Chapter 30

PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition
Neil Campbell and Jane Reece

Lectures by Chris Romero

• Overview: Feeding the World • Seeds changed the course of plant evolution
Enabling their bearers to become the dominant producers in most terrestrial ecosystems

Figure 30.1

• Concept 30.1: The reduced gametophytes of seed plants are protected in ovules and pollen grains • In addition to seeds, the following are common to all seed plants
Reduced gametophytes Heterospory Ovules Pollen

Advantages of Reduced Gametophytes • The gametophytes of seed plants
Develop within the walls of spores retained within tissues of the parent sporophyte

• Gametophyte/sporophyte relationships
Sporophyte (2n) Sporophyte (2n)

Gametophyte (n)

Gametophyte (n)

(a) Sporophyte dependent on gametophyte (mosses and other bryophytes).

(b) Large sporophyte and
small, independent gametophyte (ferns and other seedless vascular plants).

Microscopic female gametophytes (n) in ovulate cones (dependent) Microscopic male gametophytes (n) inside these parts of flowers (dependent) Microscopic male gametophytes (n) in pollen cones (dependent)

Microscopic female gametophytes (n) inside these parts of flowers (dependent)

Sporophyte (2n) (independent)

Sporophyte (2n), the flowering plant (independent)

Figure 30.2a–c

(c) Reduced gametophyte dependent on sporophyte (seed plants: gymnosperms and angiosperms).

Heterospory: The Rule Among Seed Plants • Seed plants evolved from plants that had megasporangia
Which produce megaspores that give rise to female gametophytes

• Seed plants evolved from plants that had microsporangia
Which produce microspores that give rise to male gametophytes

Ovules and Production of Eggs • An ovule consists of
A megasporangium, megaspore, and protective integuments
Integument Spore wall

Megasporangium (2n) Megaspore (n) (a) Unfertilized ovule. In this sectional view through the ovule of a pine (a gymnosperm), a fleshy megasporangium is surrounded by a protective layer of tissue called an integument. (Angiosperms have two integuments.)

Figure 30.3a

Pollen and Production of Sperm • Microspores develop into pollen grains
Which contain the male gametophytes of plants

• Pollination
Is the transfer of pollen to the part of a seed plant containing the ovules

• If a pollen grain germinates
It gives rise to a pollen tube that discharges two sperm into the female gametophyte within the ovule
Female gametophyte (n) Spore wall Egg nucleus (n)

Male gametophyte (within germinating pollen grain) (n) Micropyle

Discharged sperm nucleus (n) Pollen grain (n)

Figure 30.3b

(b) Fertilized ovule. A megaspore develops into a multicellular female gametophyte. The micropyle, the only opening through the integument, allows entry of a pollen grain. The pollen grain contains a male gametophyte, which develops a pollen tube that discharges sperm.

• Pollen, which can be dispersed by air or animals
Eliminated the water requirement for fertilization

The Evolutionary Advantage of Seeds • A seed
Develops from the whole ovule Is a sporophyte embryo, along with its food supply, packaged in a protective coat
Seed coat (derived from Integument) Food supply (female gametophyte tissue) (n) Embryo (2n) (new sporophyte) (c) Gymnosperm seed. Fertilization initiates the transformation of the ovule into a seed, which consists of a sporophyte embryo, a food supply, and a protective seed coat derived from the integument.

Figure 30.3c

• Concept 30.2: Gymnosperms bear “naked” seeds, typically on cones • Among the gymnosperms are many wellknown conifers
Or cone-bearing trees, including pine, fir, and redwood

• The gymnosperms include four plant phyla
Cycadophyta Gingkophyta Gnetophyta Coniferophyta

• Exploring Gymnosperm Diversity
PHYLUM CYCADOPHYTA PHYLUM GINKGOPHYTA

Cycas revoluta

PHYLUM GNETOPHYTA Gnetum

Welwitschia

Ovulate cones Ephedra

Figure 30.4

• Exploring Gymnosperm Diversity
PHYLUM CYCADOPHYTA Douglas fir Common juniper

Pacific yew

Wollemia pine

Bristlecone pine

Sequoia

Figure 30.4

Gymnosperm Evolution
• Fossil evidence reveals that by the late Devonian
Some plants, called progymnosperms, had begun to acquire some adaptations that characterize seed plants

Figure 30.5

• Gymnosperms appear early in the fossil record
And dominated the Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems

• Living seed plants
Can be divided into two groups: gymnosperms and angiosperms

A Closer Look at the Life Cycle of a Pine • Key features of the gymnosperm life cycle include
Dominance of the sporophyte generation, the pine tree The development of seeds from fertilized ovules The role of pollen in transferring sperm to ovules

• The life cycle of a pine
1 In most conifer species, each tree has both ovulate and pollen cones. Ovulate cone Longitudinal section of ovulate cone

2 An ovulate cone scale has two ovules, each containing a megasporangium. Only one ovule is shown. Key Ovule Haploid (n) Diploid (2n)

Megasporocyte (2n) Integument Micropyle

Pollen cone Mature sporophyte (2n)

Microsporocytes (2n)

MEIOSIS

Megasporangium Germinating pollen grain Pollen grains (n) MEIOSIS (containing male gametophytes) Surviving megaspore (n)

4 A pollen grain enters through the micropyle and germinates, forming a pollen tube that slowly digests through the megasporangium.

Longitudinal section of Sporophyll pollen cone Microsporangium Seedling

3 A pollen cone contains many microsporangia held in sporophylls. Each microsporangium Germinating contains microsporocytes (microspore mother pollen grain cells). These undergo meiosis, giving rise to Archegonium haploid microspores that develop into Egg (n) Integument pollen grains. Female Seeds on surface gametophyte

5 While the pollen tube develops, the megasporocyte (megaspore mother cell) undergoes meiosis, producing four haploid cells. One survives as a megaspore.

of ovulate scale

Germinating pollen grain (n) Food reserves (gametophyte tissue) (n) Seed coat (derived from parent sporophyte) (2n) 6 The female gametophyte develops within the megaspore and contains two or three archegonia, each with an egg. 7 By the time the eggs are mature, two sperm cells have developed in the pollen tube, which extends to the female gametophyte. Fertilization occurs when sperm and egg nuclei unite.

8 Fertilization usually occurs more than a year after pollination. All eggs may be fertilized, but usually only one zygote develops into an embryo. The ovule becomes a seed, consisting of an embryo, food supply, and seed coat. Embryo (new sporophyte) (2n)

Discharged sperm nucleus (n) Pollen tube

FERTILIZATION

Egg nucleus (n)

Figure 30.6

• Concept 30.3: The reproductive adaptations of angiosperms include flowers and fruits • Angiosperms
Are commonly known as flowering plants Are seed plants that produce the reproductive structures called flowers and fruits Are the most widespread and diverse of all plants

Characteristics of Angiosperms • The key adaptations in the evolution of angiosperms
Are flowers and fruits

Flowers • The flower
Is an angiosperm structure specialized for sexual reproduction

• A flower is a specialized shoot with modified leaves
Sepals, which enclose the flower Petals, which are brightly colored and attract pollinators Stamens, which produce pollen
Carpel

Carpels, which produce ovules
Stigma Stamen Anther Filament

Style Ovary

Petal

Sepal

Figure 30.7

Receptacle

Ovule

Fruits
• Fruits
Typically consist of a mature ovary
(a) Tomato, a fleshy fruit with soft outer and inner layers of pericarp (b) Ruby grapefruit, a fleshy fruit with a hard outer layer and soft inner layer of pericarp

(c) Nectarine, a fleshy fruit with a soft outer layer and hard inner layer (pit) of pericarp

Figure 30.8a–e

(d) Milkweed, a dry fruit that splits open at maturity

(e) Walnut, a dry fruit that remains closed at maturity

• Can be carried by wind, water, or animals to new locations, enhancing seed dispersal
(a) Wings enable maple fruits to be easily carried by the wind.

(b) Seeds within berries and other edible fruits are often dispersed in animal feces.

Figure 30.9a–c

(c) The barbs of cockleburs facilitate seed dispersal by allowing the fruits to “hitchhike” on animals.

The Angiosperm Life Cycle • In the angiosperm life cycle
Double fertilization occurs when a pollen tube discharges two sperm into the female gametophyte within an ovule One sperm fertilizes the egg, while the other combines with two nuclei in the center cell of the female gametophyte and initiates development of food-storing endosperm

• The endosperm
Nourishes the developing embryo

• The life cycle of an angiosperm
Key Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) 1 Anthers contain microsporangia. Each microsporangium contains microsporocytes (microspore mother cells) that divide by meiosis, producing microspores. Microsporangium Microsporocytes (2n) Anther Mature flower on sporophyte plant (2n) 2 Microspores form pollen grains (containing male gametophytes). The generative cell will divide to form two sperm. The tube cell will produce the pollen tube.

MEIOSIS

7 When a seed germinates, the embryo develops into a mature sporophyte. Ovary Germinating Seed

Microspore (n) Ovule with megasporangium (2n) Male gametophyte (in pollen grain)

Generative cell Tube cell

MEIOSIS Stigma Pollen tube Sperm Pollen tube Style Pollen tube

Pollen grains

Embryo (2n) 6 The zygote develops into an embryo that is packaged along with food into a seed. (The fruit tissues surrounding the seed are not shown). Endosperm (food Supply) (3n) Seed coat (2n)

3 In the megasporangium of each ovule, the megasporocyte divides by meiosis and produces four megaspores. The surviving megaspore in each ovule forms a female gametophyte Seed (embryo sac).

Megasporangium (n) Surviving megaspore (n)

Female gametophyte (embryo sac)

Antipodal cells Polar nuclei Synergids Egg (n)

Zygote (2n) Nucleus of developing endosperm (3n) Egg Nucleus (n) Sperm (n) 4 After pollination, eventually two sperm nuclei are discharged in each ovule.

FERTILIZATION 5 Double fertilization occurs. One sperm fertilizes the egg, forming a zygote. The other sperm combines with the two polar nuclei to form the nucleus of the endosperm, which is triploid in this example.

Figure 30.10

Discharged sperm nuclei (n)

Angiosperm Evolution • Clarifying the origin and diversification of angiosperms
Poses fascinating challenges to evolutionary biologists

• Angiosperms originated at least 140 million years ago
And during the late Mesozoic, the major branches of the clade diverged from their common ancestor

Fossil Angiosperms
• Primitive fossils of 125-million-year-old angiosperms
Display both derived and primitive traits
Carpel Stamen

5 cm
(a) Archaefructus sinensis, a 125-million-yearold fossil.

(b) Artist’s reconstruction of Archaefructus sinensis

Figure 30.11a, b

An “Evo-Devo” Hypothesis of Flower Origins • In hypothesizing how pollen-producing and ovule-producing structures were combined into a single flower
Scientist Michael Frohlich proposed that the ancestor of angiosperms had separate pollenproducing and ovule-producing structures

Angiosperm Diversity • The two main groups of angiosperms
Are monocots and eudicots

• Basal angiosperms
Are less derived and include the flowering plants belonging to the oldest lineages

• Magnoliids
Share some traits with basal angiosperms but are more closely related to monocots and eudicots

• Exploring Angiosperm Diversity
BASAL ANGIOSPERMS

Amborella trichopoda

Water lily (Nymphaea “Rene Gerard”)

Star anise (Illicium floridanum)

HYPOTHETICAL TREE OF FLOWERING PLANTS Water lilies Star anise and relatives Amborella Magnoliids Monocots Eudicots

MAGNOLIIDS

Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora)

Figure 30.12

• Exploring Angiosperm Diversity
MONOCOTS Orchid (Lemboglossum fossii) Monocot Characteristics Eudicot Characteristics Embryos One cotyledon Two cotyledons EUDICOTS California poppy (Eschscholzia californica)

Leaf venation Veins usually parallel Veins usually netlike

Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica)

Pygmy date palm (Phoenix roebelenii) Lily (Lilium “Enchantment”) Vascular tissue scattered

Stems Vascular tissue usually arranged in ring Roots Dog rose (Rosa canina), a wild rose Pea (Lathyrus nervosus, Lord Anson’s blue pea), a legume

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a grass

Root system Usually fibrous (no main root)

Taproot (main root) usually present Pollen

Pollen grain with one opening

Pollen grain with three openings

Flowers Anther Stigma Filament Ovary Floral organs usually in multiples of three Floral organs usually in multiples of four or five Zucchini (Cucurbita Pepo), female (left) and male flowers

Figure 30.12

Evolutionary Links Between Angiosperms and Animals

• Pollination of flowers by animals and transport of seeds by animals
Are two important relationships in terrestrial ecosystems

(a) A flower pollinated by honeybees. This honeybee is harvesting pollen and nectar (a sugary solution secreted by flower glands) from a Scottish broom flower. The flower has a tripping mechanism that arches the stamens over the bee and dusts it with pollen, some of which will rub off onto the stigma of the next flower the bee visits.

(b) A flower pollinated by hummingbirds. The long, thin beak and tongue of this rufous hummingbird enable the animal to probe flowers that secrete nectar deep within floral tubes. Before the hummer leaves, anthers will dust its beak and head feathers with pollen. Many flowers that are pollinated by birds are red or pink, colors to which bird eyes are especially sensitive.

(c) A flower pollinated by nocturnal animals. Some angiosperms, such as this cactus, depend mainly on nocturnal pollinators, including bats. Common adaptations of such plants include large, light-colored, highly fragrant flowers that nighttime pollinators can locate.

Figure 30.13a–c

• Concept 30.4: Human welfare depends greatly on seed plants • No group is more important to human survival than seed plants

Products from Seed Plants
• Humans depend on seed plants for
Food Wood Many medicines

Table 30.1

Threats to Plant Diversity • Destruction of habitat
Is causing extinction of many plant species and the animal species they support