Job Analysis

Job Analysis
• Job analysis is the process of gathering information about a job. It is, to be more specific, a systematic investigation of the tasks, duties and responsibilities necessary to do a job. • According to Edwin Flippo, "Job Analysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibility of a specific job." • According to David A. DeCenzo and Stephen P. Robbins, "Job Analysis is a systematic exploration of the activities within a job. It is a basic technical procedure, one that is used to define the duties, responsibilities and accountability of a job."

Types of Information Collected
Work activities Human requirements Human behaviors

Job context

Informatio n Collected Via Job Analysis

Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids

Performance standards

Nature of job analysis
Job Tasks

Job Analysis

Job Duties

Job Responsibilities

Job Analysis

Use of Job Analysis Information Recruitment and Selection Legal Compliance Discovering Unassigned Duties Informatio n Collected Via Job Analysis Compensation Performance Appraisal Training .

Uses of Job Analysis Information .

M Important Benefits of Job Analysis u l t i f a c e t e d N a t u r e R o f J o b e n A n a l y s i s H P m a n R la n n in g u e s o u r c e e c r u it m t S e le c t i o n J o b E v a lu a t i o n P la c e m e n t J o b D e s ig n R e d e s i g n a n d T r a in i n g P A e r f o r m a n p p r a i s a l c e E m p lo y e e S C a f e t y o u n s e llin g .

" Job description means describing the details of the job to be performed. "a statement of minimum acceptable human qualities necessary to perform a job properly. Job Specification is. It should tell what is to be done. Job Specification: According to Edwin Flippo. "an organised factual statement of the duties and responsibilities of a specific job. It refers to a summary of the personal . Job Description is.Components of Job Analysis Job Description: According to Edwin Flippo. how it is done and why.

Who should conduct job analysis?  Job incumbents themselves  Supervisors  External analysts .

(Organizational Analysis) Select representative positions. ( Data Collection and Analysis) Verify the job analysis information. . Review relevant background information. Develop a job description and job specification. Actually analyze the job.Steps in Job Analysis Steps in doing a job analysis: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Decide how you’ll use the information.

Methods Of Collecting Job Analysis Data Seven general techniques are generally used to collect job analysis data.  Job performance: the analyst actually performs the job in question and collects the needed information  Personal observation: the analyst observes others doing the job and writes a summary  Critical incidents: job incumbents describe several incidents relating to work. analyses and classifies data. the analyst collects.  Interview: job incumbents and supervisors are interviewed to get the most essential information about a job Job Analysis . based on past experience.

 The Position Analysis Questionnaire: it is a standardised form used to collect specific information about job tasks and worker traits. Job Analysis .  Diary method: job incumbents asked to maintain diaries or logs of their daily job activities and record the time spent and nature of work carried out.Methods Of Collecting Job Analysis Data  Panel of experts: experienced people such as job incumbents and supervisors with good knowledge of the job asked to provide the information.  Questionnaire method: job incumbents approached through a properly designed questionnaire and asked to provide details.

6. Job Analysis 1. 12. 13. Products and services responsibility. marketing and financial strategy planning. 4. . Broad personnel responsibility. Autonomy of actions. Public and customer relations. 11.Methods Of Collecting Job Analysis Data  Management Position Description Questionnaire: it is a standardised form designed to analyse managerial jobs Management Position Description Factors Product. Complexity and stress. Approval of financial commitments. Supervision. 5. Internal business control. 7. 10. Staff service. 8. Coordination of other organisational units and personnel. 3. Advanced consulting. 9. 2. Advanced financial responsibility.

 Job Analysis .Methods Of Collecting Job Analysis Data Functional job analysis: it is a systematic process of finding what is done on a job by examining and analysing the fundamental components of data. people and things.

Reprinted with permission of the publisher. CT © 2004. Old Saybrook.FIGURE 4–3 Job Analysis Questionnaire for Developing Job Descriptions Note: Use a questionnaire like this to interview job incumbents. . Source: www.blr. Inc. Business and Legal Reports. or have them fill it out.hr..com.

 Avoid asking leading questions.  Control the time and subject matter of the interview. Job Analysis .  Help the worker to think and talk according to the logical sequence of the duties performed.Guidelines for conducting job analysis interviews  Put the worker at ease.  Secure specified and complete information pertaining to the work performed and the worker’s traits.  Ask the worker only one question at a time.  Summarise the information obtained before closing the interview.  Encourage the worker to talk by using empathy creativity.  Phrase questions carefully so that the answers will be more than just “yes” or “no”.  Be patient and considerate to the worker. easy language.  Conduct the interview in plain.  Close the interview promptly.  Consider the relationship of the present job to other jobs in the department. establish rapport.  Make the purpose of the interview clear.

please name it. What was your last job? If it was in another organisation. 3. What is the general purpose of your job? 2.Partial job analysis questionnaire The information about a job is usually collected through a structured questionnaire: JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION FORMAT Your Job Title_______________ Class Title_______________ Your Name_________________ Superior’s Title______________ Superior’s Name____________ Code__________Date_____________ Department_____________________ Facility___________________________ Prepared by_______________________ Hours Worked______AM______to AM____ PM 1. To what job would you normally expect to be promoted? Cont… PM Job Analysis .

How would you describe the successful completion and results of your work? 7. Job Duties – Please briefly describe WHAT you do and. If you regularly supervise others. list them by name and job title. How you do it. If you supervise others.Partial job analysis questionnaire 4. please check those activities that are part of your supervisory duties:  Hiring  Orienting  Training  Scheduling  Developing  Coaching  Counselling  Budgeting  Directing  Promoting  Compensating  Disciplining  Terminating  Other____________  Measuring Performances 6. Indicate those duties you consider to be most important and/or most difficult: Cont… Job Analysis . if possible. 5.

not your own educational background.  No formal education required   Less than high school diploma  College degree Education beyond graduate   High school diploma or equivalent degree and/or professional license.) 8. Please indicate the education you had when you were placed on this job.Partial job analysis questionnaire (a) Daily Duties (b) Periodic Duties (Please indicate whether weekly. monthly.   College certificate or equivalent List advanced degrees or specified professional license or certificate required. Job Analysis . (c) Duties Performed at Irregular Intervals Education – Please check the blank that indicates the educational requirements for the job. etc. quarterly.

Guidelines for conducting job analysis interviews  Put the worker at ease.  Summarise the information obtained before closing the interview.  Avoid asking leading questions.  Be patient and considerate to the worker.  Encourage the worker to talk by using empathy creativity.  Ask the worker only one question at a time.  Secure specified and complete information pertaining to the work performed and the worker’s traits.  Conduct the interview in plain. easy language.  Help the worker to think and talk according to the logical sequence of the duties performed.  Phrase questions carefully so that the answers will be more than just “yes” or “no”. Job Analysis .  Close the interview promptly.  Control the time and subject matter of the interview. establish rapport.  Consider the relationship of the present job to other jobs in the department.  Make the purpose of the interview clear.

CT © 4–21 2004. or have them fill it out..FIGURE 4–3 Job Analysis Questionnaire for Developing Job Descriptions Note: Use a questionnaire like this to interview job incumbents. Inc. .blr. Source: www.hr. Business and Legal Reports. © 2009 Dorling Kindersley (I) Pvt.com. Ltd. Reprinted with permission of the publisher. All rights reserved. Old Saybrook.

Source: www. or have them fill it out.FIGURE 4–3 Job Analysis Questionnaire for Developing Job Descriptions (cont’d) Note: Use a questionnaire like this to interview job incumbents. Old Saybrook. . Inc.hr.blr. All rights reserved. Business and Legal Reports. Reprinted with permission of the publisher. © 2009 Dorling Kindersley (I) Pvt. CT © 4–22 2004. Ltd..com.

Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques Quantitative Job Analysis Position Analysis Questionnaire The U. Department of Labor (DOL) Procedures Functional Job Analysis .S.

2. Mental Processes: What reasoning. Information Input: Where and how does the employee get the information he/she uses in performing his/her job. Assembling/disassembling. Physical activities: What physical activities does the employee perform and what tools or devices does he/she use? Examples: Use of Keyboard devices. decision making. Job Analysis Cont… . planning and informationprocessing activities are involved in performing the job? Examples: Levels of reasoning in problem solving. Coding/decoding 3. Near-visual differentiation.Employee activities in PAQ 1. Examples: Use of written materials.

customers. 6. Interpersonal conflict situations. Contacts with public. 5. conditions. Amount of job structure.Employee activities in PAQ 4. Relationships with other people: What relationships with other people are required in performing the job? Examples: Instructing. Other Job characteristics: What activities. Job Analysis . or characteristics other than those described above are relevant to the job? Examples: Specified work pace. Job context: In what physical and social context is the work performed? Examples: High temperature.

job context. This exhibits 11 of the “information input” questions or elements.doc. work output. Accessed May 10. © 2009 Dorling Kindersley (I) Pvt. Source: www. 2007. and other job characteristics. .ncf. All rights reserved.FIGURE 4–5 Portion of a Completed Page from the Position Analysis Questionnaire The 194 PAQ elements are grouped into six dimensions. relationships with others. Other PAQ pages contain questions regarding mental processes. Ltd.edu/humanresources/documents/ 4–26 A&P%20Final.

which of the basic functions illustrates the person’s job.” and “7” are lows in each column. “6. .” “8. “0” is high. for each of the three categories. people. and things by observing his or her job and determining.TABLE 4–1 Basic Department of Labor Worker Functions Data 0 Synthesizing 1 Coordinating 2 Analyzing 3 Compiling 4 Computing 5 Copying 6 Comparing People 0 Mentoring 1 Negotiating 2 Instructing 3 Supervising 4 Diverting 5 Persuading 6 Speaking/signaling 7 Serving 8 Taking instructions/helping Things 0 Setting up 1 Precision working 2 Operating/controlling 3 Driving/operating 4 Manipulating 5 Tending 6 Feeding/offbearing 7 Handling Basic Activities Note: Determine employee’s job “score” on data.

under what conditions it is done and why it is done. Job specification: it offers a profile of human characteristics (knowledge. how it is done.Job Description And Job Specification The end products of job analysis are: Job description: this is a written statement of what the job holder does. skills and abilities) Job Analysis needed by a person doing a job. .

Writing Job Descriptions Job Identification Job Specifications Job Summary Working Conditions Sections of a Typical Job Description Responsibilities and Duties Standards of Performance Authority of the Incumbent 4–29 © 2009 Dorling Kindersley (I) Pvt. . Ltd. All rights reserved.

FIGURE 4– 8 Sample Job Descriptio n. Pearson Education .

FIGURE 4– 8 Sample Job Descriptio n. India. . Pearson Education (cont’d) Source: Courtesy of Dorling Kindersley.

The Job Description • Job Identification – Job title – Preparation date – Preparer • Responsibilities and Duties – Major responsibilities and duties (essential functions) – Decision-making authority – Direct supervision – Budgetary limitations • Job Summary – General nature of the job – Major functions/activities • Relationships – – – – Reports to: Supervises: Works with: Outside the company: • Standards of Performance and Working Conditions – What it takes to do the job successfully .

Writing Job Specifications “What traits and experience are required to do this job well?” Specifications for Trained Versus Untrained Personnel Specifications Based on Judgment Specifications Based on Statistical Analysis .

. – Select personal traits that you believe should predict successful performance.Writing Job Specifications (cont’d) • Steps in the Statistical Approach – Analyze the job and decide how to measure job performance. – Measure the candidates’ subsequent job performance. – Statistically analyze the relationship between the human traits and job performance. – Test candidates for these traits.

Job Analysis in a “Jobless” World Job Design: Specialization and Efficiency? Job Enlargement Job Rotation Job Enrichment .

Job Analysis in a “Jobless” World (cont’d) Dejobbing the Organization Flattening the Organization Using SelfManaged Work Teams Reengineering Business Processes 4–36 © 2009 Dorling Kindersley (I) Pvt. All rights reserved. . Ltd.

– To create strategically-focused job descriptions. • Reasons for Competency-Based Job Analysis – To support a high-performance work system. measuring. – To support the performance management process in fostering.Competency-Based Job Analysis • Competencies – Demonstrable characteristics of a person that enable performance of a job. and rewarding: • General competencies • Leadership competencies • Technical competencies .

– Use off-the-shelf competencies databanks . • Identify critical incidents that pinpoint success on the job.Competency-Based Job Analysis (cont’d) • How to Write Job Competencies-Based Job Descriptions – Interview job incumbents and their supervisors • Ask open-ended questions about job responsibilities and activities.

FIGURE 4–12 The Skills Matrix for One Job at BP blue boxes indicate the minimum level of skill required for the job. All rights reserved. 4–39 Ltd. © 2009 Dorling Kindersley (I) Pvt. .

. of survey techniques. in statistical computations  Ability to conduct meetings. Job Analysis  Skill in writing job descriptions. in making group presentations. Knowledge. analysis performing work. in conducting job interviews.  A degree or diploma in Labour Laws is desirable. of job analysis procedures. to plan and prioritise  The position may require upto 15 per cent Age  Preferably below 30 years.  At least 3 years’ experience in a similar position in manufacturing company.  Knowledge of compensation practices in industries. Abilities competing compensation systems. Work Orientation Factors travel.Specimen of job specification Education work/PG Experience a large  MBA with specialisation in HRM/MA in social Diploma in HRM/MA in industrial psychology. of performance appraisal Skill.

 Job Analysis . the job analysis information must be supplemented with role analysis. peers are asked to state their expectations from the role incumbent The incumbent's role is clarified and expressed in writing after integrating the diverse viewpoints expressed by various role partners. Role analysis involves the following steps:  Identifying the objectives of the department and the functions to be carried out therein  Role incumbent asked to state his key performance areas and his understanding of the roles to be played by him  Other role partners of the job such as boss. subordinate.Role Analysis To have a clear picture about what a person actually does on a job.

Everyone sits in an open office. The travel allowances are the same so are the refreshments of course it sets stiff targets for employees. There is no perk that CEO Rajiv Mody enjoys that a junior employee does not. Job Analysis . adventure activities. There are no attendance registers and there is no limit on sick leaves." that all its employees shape of personality literature clubs. or commented "If I don't  Monsanto India: Monsanto India is a flat organisation (three to four levels).these may take the development programmes. The workstations are the some size. but trains them with a rare rigour so that they get a fair shot at those. Even these levels are often cut short through an open culture. cricket matches.  Hughes Software Systems: HSS makes sure get interesting breaks . I can change my section.A close look at the jobs India’s best work places inside  Sasken Communication Technologies: Employees enjoy considerable freedom to think and innovate and work in their own style. People identified as future leaders are rolled over Cont… challenging positions. There is absolutely no monitoring of anybody. Every employee is trusted and management is transparent. One of the employees even like my boss.

We make people stretch: but we make them stretch with a smile. gym instructor. study and rest. a gymnasium. psychological counsellor. employees could have all the comforts in the world: a variety of cuisines. senior executives remain glued to their seats even after office hours. a creche.A close look at the jobs India’s best work places inside  Cadbury India: Fun is serious business at Cadbury India.m. bunker beds for naps. a dietician. play. Not surprisingly. doctor. without sufficient reason! Job Analysis . The HR manager's statement sums up the company's philosophy: “We believe that the day you stop enjoying work is the day you stop contributing.  Philips Software Centre: The company's office in Bangalore. The company had to come out with an order recently stating that nobody should stay in the office after 9 p. It is a whole new world of work." The company firmly believes that a smile a day keeps the market blues away.

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