Introduction To Wireless Sensor Networks

Wireless Sensor Networks
A wireless sensor network is a collection of nodes organized into a cooperative network. network. Each node consists of processing capability may contain multiple types of memory have an RF transceiver, have a power source (e. (e.g., batteries and solar cells), and

accommodate various sensors. sensors.

Wireless Sensor Networks

Communication Network
A communication network is composed of nodes, each of which has computing power and can transmit and receive messages over

communication links, wireless or cabled.

Basic Network Topologies 
    

Star Topology Ring Topology Bus Topology Tree Topology Fully Connected Networks Mesh Networks

Star Topology
All nodes of the star topology are connected to a single hub node. The hub requires greater message handling, routing, and decision-making capabilities than the other nodes. If a communication link is cut, it only affects one node. However, if the hub is incapacitated the network is destroyed.

Ring Topology
In the ring topology all nodes perform the same function and there is no leader node. Messages generally travel around the ring in a single direction. However, if the ring is cut, all communication is lost.

Bus Topology
In the bus topology, messages are broadcast on the bus to all nodes. Each node checks the destination address in the message header, and processes the

messages addressed to it.

Tree Topology
In Tree Topology there will be a root node and the root node has two branches. Each branches. branch may again contains branches and so on. on.

FullyFully-connected Network
In a fully connected Network when additional nodes are added, the number of links increases exponentially.

Mesh Network
Mesh networks are regularly distributed networks that generally allow transmission only to a node¶s nearest neighbors. The nodes in these networks are generally

identical.
Mesh nets can be good models for large-scale networks of wireless

sensors that are distributed over a geographic region.

Communication Network
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A single network may consist of several interconnected subnets of different

topologies. Networks are further classified as Local Area Networks (LAN), e.g. inside one building, or Wide Area Networks (WAN), e.g. between buildings.

Wireless Sensor Networks
A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a wireless network consisting of spatially using

distributed

autonomous

devices

sensors to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental temperature, conditions, sound, vibration, such as

pressure,

motion or pollutants, at different locations. locations.

Wireless Sensor Networks
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The development of wireless sensor networks was originally motivated by military applications such as battlefield surveillance. surveillance. However, wireless sensor networks are now used in many civilian application areas, including environment and habitat monitoring, healthcare applications, home automation, and traffic control. control.

Sensor Node 

Networks of typically small, battery-powered, batterywireless devices. ‡ On-board processing, On‡ Communication, and ‡ Sensing capabilities.
Sensors P O W E R

Storage

Processor Radio

WSN device schematics

Sensor Node
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In addition to one or more sensors, each node in a sensor network is typically equipped with a radio transceiver or other wireless communications device, a small microcontroller, and an energy source, usually a battery. battery.
Sensors
Storage

Processor Radio

P O W E R

WSN device schematics

Sensor Node
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Sensor Node
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Sensor Network Antenna
Server Interface electronics, radio and microcontroller Soil moisture probe Communications barrier Sensor field

Mote

Gateway

Internet

Computer Revolution

Original IBM PC (1981) 4.77 MHz 1616-256 KB RAM 160 KB Floppies ~ $6K (today) ~ 64 W 25 lb, 19.5 x 5.5 x 16 inch

MICAZ Mote (2005) 4 MHz 128 KB RAM 512 KB Flash ~ $35 ~14 mW 0.5 oz, 2.25 x 1.25 x 0.25 inch

Sensor Network
Server

Watershed Sensor field

Gateway

Internet

Network Model for WSN
A wireless sensor network consists of hundreds or thousands of low cost nodes which could either have a fixed location or randomly deployed to monitor the

environment. environment. The flowing of data ends at special nodes called base stations

(sometimes they are also referred to as sinks). sinks).

Network Model for WSN
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A base station links the sensor network to another network (like a gateway) to

disseminate the data sensed for further processing. processing. Base stations have enhanced capabilities over simple sensor nodes since they must do complex data processing. processing.

Network Model for WSN
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This justifies the fact that bases stations have workstation/laptop class processors, and of course enough memory, energy, storage and computational power to perform their tasks well. well.

Usage of Sensor Networks
Environmental Observation: Observation:
Sensor networks can be used to monitor environmental changes. An example could be water changes. pollution detection in a lake that is located near a factory that uses chemical substances. Sensor substances. nodes could be randomly deployed in unknown and hostile areas and relay the exact origin of a pollutant. pollutant. Other examples include forest fire

detection, air pollution and rainfall observation in agriculture. agriculture.

Usage of Sensor Networks
Military Monitoring: Monitoring:
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Military uses sensor networks for battlefield surveillance; surveillance; sensors could monitor

vehicular traffic, track the position of the enemy. enemy.

Usage of Sensor Networks
Building Monitoring: Monitoring:
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Sensors can also be used in large buildings or factories monitoring climate changes. changes. Thermostats and temperature sensor nodes are deployed all over the building¶s area. In area. addition, sensors could be used to monitor vibration that could damage the structure of a building. building.

Usage of Sensor Networks
Healthcare: Healthcare: Sensors can be used in
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biomedical

applications to improve the quality of the provided care. Sensors are implanted in the care. human body to monitor medical problems like cancer and help patients maintain their health. health.

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