MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCES ACROSS THE PLASMA MEMBRANE Important to: Prevent excess water from entering the cell To let

required molecules into the cell & eliminate unwanted molecule. Plasma membrane is semi permeable, only certain molecule can move across it.

MATERIALS EXCRETED FROM CELL
MATERIALS EXCRETED SOURCES

CO2 O2 NITROGENOUS WASTE (UREA)

RESPIRATION PHOTOSYNTHESIS BREAKDOWN OF EXCESS PROTEIN

MATERIALS REQUIRED BY CELL
MATERIALS REQUIRED
O2 WATER

UTILISATION
CELL RESPIRATION PHOTOSYNTHESIS CELL METABOLISM MAINTAIN SOMOTIC PRESSURE NORMAL FUNCTION OF CELL RAW MATERIALS FOR LIPID SYNTHESIS CELL RESPIRATION

VITAMINS & MINERALS ION GLYCEROL & FATTY ACIDS GLUCOSE

THE STRUCTURE OF PLASMA MEMBRANE
ACCORDING TO FLUID MOSAIZ MODEL PLASMA MEMBRANE COMPOSED MAINLY OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS & PROTEIN. EACH PHOSPHOLIPID CONSIST OF TWO PARTS: A POLAR HEAD- HYDROPHILIC- ATTARACTED TO WATER. NON POLAR TAIL-HYDROFOBIC- REPEL WATER PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER ALSO CONTAIN CHOLESTEROL FUNCTION TO STRENTEN THE PLASMA MEMBRANE & MORE FLEXIBLE. IT ALSO CONTAIN TWO TYPE OF PROTEIN: PORE PROTEIN: FORM A CHANNEL ALOWS SMALL MOLECULES OR IONS THROUGH THEM. CARIER PROTEIN: TRANSPORT BIGGER MOLECULES SUCH AS GLUCOSE, AMINO ACID & VIT C.

TRANSPORT ACROSS MEMBRANE

ACTIV E

PASSIVE ( no need energy) Uses carier & pore protein Randomly movement of molecule

Facilitated diffussion NEEDS ENERGY
Uses Carrier & Pore Protien • follow concentration gradients •Until equiblibrium achieved •No need energy eg:Carrier Protien: Glucose, amino acid. Pore Protien: small ions K+ ,Na+, Ca 2+

Osmosis

Simple diffusion
Lipid bilayer • movement from higher region of concentration to lower concentration •Until equiblibrium achieved • eg : CO2 , O2 & lipid soluble (Vit A, D, E,& K fatty acid & glycerol).

Lipid bilayer

Uses protein carrier at Plasma membrane -Carry ions & molecules -eg: ions intake by root hairs of plant Molecules will bind at Specific site & Carrier Protein change shape to allow molecules across. -Against concentration -gradient

• Follow
concentration gradient: Does not need energy - carry only water molecules

GIVE COMPARISON BETWEEN DIFFUSION & OSMOSIS?

COMPARE & CONTRAST PASSIVE TRANSPORT & PASSIVE TRANSPORT?

TYPE OF TRANSPORT

EXAMPLE EXCHANGE OF GASES DURING PHOTOSYNTHESIS EXCHANGE O2 & CO2 AT ALVEOLUS ABSORPTION OF FOOD NUTRIENT

SIMPLE DIFFUSSION FACILITATED DIFFUSSION OSMOSIS

ABSORPTION OF WATER FROM ONE CELL TO ANOTHER IN TRANSPIRATION. ABSORPTOIN OF WATER BY ROOTS. FORMATION OF URINE IN KIDNEY.

ACTIVE TRANSPORT

Intake of ions to root Transport of nutrient through placenta. Transport potasium ion into nerve cell

CRITERIA FOR DETEMINING SOLUTION CONCENTRATION.
LOWER CONCENTRATION HIGHER CONCENTRATION OF SOLUTION OF SOLUTION

LOWER SOLUTE CONCENTRATION HIGHER WATER MOLECULE CONCENTRATION LOWER OSMOTIC PRESSURE

HIGHER SOLUTE CONCENTRATION LOWER WATER MOLECULE CONCENTRATION HIGHER OSMOTIC PRESSURE

TYPE OF SOLUTIONS.
HYPOTONIC SOLUTION
A SOLUTION IN WHICH THE CONCENTRATION OF SOLUTE OUTSIDE THE CELL IS LOWER THAN THE CONCENTRATION INSIDE THE CELL

ISOTONIC SOLUTION
A SOLUTION IN WHICH THE SOLUTE CONCENTRATION S IS EQUAL TO THAT OF THE CYTOPLASMIC FLUID

HYPERTONIC SOLUTION
A SOLUTION IN WHICH THE CONCENTRATION OF SOLUTE OUTSIDE THE CELL IS HIGHER THAN THE CONCENTRATION INSIDE THE CELL