• The need for development and the • The importance of proper managem • Measures taken in the managemen

The need for development and the effects of an increasing population on the ecosystem
• Population of the world always increase, so do their needs. • The needs for more food supplies, water, home has led to development. • These development involves deforestation, the building more dams, and production of more domestic and industrial waste. • The unmanaged and unplanned development leads to a pollution of environment. • To reduces the negative effects of developments, human must have efforts to manage the environment properly.

The importance of proper management of development activities
• Way to balance the needs for resources with the needs to conserve the natural resources. • To make a sustainable development without jeopardising or depleting the natural resources. • Ensure that short-term gains be balance with the long-term effects on the environment. • To exploit natural resources in a sustainable way, so these resources can be replenished and renewed for future generations to continue to use them. • To minimize the negative effects of development towards the environment.

Measures taken in the management of development activities
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Implementations of laws Use of technology Education on the management of resourc Preservation and conservation of soil, wa The practice of biological control The use of renewable energy The efficient use of energy

Implementations of laws
• Many laws and regulations are designed to control pollution which affects the quality of lands, air and water. Examples of the act; - The Environment Quality Acts, 1974, 1989
* Motor Vehicle Noise Regulations,1987 * Scheduled Wastes Treatment and Disposal Facilities Regulations, 1989 * Clean Air Regulations, 2000 (Amendment)

- The National Forestry Act, 1984 - The Pesticides Act, 1974 - The Fisheries Act, 1985 - The Protection of Wildlife Act, 1972

Use of technology
• Install catalytic converters in vehicle to clean up exhaust emissions and convert harmful gases released to less harmful gases. • Use unleaded petrol to reduce the emissions of leads into environment. • Treat sewage in sewage treatment plants before it is discharged to reduce water pollution. • Treat toxic waste from factories before it is discharged into the environment. • Use microorganisms to clean up the environment. • Develop hydrogen-based fuel-cell vehicle to reduce the burning of fossil fuels.

Education on the management of resources
• The public must be educated on the concept of the 4R. • Recycle means collecting segregating waste according to the types of materials and turning this waste into new products. • Reuse means use things such as old plastics containers and bottles again instead of throwing them away. • Reduce means cutting down on the use of materials which are non-biodegradable. • Renew means to use materials such as bottles and plastic containers after they are cleaned.

Recycling is important because;
• Fewer landfills will be needed to dispose of rubbish. • It cuts down the use of resources, for example, fewer trees will be cut down to make furniture and paper. • It saves energy. For example, less energy is needed to melt down scrap metal and use it again than to extract it from the ore.

Preservation and conservation
• • Preservations involves efforts to protect an ecosystem. Conservations involves efforts to return an affected ecosystem to its natural equilibrium and keep them good. Preservations is better than conservations. The efforts of conservations includes; - Preservations of soil - Preservations of water - Preservations of flora and fauna of forest - Preservations of mangrove swamps

• •

Preservations of soils
• Make a sustainable agricultural development effectively. • Good farming technique will prevent erosion and soil depletion. • Good agricultural practices include;  Crop rotation  Contour farming  Controlled grazing  Planting cover crops  The appropriate use of fertilisers  Effective drainage and irrigations

Preservations of water
• Clean water is a precious resource and commodity. • As such, water sources and water catchment areas must be preserved.  Rivers must not be regarded as dumping sites for domestic and toxic wastes which can pollutes the water.  The use of nitrates and phosphates in agriculture must be controlled to prevent run-offs into rivers and ponds.

Preservations of flora and fauna of rainforest
• Biologist have estimated that Malaysian rainforest contain more than 50% of the world’s plant. 15000 of them has not studied yet. • If deforestation proceed faster than afforestation, many of these species could become extinct before they can be documented. • Important of forest; - As a diverse storehouse of plant and animal species which can provide useful and medicine for mankind. -play an important role in the regulation of microclimate and the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. -sites for research and education.

Example of sustainable and planned project
• Selective harvesting - Means only mature trees are removed. • Reforestation - Large-scale replanting of trees where logging activities have been carried out. • Restoration programmes - Restore damage habitat to preserve natural life and wildlife. • Forest reserves - To prevent destruction of existing forest. - As a habitat for flora and fauna.

Preservations of mangrove swamps
• Rich source of biodiversity. • Play an important role in flood control, nutrient retention, sediment control and the prevention of coastal erosion. Also act as a barrier against rising sea levels. • When area of mangrove swamps is cleared for aquaculture and development, many plant and animal will extinct. • Hence, mangrove swamps must be preserved and protected as it gives much benefit to mankind.

The practice of biological control
• Biological control is the use of natural predators to control the population of pest species. • Examples; - the use of khaki chambel (a species of ducks) to control the population of gold snails (siput gondang emas) which feeds on paddy stalks. - the use of owls to control the populations of rats in oil palm plantations. - th use of the hoverfly larvae to control aphids which feed on crop plants.

•Biological control is better than using chemical controls because;  The use of pesticides is indiscriminates and sometimes harmless organisms as well as the pest species are killed.  The effects of pesticides is persistent and remain in the environment for long periods.  The concentration of pesticides are amplified as they pass through food chains (biomagnifications).this is dangerous to the last consumers and may effects them.  The cost of using pesticides is high.  The extensive use of the pesticides pollutes the environment.

The use of renewable energy
• Renewable energy is energy flow that occurs naturally in the environment and can be harnessed for the benefit of the humans. • Renewable energy is inexhaustible and does not pollute the air. • Examples of renewable energy; - Solar energy (generates electricity) - Wind energy (to operate windmills) - Flowing water (generate hydroelectric power) - Wave energy (generates electricity) - Geothermal energy (generates electricity) - Biomass energy (produces biogas as fuel) - Gasohol ( converted to ethanol as fuel) - Palm oil (converted to methyl ester as fuel)

The efficient use of energy
• Reduce the burning of coal, petroleum and other fossil fuels. • Substitute natural gas for coal at power plants. • Improve fuel efficiency in vehicles-use cars that run on energy-efficient engines. • Use a cleaner fuel by reducing the content of sulphur in diesel and switching to gas. • Improve energy efficiency in factories. • Use more hybrid car which combine