Chapter 32

An Introduction to Animal Diversity
PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition
Neil Campbell and Jane Reece

Lectures by Chris Romero
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• Overview: Welcome to Your Kingdom • The animal kingdom
– Extends far beyond humans and other animals we may encounter

Figure 32.1
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• Concept 32.1: Animal are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes with tissues that develop from embryonic layers • Several characteristics of animals
– Sufficiently define the group

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Nutritional Mode • Animals are heterotrophs
– That ingest their food

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Cell Structure and Specialization • Animals are multicellular eukaryotes • Their cells lack cell walls

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• Their bodies are held together
– By structural proteins such as collagen

• Nervous tissue and muscle tissue
– Are unique to animals

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Reproduction and Development • Most animals reproduce sexually
– With the diploid stage usually dominating the life cycle

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• After a sperm fertilizes an egg
– The zygote undergoes cleavage, leading to the formation of a blastula

• The blastula undergoes gastrulation
– Resulting in the formation of embryonic tissue layers and a gastrula

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• Early embryonic development in animals
1 The zygote of an animal undergoes a succession of mitotic cell divisions called cleavage. 2 Only one cleavage stage–the eight-cell embryo–is shown here. 3 In most animals, cleavage results in the formation of a multicellular stage called a blastula. The blastula of many animals is a hollow ball of cells.

Blastocoel

Cleavage
6 The endoderm of the archenteron develops into the tissue lining the animal’s digestive tract.

Cleavage

Zygote

Eight-cell stage Blastocoel Endoderm

Blastula

Cross section of blastula

5 The blind pouch formed by gastrulation, called the archenteron, opens to the outside via the blastopore.

Ectoderm Gastrula
Blastopore

Gastrulation
4 Most animals also undergo gastrulation, a rearrangement of the embryo in which one end of the embryo folds inward, expands, and eventually fills the blastocoel, producing layers of embryonic tissues: the ectoderm (outer layer) and the endoderm (inner layer).

Figure 32.2
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• All animals, and only animals
– Have Hox genes that regulate the development of body form

• Although the Hox family of genes has been highly conserved
– It can produce a wide diversity of animal morphology

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• Concept 32.2: The history of animals may span more than a billion years • The animal kingdom includes not only great diversity of living species
– But the even greater diversity of extinct ones as well

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• The common ancestor of living animals
– May have lived 1.2 billion–800 million years ago – May have resembled modern choanoflagellates, protists that are the closest living relatives of animals

Single cell Stalk

Figure 32.3
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– Was probably itself a colonial, flagellated protist
Somatic cells Digestive cavity

Reproductive cells Colonial protist, an aggregate of identical cells Hollow sphere of unspecialized cells (shown in cross section)

Beginning of cell specialization

Infolding

Gastrula-like “protoanimal”

Figure 32.4

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Neoproterozoic Era (1 Billion–524 Million Years Ago)

• Early members of the animal fossil record
– Include the Ediacaran fauna

Figure 32.5a, b

(a)

(b)

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Paleozoic Era (542–251 Million Years Ago) • The Cambrian explosion
– Marks the earliest fossil appearance of many major groups of living animals – Is described by several current hypotheses

Figure 32.6
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Mesozoic Era (251–65.5 Million Years Ago) • During the Mesozoic era
– Dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates – Coral reefs emerged, becoming important marine ecological niches for other organisms

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Cenozoic Era (65.5 Million Years Ago to the Present)

• The beginning of this era
– Followed mass extinctions of both terrestrial and marine animals

• Modern mammal orders and insects
– Diversified during the Cenozoic

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• Concept 32.3: Animals can be characterized by “body plans” • One way in which zoologists categorize the diversity of animals
– Is according to general features of morphology and development

• A group of animal species
– That share the same level of organizational complexity is known as a grade
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• The set of morphological and developmental traits that define a grade
– Are generally integrated into a functional whole referred to as a body plan

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Symmetry • Animals can be categorized
– According to the symmetry of their bodies, or lack of it

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• Some animals have radial symmetry
– Like in a flower pot

(a) Radial symmetry. The parts of a radial animal, such as a sea anemone (phylum Cnidaria), radiate from the center. Any imaginary slice through the central axis divides the animal into mirror images.

Figure 32.7a
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• Some animals exhibit bilateral symmetry
– Or two-sided symmetry
(b) Bilateral symmetry. A bilateral animal, such as a lobster (phylum Arthropoda), has a left side and a right side. Only one imaginary cut divides the animal into mirror-image halves.

Figure 32.7b
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• Bilaterally symmetrical animals have
– A dorsal (top) side and a ventral (bottom) side – A right and left side – Anterior (head) and posterior (tail) ends – Cephalization, the development of a head

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Tissues • Animal body plans
– Also vary according to the organization of the animal’s tissues

• Tissues
– Are collections of specialized cells isolated from other tissues by membranous layers

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• Animal embryos
– Form germ layers, embryonic tissues, including ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm

• Diploblastic animals
– Have two germ layers

• Triploblastic animals
– Have three germ layers

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Body Cavities • In triploblastic animals
– A body cavity may be present or absent

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• A true body cavity
– Is called a coelom and is derived from mesoderm
Body covering (from ectoderm)

Coelom

(a) Coelomate. Coelomates such as annelids have a true coelom, a body cavity completely lined by tissue derived from mesoderm.

Tissue layer lining coelom and suspending internal organs (from mesoderm) Digestive tract (from endoderm)

Figure 32.8a
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• A pseudocoelom
– Is a body cavity derived from the blastocoel, rather than from mesoderm
Body covering (from ectoderm)

(b) Pseudocoelomate. Pseudocoelomates such as nematodes have a body cavity only partially lined by tissue derived from mesoderm.

Pseudocoelom

Muscle layer (from mesoderm)

Digestive tract (from ectoderm)

Figure 32.8b
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• Organisms without body cavities
– Are considered acoelomates

Body covering (from ectoderm) (c) Acoelomate. Acoelomates such as flatworms lack a body cavity between the digestive tract and outer body wall.

Tissuefilled region (from mesoderm)

Digestive tract (from endoderm)

Figure 32.8c
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Protostome and Deuterostome Development • Based on certain features seen in early development
– Many animals can be categorized as having one of two developmental modes: protostome development or deuterostome development

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Cleavage • In protostome development
– Cleavage is spiral and determinate

• In deuterostome development
– Cleavage is radial and indeterminate
Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annelids, arthropods) Eight-cell stage Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates) Eight-cell stage (a) Cleavage. In general, protostome development begins with spiral, determinate cleavage. Deuterostome development is characterized by radial, indeterminate cleavage.

Spiral and determinate

Radial and indeterminate

Figure 32.9a
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Coelom Formation
• In protostome development
– The splitting of the initially solid masses of mesoderm to form the coelomic cavity is called schizocoelous development

• In deuterostome development
– Formation of the body cavity is described as Coelom (b) Coelom formation. Coelom enterocoelous development formation begins in the gastrula
Archenteron Coelom Mesoderm Blastopore Mesoderm Blastopore Enterocoelous: Schizocoelous: solid folds of archenteron masses of mesoderm form coelom split and form coelom stage. In protostome development, the coelom forms from splits in the mesoderm (schizocoelous development). In deuterostome development, the coelom forms from mesodermal outpocketings of the archenteron (enterocoelous development).

Figure 32.9b
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Fate of the Blastopore • In protostome development
– The blastopore becomes the mouth

• In deuterostome development
– The blastopore becomes the anus
Anus Mouth

Digestive tube

Mouth

Anus Anus develops from blastopore

Figure 32.9c

Mouth develops from blastopore

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• Concept 32.4: Leading hypotheses agree on major features of the animal phylogenetic tree • Zoologists currently recognize about 35 animal phyla • The current debate in animal systematics
– Has led to the development of two phylogenetic hypotheses, but others exist as well

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• One hypothesis of animal phylogeny based mainly on morphological and developmental comparisons
Ctenophora Arthropoda Phoronida Cnidaria Platyhelminthes Ectoprocta Echinodermata Chordata Mollusca Brachiopoda Annelida Rotifera Nematoda Nemertea Porifera

“Radiata”

Deuterostomia

Protostomia

Bilateria

Eumetazoa

Metazoa Ancestral colonial flagellate

Figure 32.10

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• One hypothesis of animal phylogeny based mainly on molecular data
Echinodermata Brachiopoda Chordata Platyhelminthes Ctenophora Cnidaria Phoronida Arthropoda Ectoprocta Nemertea Mollusca Silicarea Annelida Nematoda Calcarea Rotifera

“Radiata”

“Porifera”

Deuterostomia

Lophotrochozoa

Ecdysozoa

Bilateria

Eumetazoa

Metazoa

Figure 32.11

Ancestral colonial flagellate

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Points of Agreement • All animals share a common ancestor • Sponges are basal animals • Eumetazoa is a clade of animals with true tissues

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• Most animal phyla belong to the clade Bilateria • Vertebrates and some other phyla belong to the clade Deuterostomia

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Disagreement over the Bilaterians • The morphology-based tree
– Divides the bilaterians into two clades: deuterostomes and protostomes

• In contrast, several recent molecular studies
– Generally assign two sister taxa to the protostomes rather than one: the ecdysozoans and the lophotrochozoans

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• Ecdysozoans share a common characteristic
– They shed their exoskeletons through a process called ecdysis

Figure 32.12
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• Lophotrochozoans share a common characteristic
– Called the lophophore, a feeding structure

• Other phyla
– Go through a distinct larval stage called a Apical tuft of cilia trochophore larva

Mouth

Figure 32.13a, b

(a) An ectoproct, a lophophorate

Anus (b) Structure of trochophore larva

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Future Directions in Animal Systematics • Phylogenetic studies based on larger databases
– Will likely provide further insights into animal evolutionary history

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