Chapter 6

A Tour of the Cell

PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition
Neil Campbell and Jane Reece

Lectures by Chris Romero
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Overview: The Importance of Cells • All organisms are made of cells • The cell is the simplest collection of matter that can live

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• Cell structure is correlated to cellular function

Figure 6.1
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10 µm

• Concept 6.1: To study cells, biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry

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Microscopy • Scientists use microscopes to visualize cells too small to see with the naked eye

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• Light microscopes (LMs)
– Pass visible light through a specimen – Magnify cellular structures with lenses

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– Can be used to visualize different sized cellular structures
10 m Light microscope Electron microscope 1m
Human height Length of some nerve and muscle cells Chicken egg

0.1 m 1 cm 1 mm 100 µm 10 µ m 1µm 100 nm 10 nm

Unaided eye

• Different types of microscopes

Frog egg

Most plant and Animal cells Nucleus Most bacteria Mitochondrion

Smallest bacteria Viruses
Ribosomes Proteins

Electron microscope

1 nm

Lipids
Small molecules

Figure 6.2

0.1 nm

Atoms

Measurements 1 centimeter (cm) = 10−2 meter (m) = 0.4 inch 1 millimeter (mm) = 10–3 m 1 micrometer (µm) = 10–3 mm = 10–6 m 1 nanometer (nm) = 10–3 mm = 10–9 m

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– Use different methods for enhancing visualization of cellular structures
TECHNIQUE RESULT

(a) Brightfield (unstained specimen).

Passes light directly through specimen. Unless cell is naturally pigmented or artificially stained, image has little contrast. [Parts (a)–(d) show a human cheek epithelial cell.]
50 µm

(b) Brightfield (stained specimen). Staining with various dyes enhances contrast, but most staining procedures require that cells be fixed (preserved).

(c) Phase-contrast. Enhances contrast in unstained cells by amplifying variations in density within specimen; especially useful for examining living, unpigmented cells.

Figure 6.3
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(d) Differential-interference-contrast (Nomarski). Like phase-contrast microscopy, it uses optical modifications to exaggerate differences in density, making the image appear almost 3D. (e) Fluorescence. Shows the locations of specific molecules in the cell by tagging the molecules with fluorescent dyes or antibodies. These fluorescent substances absorb ultraviolet radiation and emit visible light, as shown here in a cell from an artery. (f) Confocal. Uses lasers and special optics for “optical sectioning” of fluorescently-stained specimens. Only a single plane of focus is illuminated; out-of-focus fluorescence above and below the plane is subtracted by a computer. A sharp image results, as seen in stained nervous tissue (top), where nerve cells are green, support cells are red, and regions of overlap are yellow. A standard fluorescence micrograph (bottom) of this relatively thick tissue is blurry.
50 µm

50 µm
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• Electron microscopes (EMs)
– Focus a beam of electrons through a specimen (TEM) or onto its surface (SEM)

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• The scanning electron microscope (SEM)
– Provides for detailed study of the surface of a specimen
TECHNIQUE
(a) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Micrographs taken with a scanning electron microscope show a 3D image of the surface of a specimen. This SEM shows the surface of a cell from a rabbit trachea (windpipe) covered with motile organelles called cilia. Beating of the cilia helps move inhaled debris upward toward the throat.

RESULTS
1 µm

Cilia

Figure 6.4 (a)
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• The transmission electron microscope (TEM)
– Provides for detailed study of the internal ultrastructure of cells
Longitudinal section of cilium (b) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A transmission electron microscope profiles a thin section of a specimen. Here we see a section through a tracheal cell, revealing its ultrastructure. In preparing the TEM, some cilia were cut along their lengths, creating longitudinal sections, while other cilia were cut straight across, creating cross sections. Cross section of cilium
1 µm

Figure 6.4 (b)
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Isolating Organelles by Cell Fractionation • Cell fractionation
– Takes cells apart and separates the major organelles from one another

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• The centrifuge
– Is used to fractionate cells into their component parts

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• The process of cell fractionation
Cell fractionation is used to isolate (fractionate) cell components, based on size and density.
TECHNIQUE APPLICATION

First, cells are homogenized in a blender to break them up. The resulting mixture (cell homogenate) is then centrifuged at various speeds and durations to fractionate the cell components, forming a series of pellets.

Figure 6.5
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Tissue cells

Homogenization

1000 g Homogenate (1000 times the force of gravity) Differential centrifugation 10 min
Supernatant poured into next tube 20,000 g 20 min 80,000 g 60 min 150,000 g 3 hr

Pellet rich in nuclei and cellular debris

Figure 6.5

Pellet rich in mitochondria (and chloroplasts if cells are from a Pellet rich in plant) “microsomes” (pieces of plasma membranes and Pellet rich in cells’ internal ribosomes membranes)

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In the original experiments, the researchers used microscopy to identify the organelles in each pellet, establishing a baseline for further experiments. In the next series of experiments, researchers used biochemical methods to determine the metabolic functions associated with each type of organelle. Researchers currently use cell fractionation to isolate particular organelles in order to study further details of their function.
RESULTS

Figure 6.5
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Concept 6.2: Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions • Two types of cells make up every organism
– Prokaryotic – Eukaryotic

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Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells • All cells have several basic features in common
– They are bounded by a plasma membrane

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– They contain a semifluid substance called the cytosol – They contain chromosomes – They all have ribosomes

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• Prokaryotic cells
– Do not contain a nucleus – Have their DNA located in a region called the nucleoid

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Pili: attachment structures on the surface of some prokaryotes Nucleoid: region where the cell’s DNA is located (not enclosed by a membrane) Ribosomes: organelles that synthesize proteins Plasma membrane: membrane enclosing the cytoplasm Cell wall: rigid structure outside the plasma membrane Capsule: jelly-like outer coating of many prokaryotes 0.5 µm Flagella: locomotion organelles of some bacteria (b) A thin section through the bacterium Bacillus coagulans (TEM)

Bacterial chromosome (a) A typical rod-shaped bacterium

Figure 6.6 A, B
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• Eukaryotic cells
– Contain a true nucleus, bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope – Are generally quite a bit bigger than prokaryotic cells

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• The logistics of carrying out cellular metabolism sets limits on the size of cells

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• A smaller cell
– Has a higher surface to volume ratio, which facilitates the exchange of materials into and out of the cell
Surface area increases while total volume remains constant

5 1 1 Total surface area (height × width × number of sides × number of boxes) Total volume (height × width × length × number of boxes) Surface-to-volume ratio (surface area ÷ volume)

6

150

750

1

125

125

6

12

6

Figure 6.7
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• The plasma membrane
– Functions as a selective barrier – Allows sufficient passage of nutrients and waste
Outside of cell Carbohydrate side chain

Hydrophilic region Inside of cell 0.1 µm

Hydrophobic region Hydrophilic region Phospholipid Proteins

Figure 6.8 A, B

(a) TEM of a plasma membrane. The plasma membrane, here in a red blood cell, appears as a pair of dark bands separated by a light band.

(b) Structure of the plasma membrane

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A Panoramic View of the Eukaryotic Cell • Eukaryotic cells
– Have extensive and elaborately arranged internal membranes, which form organelles

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• Plant and animal cells
– Have most of the same organelles

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• A animal cell
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER)

Nuclear envelope Nucleolus Chromatin Plasma membrane NUCLEUS

Rough ER Flagelium Centrosome

Smooth ER

CYTOSKELETON Microfilaments Intermediate filaments Microtubules Microvilli Golgi apparatus Peroxisome Figure 6.9 Mitochondrion Lysosome
In animal cells but not plant cells: Lysosomes Centrioles Flagella (in some plant sperm)

Ribosomes

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• A plant cell
NUCLEUS

Nuclear envelope Nucleolus Chromatin Rough endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Centrosome

Ribosomes (small brwon dots)

Central vacuole Golgi apparatus Tonoplast Microfilaments Intermediate filaments Microtubules

CYTOSKELETON

Mitochondrion Peroxisome Plasma membrane Cell wall Plasmodesmata Wall of adjacent cell Chloroplast

Figure 6.9
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In plant cells but not animal cells: Chloroplasts Central vacuole and tonoplast Cell wall Plasmodesmata

Concept 6.3: The eukaryotic cell’s genetic instructions are housed in the nucleus and carried out by the ribosomes

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The Nucleus: Genetic Library of the Cell • The nucleus
– Contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell

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• The nuclear envelope
– Encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm
Nucleus 1 µm Nucleolus Chromatin Nuclear envelope: Inner membrane Outer membrane Nuclear pore Pore complex Rough ER Surface of nuclear envelope.
0.25 µm

Nucleus

Ribosome Close-up of nuclear envelope

1 µm

Figure 6.10

Pore complexes (TEM).

Nuclear lamina (TEM).

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Ribosomes: Protein Factories in the Cell • Ribosomes
– Are particles made of ribosomal RNA and protein

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– Carry out protein synthesis
Ribosomes ER Cytosol Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Free ribosomes

Bound ribosomes Large subunit Small subunit
Diagram of a ribosome

0.5 µm
TEM showing ER and ribosomes

Figure 6.11
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Concept 6.4: The endomembrane system regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell • The endomembrane system
– Includes many different structures

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The Endoplasmic Reticulum: Biosynthetic Factory • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
– Accounts for more than half the total membrane in many eukaryotic cells

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• The ER membrane
– Is continuous with the nuclear envelope
Smooth ER Rough ER Nuclear envelope

ER lumen Cisternae Ribosomes Transitional ER Transport vesicle Smooth ER Rough ER 200 µm

Figure 6.12
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• There are two distinct regions of ER
– Smooth ER, which lacks ribosomes – Rough ER, which contains ribosomes

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Functions of Smooth ER • The smooth ER
– Synthesizes lipids – Metabolizes carbohydrates – Stores calcium – Detoxifies poison

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Functions of Rough ER • The rough ER
– Has bound ribosomes – Produces proteins and membranes, which are distributed by transport vesicles

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The Golgi Apparatus: Shipping and Receiving Center • The Golgi apparatus
– Receives many of the transport vesicles produced in the rough ER – Consists of flattened membranous sacs called cisternae

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• Functions of the Golgi apparatus include
– Modification of the products of the rough ER – Manufacture of certain macromolecules

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• Functions of the Golgi apparatus
Golgi apparatus cis face (“receiving” side of Golgi apparatus)

1 Vesicles move 2 Vesicles coalesce to 6 Vesicles also form new cis Golgi cisternae from ER to Golgi transport certain Cisternae proteins back to ER 3 Cisternal maturation: Golgi cisternae move in a cisto-trans direction 4 Vesicles form and leave Golgi, carrying specific proteins to other locations or to the plasma membrane for secretion

0.1 0 µm

Figure 6.13
5 Vesicles transport specific proteins backward to newer Golgi cisternae

trans face (“shipping” side of Golgi apparatus)

TEM of Golgi apparatus

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Lysosomes: Digestive Compartments • A lysosome
– Is a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes – Can digest all kinds of macromolecules

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• Lysosomes carry out intracellular digestion by
– Phagocytosis
Nucleus 1 µm

Lysosome

Lysosome contains active hydrolytic enzymes

Food vacuole fuses with lysosome Digestive enzymes

Hydrolytic enzymes digest food particles

Lysosome Plasma membrane Digestion Food vacuole

Figure 6.14 A
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(a) Phagocytosis: lysosome digesting food

• Autophagy
Lysosome containing two damaged organelles 1µm

Mitochondrion fragment Peroxisome fragment

Lysosome fuses with vesicle containing damaged organelle

Hydrolytic enzymes digest organelle components

Lysosome

Figure 6.14 B

Vesicle containing damaged mitochondrion

Digestion

(b) Autophagy: lysosome breaking down damaged organelle

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Vacuoles: Diverse Maintenance Compartments • A plant or fungal cell
– May have one or several vacuoles

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• Food vacuoles
– Are formed by phagocytosis

• Contractile vacuoles
– Pump excess water out of protist cells

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• Central vacuoles
– Are found in plant cells – Hold reserves of important organic compounds and water
Central vacuole Cytosol
Tonoplast

Nucleus Cell wall Chloroplast
Figure 6.15
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Central vacuole

5 µm

The Endomembrane System: A Review • The endomembrane system
– Is a complex and dynamic player in the cell’s compartmental organization

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• Relationships among organelles of the endomembrane system
1 Nuclear envelope is connected to rough ER, which is also continuous with smooth ER
Nucleus

Rough ER

Membranes and proteins produced by the ER flow in the form of transport vesicles to the Golgi

2

Smooth ER Nuclear envelop

cis Golgi

Golgi pinches off transport Vesicles and other vesicles that give rise to lysosomes and Vacuoles
trans Golgi

3

Plasma membrane

4 Figure 6.16

Lysosome available for fusion with another vesicle for digestion

5 Transport vesicle carries 6
proteins to plasma membrane for secretion

Plasma membrane expands by fusion of vesicles; proteins are secreted from cell

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• Concept 6.5: Mitochondria and chloroplasts change energy from one form to another • Mitochondria
– Are the sites of cellular respiration

• Chloroplasts
– Found only in plants, are the sites of photosynthesis

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Mitochondria: Chemical Energy Conversion • Mitochondria
– Are found in nearly all eukaryotic cells

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• Mitochondria are enclosed by two membranes
– A smooth outer membrane – An inner membrane folded into cristae
Mitochondrion Intermembrane space Outer membrane

Free ribosomes in the mitochondrial matrix

Inner membrane Cristae Matrix

Figure 6.17

Mitochondrial DNA

100 µm

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Chloroplasts: Capture of Light Energy • The chloroplast
– Is a specialized member of a family of closely related plant organelles called plastids – Contains chlorophyll

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• Chloroplasts
– Are found in leaves and other green organs of plants and in algae

Chloroplast

Ribosomes Chloroplast DNA Stroma Inner and outer membranes Granum 1 µm Figure 6.18 Thylakoid

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• Chloroplast structure includes
– Thylakoids, membranous sacs – Stroma, the internal fluid

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Peroxisomes: Oxidation • Peroxisomes
– Produce hydrogen peroxide and convert it to water
Chloroplast Peroxisome Mitochondrion

Figure 6.19

1 µm
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Concept 6.6: The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers that organizes structures and activities in the cell

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• The cytoskeleton
– Is a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm
Microtubule

Figure 6.20
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0.25 µm

Microfilaments

Roles of the Cytoskeleton: Support, Motility, and Regulation

• The cytoskeleton
– Gives mechanical support to the cell

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– Is involved in cell motility, which utilizes motor proteins
ATP
Vesicle Receptor for motor protein

Motor protein Microtubule (ATP powered) of cytoskeleton (a) Motor proteins that attach to receptors on organelles can “walk” the organelles along microtubules or, in some cases, microfilaments. Vesicles Microtubule 0.25 µm

(b) Vesicles containing neurotransmitters migrate to the tips of nerve cell axons via the mechanism in (a). In this SEM of a squid giant axon, two vesicles can be seen moving along a microtubule. (A separate part of the

Figure 6.21 A, B

experiment provided the evidence that they were in fact moving.)

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Components of the Cytoskeleton

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• There are three main types of fibers that make up the cytoskeleton

Table 6.1
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Microtubules • Microtubules
– Shape the cell – Guide movement of organelles – Help separate the chromosome copies in dividing cells

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Centrosomes and Centrioles • The centrosome
– Is considered to be a “microtubule-organizing center”

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– Contains a pair of centrioles
Centrosome

Microtubule Centrioles 0.25 µm

Figure 6.22

Longitudinal section of one centriole

Microtubules

Cross section of the other centriole

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Cilia and Flagella • Cilia and flagella
– Contain specialized arrangements of microtubules – Are locomotor appendages of some cells

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• Flagella beating pattern

(a) Motion of flagella. A flagellum usually undulates, its snakelike motion driving a cell in the same direction as the axis of the flagellum. Propulsion of a human sperm cell is an example of flagellatelocomotion (LM).

Direction of swimming

Figure 6.23 A
1 µm

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• Ciliary motion

(b) Motion of cilia. Cilia have a backand-forth motion that moves the cell in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the cilium. A dense nap of cilia, beating at a rate of about 40 to 60 strokes a second, covers this Colpidium, a freshwater protozoan (SEM).

Figure 6.23 B
15 µm

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• Cilia and flagella share a common ultrastructure
0.1 µm Outer microtubule doublet Dynein arms Central microtubule Outer doublets cross-linking proteins inside Radial spoke Plasma membrane

Microtubules Plasma membrane Basal body

(b)

0.5 µm

(a)

0.1 µm

Triplet

(c)

Figure 6.24 A-C
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Cross section of basal body

• The protein dynein
– Is responsible for the bending movement of cilia and flagella
Microtubule doublets
ATP

Dynein arm (a) Powered by ATP, the dynein arms of one microtubule doublet grip the adjacent doublet, push it up, release, and then grip again. If the two microtubule doublets were not attached, they would slide relative to each other. Figure 6.25 A
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Outer doublets cross-linking proteins

ATP

Anchorage in cell

(b) In a cilium or flagellum, two adjacent doublets cannot slide far because they are physically restrained by proteins, so they bend. (Only two of the nine outer doublets in Figure 6.24b are shown here.) Figure 6.25 B
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1 2

3

(c) Localized, synchronized activation of many dynein arms probably causes a bend to begin at the base of the Cilium or flagellum and move outward toward the tip. Many successive bends, such as the ones shown here to the left and right, result in a wavelike motion. In this diagram, the two central microtubules and the cross-linking proteins are not shown. Figure 6.25 C

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Microfilaments (Actin Filaments) • Microfilaments
– Are built from molecules of the protein actin

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– Are found in microvilli
Microvillus

Plasma membrane

Microfilaments (actin filaments)

Intermediate filaments Figure 6.26
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0.25 µm

• Microfilaments that function in cellular motility
– Contain the protein myosin in addition to actin

Muscle cell Actin filament

Myosin filament Myosin arm

Figure 6.27 A

(a) Myosin motors in muscle cell contraction.

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• Amoeboid movement
– Involves the contraction of actin and myosin filaments
Cortex (outer cytoplasm): gel with actin network Inner cytoplasm: sol with actin subunits Extending pseudopodium

Figure 6.27 B

(b) Amoeboid movement

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• Cytoplasmic streaming
– Is another form of locomotion created by microfilaments
Nonmoving cytoplasm (gel) Chloroplast Streaming cytoplasm (sol)

Parallel actin filaments

Cell wall

Figure 6.27 C

(b) Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells

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Intermediate Filaments • Intermediate filaments
– Support cell shape – Fix organelles in place

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Concept 6.7: Extracellular components and connections between cells help coordinate cellular activities

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Cell Walls of Plants • The cell wall
– Is an extracellular structure of plant cells that distinguishes them from animal cells

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• Plant cell walls
– Are made of cellulose fibers embedded in other polysaccharides and protein – May have multiple layers
Central vacuole of cell Plasma membrane Secondary cell wall Primary cell wall Middle lamella 1 µm Central vacuole Cytosol Plasma membrane

Central vacuole of cell

Plant cell walls

Figure 6.28

Plasmodesmata

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The Extracellular Matrix (ECM) of Animal Cells • Animal cells
– Lack cell walls – Are covered by an elaborate matrix, the ECM

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• The ECM
– Is made up of glycoproteins and other macromolecules
EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Collagen A proteoglycan complex Polysaccharide molecule Carbohydrates Core protein Fibronectin

Plasma membrane

Integrins

Proteoglycan molecule

Integrin

Figure 6.29

Microfilaments

CYTOPLASM

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• Functions of the ECM include
– Support – Adhesion – Movement – Regulation

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Intercellular Junctions

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Plants: Plasmodesmata • Plasmodesmata
– Are channels that perforate plant cell walls
Cell walls

Interior of cell

Interior of cell
Figure 6.30

0.5 µm

Plasmodesmata

Plasma membranes

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Animals: Tight Junctions, Desmosomes, and Gap Junctions

• In animals, there are three types of intercellular junctions
– Tight junctions – Desmosomes – Gap junctions

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• Types of intercellular junctions in animals
TIGHT JUNCTIONS
Tight junctions prevent fluid from moving across a layer of cells Tight junction At tight junctions, the membranes of neighboring cells are very tightly pressed against each other, bound together by specific proteins (purple). Forming continuous seals around the cells, tight junctions prevent leakage of extracellular fluid across A layer of epithelial cells.

0.5 µm

DESMOSOMES Tight junctions Intermediate filaments Desmosome Gap junctions
1 µm Desmosomes (also called anchoring junctions) function like rivets, fastening cells Together into strong sheets. Intermediate Filaments made of sturdy keratin proteins Anchor desmosomes in the cytoplasm.

GAP JUNCTIONS
Gap junctions (also called communicating junctions) provide cytoplasmic channels from one cell to an adjacent cell. Gap junctions consist of special membrane proteins that surround a pore through which ions, sugars, amino acids, and other small molecules may pass. Gap junctions are necessary for communication between cells in many types of tissues, including heart muscle and animal embryos.

Space between Plasma membranes cells of adjacent cells

Extracellular matrix Gap junction

Figure 6.31
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0.1 µm

The Cell: A Living Unit Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts

• Cells rely on the integration of structures and organelles in order to function
5 µm
Figure 6.32
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