CONTENTS 
Introduction  Definitions  Mechanisms of adhesion  Acid etching technique  Dentin Bonding Agents ( DBA)  Applications

‡ Now after 40 years of long march the esthetic restorative dentistry is practiced .Introduction ‡ Research into bonding agents for attachment of the resin restorations to the tooth structure ±1950¶s by Hagger ‡ In 1955 Buonocore showed that there is increase in the surface area due to etching-this was the great landmark in adhesive dentistry.

‡ Dentin conditioner ± An acidic agent that dissolves the inorganic structure in dentin.Definitions ‡ Adhesion ±When two substances are brought into intimate contact with each other the molecules of one adhere to the molecules of other substance. . This force is called Adhesion ‡ Adhesive ± substance that promotes adhesion of one substance or material to another ‡ Adhesive Bonding ± Process of joining two materials by means of an adhesive agent that solidifies during the bonding process ‡ Dentin Bonding ± The process of bonding a resin to conditioned dentin. ‡ Dentin Bonding Agent ± A thin layer of resin between conditioned dentin and the resin matrix of composite. resulting in a collagen mesh that allows resin infiltration into the conditioned dentin.

low ± viscosity resin that promotes bonding to a substance. . ‡ Primer ± A hydrophilic. such as dentin. ‡ Resin tag ± Extension of resin that has penetrated into the etched enamel or dentin.‡ Hybrid Layer ± An intermediate layer of resin. collagen and dentin produced by acid etching of dentin and resin infiltration into the conditioned dentin. ‡ Smear layer ± poorly adherent layer of ground dentin produced by cutting a dentin surface.

three conditions is to be satisfied sound tooth structure must be conserved Optimal retention must be achieved Microleakage must be prevented . ‡ For true Adhesion .‡ True Adhesion has been the ³holy grail´ of dental restorative materials.

and secondary valence forces) .Mechanisms of adhesion ‡ Factors that have a roll in achieving adhesive bonds  Wetting  Interpenetration  Micromechanical interlocking  Chemical bonding Main theories for adhesion  Mechanical theory (States that solidified adhesive interlocks micro mechanically with the roughness and irregularities of the adherend¶s surface)  Adsorption Theory ( includes all chemical bon.

Principles of adhesion. ‡ Surface energy / surface tension ‡ Wetting ‡ Contact angle. .

this is because at the surface the atoms are not equally attracted in all directions. ‡ When primary bonding is involved the adhesion is called as chemisorption and when physical forces are involved these are due to Vander waals forces. The energy at the surface is the surface energy. ‡ The increase in surface energy per unit area of the surface is referred as surface energy or surface tension. .Surface energy ‡ For adhesion the surfaces must be attracted to one another at their interface .

. ‡ Wetting is influenced by the cleanliness of the surface. This is called as wetting. ‡ The extent to which an adhesive wets the surface of an adherend may be determined by contact angle between the adhesive and the adherend.7 nm then the adhesion is negligible. ‡ The method to overcome this is to use a fluid that flows into the irregularities to provide contact.Wetting ‡ It is difficult to force two solid surfaces to adhere when placed in apposition if the surface molecules of the attracting substances are separated by distances greater than 0.

‡ B) small contact angle ‡ C) large contact angle hence poor wetting and poor adhesion. ‡ A) when contact angle is 0 the liquid contacts the surface completely and spreads freely and good adhesion. .Contact angle.

Acid Etching Technique ‡ Before the introduction of acid etching the use of bonding agents and leakage of oral fluids within the microscopic space between the prepared teeth and restorative materials was of greater concern for resin composites. ‡ The first meaningful proof of intra-oral adhesion was reported in 1955 by MICHEAL BUONOCORE. ‡ This was the effective method to improve the mechanical bonding and to ensure sealed interfacial gaps. who etched the enamel with acids and then placed the restorative resin which formed resin tags when penetrated into the roughened surface created by the acid. .

.  Applied onto the tooth surface with brushes or when available in the form syringe it is expressed onto surface.  Rinse the tooth. ‡ Pyruvic acid  Procedure ±Available as gel ( colloidical silica is added) or liquid form.  Etching time is -15 sec. Of 37% ) ‡ Citirc acid ‡ Maleic acid ‡ Oxalic acid ‡ Polyacrylic acid. If any contamination occurs procedure is to be repeated.‡ Phosphoric acid 30-50% (most commonly used at a conc.

.‡ TYPE 1--Etch pits result form selective dissolution of either the enamel rod cores ‡ TYPE 2 ±Peripheral areas dissolution Even with the etching procedure it cannot be relied solely on this procedure for the retention. However conditioned enamel is essential to ensure a marginal seal.

Etching Patterns and resin tags .

These agents had o potential for adhesion.‡ Before the advent of total etch for enamel and dentin.. . ‡ Dentin possess greater obstacles as it is a living tissue consisting if dentinal fluid within the tubules which can flow and adversely affect the adhesion. These resins were hydrophobic. but they improved the mechanical bonding by optimum formation of resin tags within enamel. enamel bonding agents were used. ‡ These agents were made by combining different dimethacrylates such as BIS-GMA and TEGDMA. ‡ An important breakthrough in DBA occurred when FUSAYAMA et al in 1979 used phosphoric acid on both dentin and enamel. ‡ In 1982 NAKABAYASHI revealed hydrophilic resins infiltrate a surface layer of collagen in dimineralized dentin to form HYBRID LAYER.

Generations of dentin bonding agents ‡ First Generation --Contained acidic groups to react with the mineral content of the tooth ‡ The first product marketed in 1950¶s containing the active agent glycerol phosphoric acid dimethacrylate. ‡ This material achieved little success for the same reasons that plagued the enamel etching applications (high polymerization shrinkage and high coefficient of thermal expansion ) ‡ Second Generation ²This included NPG-GMA (Nphenyl glycine and glycidyl methacrylate ) and phenylp. .2-methacryloxy phenyl phosphoric acid ‡ No evidence is significant for these adhesive in bonding to the tooth structure.

‡ Four steps involved are  Application of a dentin conditioner( HEMA ).‡ Third Generation ±Also based on the use of acid group to react with ca2+ ions and a methacrylate gp to copolymerize with unfilled resin ‡ This adhesive system involved two approaches   Modification of the smear layer to improve properties Removal of the smear layer without disturbing the plugs that occluded the dentinal tubules.  Application of the primer  Application of the adhesive .solution of maleic acid or 2 % aq nitric acid. . typically an unfilled resin  Placement of resin based composite.

 Dry thoroughly  Apply adhesive to enamel and dentin and cure for 20 sec. . ‡ Steps for its applications.‡ Fourth Generation--It was a result of major thinking as an advance in materials.  Apply primer ( infiltrates the collagen and optimizes the bonding).  Dry with air.  Etch dentin and enamel simultaneously for 15 sec and then rinsed.  Slightly moisten the surface.  Apply composite incrementally and cure. Hence materials that could remove the smear layer and smear plugs completely were developed. It was thought that etching would cause pulpal irritation.

‡ Fifth Generation ±This system was developed with a thought that clinical success would be more consistent if fewer steps were involved. ‡ Current DBA rely on a complex combination of micromechanical retention by  Penetration into partially opened dentinal tubules  Formation of a hybrid layer in which hydrophilic monomers penetrate and polymerize to form an interpenetrating network  Chemical interactions involving first and second order bonds. This single step is sometimes referred to as a sixth generation system. ‡ The number of procedural steps reduced by combining the conditioner and primer (self etching primer ) or primer and adhesive (self priming adhesive or one bottle system). .

Applications ‡ To seal pit and fissures ‡ For bonding orthodontic brackets. ‡ For bonding restorations to the tooth structure (amalgam and composite). ‡ For veneers .