THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

• Formation of the interstitial fluid and lymph. blood flows from arteries into capillaries there is higher When hydrostatic pressure at the arterial end of capillaries. The high pressure forces some fluid (except erythrocyte, platlets, protien plasma) out through the capillary walls into •intercellular spaces between cells. walls, it is called interstitial Once the fluid leaves the capillary or tissue fluid. The interstitial fluid fills the spaces & bathes the cells •The interstitial fluid that has not been reabsorbed into the blood stream goes into the lymph capillaries (10%). Once inside the lymph capillaries the fluid is called LYMPH. * 90% of interstitial fluid will flow back into the blood stream through blood capillaries If the interstitial fluid unable to return to the blood Circulatory system it will accumulate & cause tissue Swelling known as oedema.

Composition of the interstitial fluid: • Is similar to the blood plasma. •Consist of water, dissolve nutrients, hormones, waste product, gases & leucocytes • Has no erythrocytes, platelets & large protein (albumin, globulin & fibrinogen) Importance of the Interstitial fluid : • It forms the internal environment of the body. •It bath the cells & supplies them with oxygen & nutrients which diffuse from blood through the walls of blood vessel into the intercellular spaces. • Excretory waste product (carbon dioxide & urea) diffuse out of the cells into the interstitial fluid.

The Structure of Lymphatic system : • Lymphatic system is single way system consist of a network of lymph capillaries, lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes.

LYMPHATIC VESSELS
• Lymphatic capillaries are blind-ended tubes located in the

spaces between the cells •The interstitial fluid that has not been reabsorb into blood stream goes into lymphatic capillaries •Once inside the lymph capillaries is known as lymph. • Lymph is colourless fluid found in the lymphatic vessels. •Along the lymphatic vessel there are valve to ensure continuous flow of lymph to prevent backflow of the lymph.

LYMPH NODES • Located at intervals along the lymphatic vessels are lymph nodes. •Plentiful in the neck, groin, armpit & abdomen of the body. • Produce lymphocytes & antibodies, filter out bacteria & foreing particles •Protect body from infections

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LYMPHATIC S YS & BLOOD CIR S YS. HEAR T

BLOOD CAP

LEFT SUBCLAVIAN VEIN

RIGHT SUBCLAVIAN VEIN

INTERSTITIAL FLUID

THORACIC DUCT

RIGHT LYMP. DUCT

LYMPH CAPILLARIES LYMPH VESSEL

THORACIC DUCT. • RECEIVES LYMPH FROM THE LEFT SIDE OF HEAD, NECK & CHEST, THE LEFT UPPER LIMB & THE ENTIRE BODY BELOW RIBS.

RIGHT LYMPHATIC DUCT. • RECEIVES LYMPH FROM THE RIGHT ARM, SHOULDER AREA, & RIGTH SIDE OF THE HEAD & NECK

ROLE OF LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
1. Collects the interstitial fluid & returns it to 2. 3. 4.
circulatory system. Fats & fats soluble vits are absorbed through lacteal & transported to the blood circulatory sys. The lymph nodes filter out bacteria & foreign particles. Lymphocytes produce antibodies which aid in the destruction of pathogen & neutralization of toxin.

*Compare the content of blood, interstitial fluid and lymph?