the city of llorin . Chililabombwe. It involves the study of all kinds of human settlements. DOXIADIS Constantinos A. buildings and infrastructure. including supervision of their implementation.ABOUT CONSTANTINOS A. Development program and plan for 16 rural townships. including supervision of implementation. Community layout plans. shells. community layout plans. As a scientific mode of study is currently found to rely on statistics and description. was born in 1913. including master plans for 9 towns and plans for 65 villages and for the city of Beida. with a view to geography and ecology . design of houses. Master plan for the Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area. (1913 . for the new city of Tema Plans and programs for the development of the state of Guanabara and the city of Rio de Janeiro Nigeria Ghana Brazil . Zambia Libya Regional plan and program for Cyrenaica. Chipata. THEORY : EKISTIKS The term Ekistics (coined by Konstantinos Apostolos Doxiadis in 1942) applies to the science of human settlements. Etinan. community planning and dwelling design. for the new industrial town of Kafue Community layout plans and design of infrastructure. the new oil town. and has considerable overlap with some of the less restrained fields of architectural theory. Kafue and Mufulira.A .28 June 1975) Often quoted as C. Also known as the Father of Ekistiks. city. and human psychology and anthropology. society. Doxiadis Greek architect and town planner. Regional plan for the Accra-Tema-Akosombo area . Opobo. and networks. towns of of Eket. buildings and infrastructure. political.000 sq km savannah area in the Kordofan province . Master plans and programs for the cities of Lusaka. including design of infrastructure and supervision of construction. Regional development plan for Lagos State and Midwestern state. design of houses. Greater Jos . Chingola. including design of house types. Oron in Cross River State. the son of Apostolos and Evanthia (Mezeviri) Doxiadis. Implementation of Beida master plan. Doxiadis. Mongu and Mufulira.
Outline plan for the city of Skopje. including supervision of their implementation. Master plan. Tenerife. for the new city of Tema. plans and infrastructure designs for Islamabad. Bureidah. etc. community layout plans. proposals and aspects for housing of low income families in Tehran. Plans and programs for the development of industrial poles in East and West Andalusia. La Raima. Qatif. in collaboration with SIE (Sociedad de Investigacion Economica).Transportation study for Puerto de la Cruz. buildings and infrastructure. Troodos. Khobar. Italy Spain Yugoslavia Cyprus . Consulting Engineers and Architects Detailed housing. Improvement and beautification of roads in the cities of: Ahsa. Tuy (Pontevedra). transportation and infrastructure studies for Baghdad. Chiclana de la Frontera. Gerona. Syria Pakistan Jordan Iran Iraq d EUROPE France Greece Development study for the Mediterranean region Regional plan for the Accra-Tema-Akosombo area . Polservice-Warsaw and Wilbur Smith and General study for the tourist development of the country and Detailed studies for the tourist development of Alakati Beach and Mt. Housing program and consulting services during construction for the Greater Karachi Resettlement Program for 500. Master plan for the Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area. detailed master plan for Farahnaz Recreation Town and Shiraz master plan in collaboration with EMCO-Architects and Planners. including consulting services during implementation. Tourist development studies for the coastline south of Aqaba and plan of Aqaba waterfront development in collaboration with the Jordan Trade and Development Office Tourist development studies for the Caspian Sea coast. Social survey. Guipuzcoa.ASIA Saudi Arabia Physical plans and programs for the central and northern regions .Leon. Design and supervision of implementation of street and plot numbering in Riyadh. . Unayzah(design and supervision). La Gomera and Hierro Master plans and programs for the towns of Puerto de la Cruz.Master plans and programs for the city of Riyadh and 12 other settlements. Adeje (Tenerife). Tourist development study for an area near Otranto National physical plan and program.000 people. design of houses. Capdepera (Mallorca). Dammam. Mosul and many other cities .000 people. Master plan for the city of Limassol. Basrah. Ekistic model for Catalonia. Master plans and programs for the cities of Horns. Lerida and Pontevedra Regional plans and programs for the Canary Islands: Tenerife. La Guardia. Master plans and programs for Baghdad and other major cities New master plan and program for the city of Kirkuk. Jubayl(supervision).000. including supervision of implementation. in collaboration with the Institute of Planning and Architecture of Skopje Skopje urban plan project. planned for 2. Design and supervision of construction of infrastructure works in various residential and tourist communities. La Orotava. Regional plans and programs for the physical development of the provinces of Barcelona. in collaboration with the Institute of Planning and Architecture of Skopje. Programs.Hama and Selemiyah. the new capital of Pakistan. in collaboration with National Center.
The main highways. one outside Karachi and the other to the north of Rawalpindi. Width 1200 ft 600 ft 100-300 ft Use Highway Commercial use These roads served the residential area. the Islamabad highway and the Murree highway whose alignment dictated by the natural landscape and manmade obstacles. 1839 m. etc. Known as Community class V. national research institute. the national university. the National Park area which will retain certain agricultural functions for several years and where site must be provided for a national sports center. Rawalpindi will remain the regional center serving industrial and commercial functions . The layout and structure of the existing port city did not allow it to take on the functions of a modern capital and the influx of refugees also intensified the problem further. the area of Rawalpindi.E.000 people. Roads placed 2. CONCEPTION OF MASTER PLAN LANDSCAPE PATTERN AND HIGHWAYS : Backbone of Islamabad metropolitan area master plan formed by two highways . C. which were not adequate in number or to the standards required by a capital.it runs from north-east to south-west along valleys formed by series of hills. b.MAJOR PROJECT : ISLAMABAD the capital of Pakistan INTRODUCTION Pakistan needed a new capital city as Karachi was not a satisfactory solution from points of view of climate . Doxiadis by naming him advisor to the Special Commission for the Location of the Capital The result of this report was that two areas were suggested for the new capital. . These axes form a big square. Islamabad will be the capital of the nation and will serve mainly administrative and cultural functions. A. These subdivisions emerged because of the road pattern adopted . each sector served 20. February 1959 H. Islamabad The sketch indicates growth of functions in the direction of the city's future expansion . a system of four highways becomes the basic step for the metropolitan area.000 ² 40. DYNAMETROPOLIS : Cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi will develop as twin cities serving each other in complementary ways. the center of which is the city of Rawalpindi. which will define all future transportation systems and all major functions within the metropolitan .200 yards apart from each other i. FORMATION OF THE METROPOLITIAN AREA : The principal system of axes in the metropolitan area of Islamabad defines three distinctive areas: a. c. The President of Pakistan honored Dr. Two more highways bypassing the existing town of Rawalpindi were proposed. the area of Islamabad proper. On the basis of the above ideas. Chief characteristic of the landscape.e. tradition and the existing buildings. Islamabad The three parts of the metropolitan area National Park D Rawalpindi DYNAMETROPOLIS CONSISTS OF FOLLOWING AREAS : Islamabad Rawalpindi The central functions of Islamabad and Rawalpindi The National Park ISLAMABAD : Whole metropolitan area subdivided in sectors.
densities. streets. UNITY OF SCALE : a principle adopted in designing the Islamabad master plan . the layout plan of which was designed to harmonize with the buildings of the administrative sector opposite the public buildings sector. squares. roads. Thus a co-ordinated growth was brought upon. . A scale measurement was determined to govern the elements composing the city. open spaces. Based on a study of the scale of the city made by the chief consultant. This study led to concrete proposals for the public-buildings area.Rawalpindi RAWALPINDI : The existing town of Rawalpindi was developed along with Islamabad and placed at such a distance so as to : To procide the new capital with services and buildings already existing in Rawalpindi to save costs. Form an independent settlement for purposes of allowing the design of a physical plan independent of the existing restrictions imposed by the plan of Rawalpindi town. and floor indices of the buildings were specified for each particular sector. MASTER PLAN OF THE METROPOLITIAN AREA : D THE MASTER PLAN OF THE METROPOLITIAN AREA : Each of the three parts defined by the alignment of the main axes of the metropolitan area is subdivided into sectors. volume. Rawal lake was situated here was created in 1961 followed by the construction of a dam which served the agricultural purposes etc. etc. THE NATIONAL PARK : National park was designed to serve Rawalpindi as well as Islamabad Designed to provide space for National university Atomic energy center Research center National health center Sports centers Exhibition areas Zoo Botanical gardens Agricultural area for cultivating vegetables. heights. Rawalpindi and the National Park. The approved Master Plan for the Metropolitan area covers the whole area of Islamabad. such as plots.
Spaces and perspectives created along way agree with the same hierarchical order. recreation. A sewage treatment plant. A Community Class IV for 12. Water Supply System : Water is was first being tapped from two springs in Nurpur and Saidpur. filtration plants. then to the centre of a Class III Community. this section of the capital ² which is its brain centre and pulsating heart . was also constructed . This will be called Capital Avenue and looks towards the presidential palace located in a commanding position on the top of a hill. designed by Doxiadis Associates. Due to the fixed road. designed in collaboration with Dorr-Oliver. . HEIRARCHY OF FUNCTIONS : There are three or four primary schools per Class III Community and a kindergarten or children's playground in each Class II Community. Community class V that is each sector was self supporting and self containing. The green areas are highlighted below in the Community Class V for 40. and on the basis of the theory and principles of the city of the future (dynapolis) the administrative as well as the central sector of the city both begin at the core of Islamabad. Water storage tanks. Thus. and so on. (Community class IV) Community class IV is subdivided into several Communities class III Community class III is further subdivided into Communities class II Vehicular and pedestrian an roads Sewerage system : Sewage and drainage networks. The civic centre was placed in the centre and the community was further subdivided into other communities . were constructed by the Capital Development Authority. and similar works have been built.000 people Community Class V A Community Class III for 3. pedestrian and vehicle traffic have been segregated by a road system where the scales of human and motor-vehicle movements differ. and the distribution system is now under construction D PEDESTRIAN AND VEHICULAR TRAFFIC : Further divided into three or four smaller communities .000 people. Community class V In the Class V Community. sports activities. These communities were made depending on the income groups . at the core of the city of Islamabad and at the end of the main axis. and the location of the administrative centre on a higher level. but ilater arrangements were made to dam the Swan river to bring water to the town by gravity. Pedestrians move within the human community though a spatial hierarchy from small pedestrian streets towards the larger ones of a Class II Community. The same hierarchical planning of spaces of several sizes is provided for functions such as health.000 people LAYOUT PLAN : Organization : the sub dicision of the communities is shown below . etc.will dominate the city even after it has expanded and fully grown along the patterns provided for The hills lying north-west of Rawal lake form an ideal setting for the administrative sector. THE ADMINISTRATIVE SECTOR : The main axis runs through the core of Islamabad.
especially in low-income areas. Most plots are rectangular. yards. Each house has closed. The undulating landscape of Islamabad offers the city a high degree of variety. As a principle.000 sq.B. great attention was paid to the shape of each space in a given community. Privacy It was given serious attention in designing individual houses. Special efforts were made to avoid irregular plots. Islamabad plots vary from 111 sq. as they do not offer privacy as readily as do individual houses. C. It was attempted to situate the houses as much as possible in accordance with the morphology of the site. and a shower room. For this reason. STREETS AND HOUSES : Street design ² Positive space While designing detailed layout plans. Entrance view 1 Plan of low income house View of low income house : View from the courtyard Entrance view 2 . residential apartments are few. the frontage dimensions of plots are less than their depth. W. necessary for comfortable life in a country with cold winters and very hot summers. D Courtyard DIFFERENT SIZES OF PLOTS A. yards to about 3. especially those near the civic centres. supplied with running water and electricity.C SALIENT FEATURES : no house has less than two rooms and a kitchen. and to improve urban economics. semi-covered or open living spaces. and in the most economical way. depending on income group.. HOUSE DESIGN : With few exceptions. and connected with the sewage system.
and man of action and he was an apt public speaker AWARDS OR DECORATIONS Greek Military Cross Order of the British Empire PURPOSE for his services during the war 1940-41 for his activities in the National Resistance and for his collaboration with the Allied Forces. One of the prime leaders in restoring Greece to a normal peacetime existence. where shifting political and economic forces did not allow full implementation of his plans. He became world wide known as the lead architect of Islamabad. the city of Rawalpindi. first as Undersecretary and Director-General of the Ministry of Housing and Reconstruction. a private firm of consulting engineers. in 1963. Chairman of the Session on Urban Problems at the UN Conference on the Application of Science and Technology for the benefit of the less developed areas held in Geneva in 1963. Town Planning and Ekistics" . 2. visionary . 3. Hephaestus. Due to the his various achievements and his contributions to the society he was often described as a scientist. 1945 . Designed as a new city it was fully realised. Minister-Coordinator of the Greek Recovery Program and Undersecretary of the Ministry of Coordination. salesman. Head of the Greek Delegation at the Greco-Italian War Reparations Conference(1949-50). He founded Doxiadis Associates. Head of the Greek Delegation at the UN International Conference on Housing. Acquiring its legal form as DA International Co.1948 1948-1951 1951 1958-1971 . Thus ISLAMABAD is considered as one of his most well known town planning works. with a small group of architects and planners . and published a magazine called "Regional Planning. Planning and Reconstruction in 1947. Industrial Designers Society of America 1963 1963 1965 D Aspen Award for the Humanities CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE SOCIETY 1966 YEAR 1937 1940-1945 Appointed Chief Town Planning Officer for the Greater Athens Area . 4. allows easy and affordable access to public transport and utilities and permits low cost gradual expansion and growth without losing the human scale of his "communities". Held the post of Head of the Department of Regional and Town Planning in the Ministry of Public Works while also serving as a corporal in the Greek Army.. Taught ekistics at the Athens Technological Organization and lectured at universities all over the United States as well as at Oxford and Dublin Served as representative of Greece on the Housing. the new capital of Pakistan. Ltd. unlike many of his other proposals in already existing cities. The plan for Islamabad separates cars and people. MiddLe East for his contribution to the development of Lebanon Phoenix for his contribution to the development of Greece YEAR 1941 1945 Order of the Cedar of Lebanon Royal Order of the Phoenix 1958 1960 Sir Patrick Abercrombie Prize of the International Union of Architects Cali de Oro (Mexican Gold Medal) Award of the Society of Mexican Architects Award of Excellence.. Consultants on Development and Ekistics. and later as the father of Ekistics. Building and Planning Committee of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations in New York. planner. Chief of the National Resistance Group. 5. Baghdad.CONCLUSION Observations and Conclusions : 1.
INTERNET D . BIOGRAPHY AT DOXIADIS FOUNDATION 2.REFERENCES : 1.
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