Augmented Reality

Presentation By: Nishant RC1804A03

What is Augmented Reality? 

combination of a real scene viewed by a user and a virtual scene generated by a computer that augments the scene with additional information.


Hardware The main hardware components for augmented reality are: display, tracking, input devices, sensors and processor. These elements, specifically CPU, camera, display, accelerometer, GPS and solid state compass are often present in modern smartphones, which make them prospective AR platforms. Display There are three major display techniques for Augmented Reality are head±mounted displays, handheld displays.


A Head Mounted Display (HMD) places images of both the physical world and registered virtual graphical objects over the user's view of the world. The HMD's are either optical see±through or video see±through. Optical see-through employs half-silver mirrors to pass images through the lens and overlay information to be reflected into the user's eyes. The HMD must be tracked with sensor that provides six degrees of freedom . This tracking allows the system to align virtual information to the physical world. The main advantage of HMD AR is the user's immersive experience. The graphical information is slaved to the view of the user.

Handheld displays employ a small display that fits in a user's hand. All handheld AR solutions to date opt for video see-through. Initially handheld AR employed fiduciary markers, and later GPS units and MEMS sensors such as digital compasses and six degrees of freedom accelerometer gyroscope. Today SLAM markerless trackers such as PTAM are staring come in use. Handheld display AR promises to be the first commercial success for AR technologies. The two main advantages of handheld AR is the portable nature of handheld devices and ubiquitous nature of camera phones.

Input devices

Techniques include the pinch glove,a wand with a button and a smartphone that signals its position and orientation from camera images.

Software A key measure of AR systems is how realistically they integrate augmentations with the real world. The software must derive real world coordinates, independent from the camera, from camera images. That process is called image registration and is part of Azuma's definition of Augmented Reality. Image registration uses different methods of computer vision, mostly related to video tracking. Many computer vision methods of augmented reality are inherited from visual odometry Usually those methods consist of two parts. First detect interest points, or fiduciary markers, or optical flow in the camera images. First stage can use feature detection methods like corner detection, blob detection, edge detection or thresholding and/or other image processing methods.

The Ultimate Goal of AR 

a system such that no user CANNOT tell the difference between the real world and the virtual augmentation of it.

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Augmented Reality vs. Virtual Reality
Augmented Reality  System augments the real world scene  User maintains a sense of presence in real world  Needs a mechanism to combine virtual and real worlds
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Virtual Reality:  Totally immersive environment  Visual senses are under control of system (sometimes aural and proprioceptive senses too)

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How does it work?

A range of technologies can be used for augmented reality. Many augmented reality projects use headgear or a similar device that projects data into the user¶s field of vision, corresponding With a real object or space the user is observing. In the case of a technical course on PC maintenanc for example, augmented reality might overlay a schematic diagram onto the inside of a computer, allowing students to identify the various components and access technical specifications about them. PDAs or other portable devices can use GPS data to provide users with context including visual, audio, or text-based data about real objects or places. Augmented reality is not merely a companion text or multimedia file but a technology designed to ³see´ a real object or place and provide the user with appropriate information at the right time. Augmented reality is designed to blur the line between the reality the user is experiencing and the Content provided by technology.

Who¶s doing it?

Augmented reality has been put to use in a number of fields,including medical imaging, where doctors can access dataabout patients; aviation, where tools show pilots important data about the landscape they are viewing; training, in which technology provides students or technicians with necessary data about specific objects they are working with; and in museums, where a rtifacts can be tagged with information such as the artifact¶s historical context or where it was discovered. Within the academy, educators are beginning to provide students with deeper, more meaningful experiences by linking educational content with specific places and objects. In many disciplines,field trips are part of the course; by supplementing these explorations with mobile technologies and data-collection devices (including digital cameras), the lessons can be extended beyond the field trip. In some cases, augmented reality technologies have been Integrated into educational games. In MIT¶s Environmental Detectives, for example, students learn about environmental sciences and ecosystems by finding clues and solving a mystery on the MIT campus using PDAs fitted with GPS devices.

Where is it going?

Computing devices, especially wireless ones, are becoming more powerful and increasingly widespread. At the same time,costs for these devices are falling. As computing hardware²both wired and wireless²approaches ubiquity, new opportunities emerge to use technology to enrich individuals¶ experiences of objects and places. Because all areas of academic inquiry benefit from background and context, augmented reality has the possibility of enhancing education across the curriculum. By exposing students to an experiential, explorative, and authentic model of learning early in their higher education careers, augmented reality has the potential to help shift modes of learning from students¶ simply being recipients of content to their taking an active role in gathering and processing information, thereby creating knowledge.

Performance Issues
Augmented Reality systems are expected:  To run in real-time so that the user can move around freely in the environment  Show a properly rendered augmented image Therefore, two performance criteria are placed on the system:  Update rate for generating the augmenting image  Accuracy of the registration of the real and virtual image
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Limitations for Updating the Generated Images
be at 10 times/second  More photorealistic graphics rendering  Current technology does not support fully lit, shaded and ray-traced images of complex scenes 

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Medical  Entertainment  Manufacturing,

Maintenance, and Repair  Military Training  Consumer Design  Engineering Design  Hazard Detection  Robotics and  Audio Telerobotics

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Applications as of 2011 Advertising: Marketers started to use AR to promote products via interactive AR applications. For example, at the 2008 LA Auto Show, Nissan unveiled the concept vehicle Cube and presented visitors with a brochure which, when held against a webcam , showed alternate versions of the vehicle.[ In August 2009, Best Buy ran a circular with an augmented reality code that allowed users with a webcam to interact with the product in 3D. In 2010 Walt Disney used mobile AR to connect a movie experience to outdoor advertising

Task support: Complex tasks such as assembly, maintenance, and surgery can be simplified by inserting additional information into the field of view. For example, labels can be displayed on parts of a system to clarify operating instructions for a mechanic who is performing maintenance on the system.AR can include images of hidden objects, which can be particularly effective for medical diagnostics or surgery. Examples include a virtual X-ray view based on prior tomography or on real time images from ultrasound and microconfocal probes or open NMR devices. AR can enhance viewing a fetus inside a mother's womb See also Mixed reality.

Applications: Entertainment

Screenshot from the movie³Who Framed Roger Rabbit?´ blending the real character and background with computer generated cartoon characters

Applications: Aircraft

Boeing 737 cockpit with HeadHeadup Display (HUD) (Flight Dynamics Inc.)

Head Up Guidance System (HGS) (Flight Dynamics Inc.)

Applications: Nightvision

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