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COLONISATION &

SUCCESSION
TERM MEANING

SPECIES ORGANISM HAVE SIMILAR CHARACTERISTIC &


SAME NICHE
POPULATION A GROUP OF ORGANISM OF THE SAME SPECIES
LIVING IN THE SAME HABITAT AT SAME TIME.
COMMUNITY SEVERAL POPULATIONS OF DIFFERENT SPECIES
LIVING IN THE SAME HABITAT
NICHE THE ROLE OF AN ORGANISM IN ECOSYSTEM. ALL THE
ACTIVITIES CARRIES OUT BY ORGANISM.
HABITAT A NATURAL ENVIRONMENT WHERE ORGANISM
LIVE.
ECOSYSTEM A COMMUNITY OF LIVING ORGANISM INTERACTING
WITH EACH OTHER & WITH NON LIVING
ENVIRONMENT
COLONISATION :
 a process whereby plants or animal have successfully invaded
occupied a new habitat.
 PIONEER SPECIES :
 The first colonizers, normally has short cycle, when they die theirs
remains add to the humus content of soil.
 Creating more conducive environment to other species.

SUCCESSOR SPECIES:
 Species that shade out the original sp. & making more conducive to
other orgs.

DOMINANT SPECIES:
Species that grow faster & out compete & modify environment larger tree
to grow.

SUCCESSION:
Gradual process where community changes its environment so that it is
replaced by another community.
COLONISATION & SUCESSION IN MANGROVE
SWAMP
Avicennia sp & Sonneratia sp (pioneer sp)
•Extensive root system trap and collect sediment.
• The soil becomes more compact and firm
•The ground becomes higher.

Rhizophora sp. (successor sp)


•Replace the pioneer species
•The proop roots trap silt and mud
•The soil firmer, drier and less submerge by sea water.

Bruguiera sp.
•Replace Rhizophora sp , root trap more silt and mud
•Modify soil structure. Replace by Pandanus sp , terrestrial forest then rainforest
tree.

*CLIMAX COMMUNITY – A stable & mature community that undergoes little @ no


Change in its species eg: Tropical rainforest
PROBLEMS FACED ADAPTATIONS FUNCTIONS
BY MANGROVE
PLANTS
SOFT MUDDY SOIL Avicennia sp have To support
long, branched themselves
underground cable
root. Roots anchor the
Rhizophora sp have
plants to muddy soil
prop root
WATERLOGGED Avicennia sp has Allowgaseous
WILL DEACREASE breathing root called exchange to muddy
OXYGEN pneumatophores soil.
Pores call lenticels
found on the bark of
mangrove tree
HIGH RATE OF Thick layer of cuticle Reduce transpiration
TRANSPIRATION covers the leaves
(DIRECT SUNLIGHT) Leaves thick To store water
&succulent.
Thecell sap of To ensure thr roots do

THE the roots cells has not lose water by


SURROUNDI a higher osmotic osmosis.
NG WATER IS pressure than the
HYPERTONIC soil water
COMPARED surrounds them.
TO SAP CELL
OF THE Have pores on
Excrete the excess salt
ROOT CELL the leaves called
hydatodes. in hypertonic water which
enter the roots.

SEEDS CAN Seed has Able to germinate while


DIE IF vivipary still attached to the
SUBMERGE characreristic mothers plants.
WITHIN SOFT Can float horizontally on
& water.
WATERLOGG
ED SOIL
SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
To Count Population Size

Quadrat Sampling Technique.


 To study & estimate the plants population size.

Percentage coverage= Area coverage of all quadrat (m3) x 100


Nu of quadrats x quadrat area

Density = Total num of individual sp in all quadrat


num of quadrats x quadrat area

Frequency = Num of quadrats containing sp x 100%


num of quadrat
CAPTURE, MARK, REALEASE &
RECAPTURE TECHNIQUE

Populatation size = Num of individuals 1st sample x Num of 2nd sample


Num of marked individual recapture
Treatment

 Early treatment through nutrition


and gradual restoration of body
mass can correct some of the
physical symptoms.
 Counselling to help the patients
to correct any distorted belief the
patients may have about their
body shape and weight, as well
as to help the patients overcome
their emotional distress.
Bulimia Nervosa
Warning signs!!
 Anxiety
 Mood swings, depression
 Frequent trips to the bathroom
after eating
 Hiding food in unusual places
 Highly self-critical
 Difficulties in breathing and
swallowing
 Fainting spells
 Irregular menstrual periods
 Frequent weight fluctuations
 Pronounced jaw swelling from
frequent vomiting
Symptoms..
 Malnutrition
 Hormonal imbalance
 Influenza
 Kidney problem
 Cardiovascular problems
 Liver disease
Extra info about Bulimia
Nervosa…

 Unlike anorexics, victims of


bulimia may have a normal
body mass.
 The victims consume huge
amounts of food in a short
period of time.
 The victims feel out of
control and are unable to
stop eating during a binge.
They also feel guilty,
ashamed, disgusted or
depressed following a binge.
Treatment…

 Observing the patient to


ensure that the person
eats correctly, obtain
counselling and
medication.
The end…
Bye-Bye!! See you
 Fatin Emalina
next time. Don’t  Nurul Izzah
forget to study…!
 Raden Nurhana
 Noor Faradzela