Lecture:1 Boilers Introduction

y Boiler Definition y Schematic Diagram y Classification Of Boilers y Types Of Boilers y Principle Of Boiler y Construction Of Boiler y Boiler Mounting/Accessories y Boiler Efficiency y Safety Measures

Boiler Definition:
´ Boiler is Self Contained closed vessel used to transmit heat from an external source to the fluid contained within the boiler itself µ Boiler is actually meant for heating that may lead to change in state (from liquid to gas) depending upon the type of output we need for our use.

Schematic Diagram

A boiler is used to generate steam at a desired pressure and temperature by transferring heat produced by burning fuel to water to change it to steam. Steam is used for the following purposes: y Power generation y Processing y Heating

This is the schematic view of a water tube boiler. From this we can see the basic parts, input and Output of a boiler. 
Combustion Chamber/Burner  Water Tubes (Fire Tubes)  Container  Inlets  Outlet

Input:  Water  Fuel  Air Output:  Steam  Flue  Hot Water

Boilers are classified on the basis of their:  Uses  Size  Tube shape  Tube position  Tube contents  Heat source  Material  Pressure

Boilers are classified on the basis of nature of service to be performed. E.g. stationary boilers are used for plant processes and portable boilers are normally used for oil fields and marine. Boilers may be high pressure or low pressure. Boilers are also classified on the basis of the material used in their construction like high pressure boilers are made from steel, where as low pressure are made from cast iron. Some boilers are made from copper also.

Boilers are having different positions of tubing:  Horizontal  Vertical  Inclined Boilers are also classified on the basis of tube shapes e.g.  Straight Tubes.  Bent Tubes.

Type Of Boilers w.r.t working Principle:
There are mainly two type of boilers depending upon the contents of tube: 
Water Tube Boilers  Fire Tube Boilers.

These types are further subdivide into different types which we study further. P.T.O

Water Tube Boiler 
Water tube boiler contains water in the tubes and hot

combustion gases around those tubes in order to produce steam from water.  Water tube boilers are normally use for the collection of high pressure steam (High pressure applications)  Water tube boilers are expensive as compared to fire tube boiler.  Water tube boilers are large in size as compared to fire tube.

Fire Tube Boiler 
Combustion product in the tubes(fire tubes) and water

(which is to be vaporized) is around those tubes.  Fire Tubes are in a shell.  Fire Tube Boiler is used for low pressure applications.  Fire Tube Boilers are having low initial cost.  Easy to construct and handled.

Types of Boiler w.r.t Construction
y D-Type Boiler y A-Type Boiler y O-Type Boiler

D-Type: D-Type contains: 1 Steam Drum. 1 Mud Drum. And tubes are bent into D-shape

Types of Boiler w.r.t Construction
A-Type: A-Type contains: 1 Steam Drum 2 Mud Drums below. O-Type: O-Type contains: 1 Steam Drum. 1 Mud Drum. Tubes are bent in such a manner to give O-shape.

Electric Boilers

In electric Boilers a coil is immersed in the water ,when current passes through the coil, it heats up the water up to boiling point to make vapors.

Principle Of Boiler
Burner is a heart of the boiler which converts water to steam.This burner is heated by supplying fuels into it. The water stored in the vessel when heated to a desired temperature level by burning natural gases, coal and wood pellets can be defined as a boiler.The steam produced by the boiler when heated is piped to a spot which can be is utilized for different purposes such has running the production units, sanitizing some area, sterilizing equipments, to warm up the surroundings, to heat up the water, and many more. . P.T.O

Construction Of Boiler
Boiler consist of following basic parts: 
Shell  Tubes  Passes  Smoke Box  Interior Baffles  Nozzles  Openings  Supports

Construction Of Boiler
Shell: The boiler consists of a steel shell, which includes the boiler tubes, the outer firebox wrapper plate, the inner firebox, boiler back plate, smoke box, tube plate and throat plate. Shell is a cylindrical metal covering in case of fire tube boiler, which holds fire tubes in it. Tubes: Tubes contain fire in case of fir tube(heating/combustion material) and water(to be heated) in case of water tube boiler.

Construction Of Boiler
Passes: Passes are placed at the edges of tubes to control the passage way(direction) of the running fluid in the tubes. There may be 1-4 number of passes(minimum 1 and maximum of 4 passes) that can be placed in front of tubes. It is important to know that maximum number of passes will generate higher efficiency. Smoke Box: The smoke box is an extension of the front end of the boiler barrel. Exhaust steam from the cylinders passes through the blast pipe into the chimney and creates a partial vacuum. This causes hot gases to be drawn through the tubes which, in turn, draws air into the firebox through the grate and fire hole door. The smoke box contains exhaust for the Vacuum Ejector where fitted.

Construction Of Boiler
Interior Baffles: Interior Baffles is a metal plate which control the circulation during the boiler cycle.

Construction Of Boiler
Nozzles/Openings: There are certain openings and nozzles for intake and output purposes, boiler mountings and accessories are also placed on different openings in order to control the overall performance of boiler. Supports: Certain supports are also required under shell and tubes to give the boiler structure a proper stand over.

Boiler Mountings & Accessories
Boilers are equipped with two categories of components: Boiler mountings are the machine components that are mounted over the body of the boiler itself for the safety of the boiler and for complete control of the process of steam generation. Boiler accessories are those components which are installed either inside or outside the boiler to increase the efficiency of the plant and to help in the proper working of the plant.

Boiler Mountings & Accessories
Safety Valves: It is used to relieve pressure and prevent possible explosion of boiler. Normally Alarm and LED·s are attached to the safety valves to generate threatening signals in order to take corrective/safety measures at proper time Water level indicators: They show the operator the level of fluid in the boiler, also known as a sight glass, water gauges or water column are also provided for this purpose.

Boiler Mountings & Accessories
Pressure Gauge: Pressure Gauge is calibrated gauge in order to record the pressure of steam produced. Pressure gauges help to attain the required pressure as proper pressure is being recorded and checked through pressure gauges. Feed Check Valves: y Feed Check valve is a non-return stop valve in the feed water line, having following purposes :  Allow the feed water to pass into the boiler.  To prevent the back flow of the water

Boiler Mountings & Accessories
Man & Mud Holes: For the proper and timely inspection, Repair and cleaning of the Boiler, these holes are present to allow the men to enter in the boiler. Economizer: Economizer recover/recycle some of heat being carried over by exhaust gases. Feed Pump: Water enter into the boiler through feed check valve, but that water is being forced under high pressure through feed pump.

Efficiency Of Boiler:
Requirements of an efficient boiler
y 1) Should generate maximum amount of steam at a required

pressure and temperature and quality with minimum fuel consumption.
y 2) Should be light in weight and should not occupy large

y 3) Should conform to safety regulations.

Requirements of an efficient boiler
y 4) Should have low initial cost, installation cost and

maintenance cost.
y 5) Should be able to cope with fluctuating demands of steam

y 6) All parts and components should be easily accessible for

inspection and repair.

Efficiency Of Boiler:
The term ´boiler efficiencyµ is often substituted for thermal efficiency or fuel-to-steam efficiency. Fuel-to-steam efficiency is a measure of the overall efficiency of the boiler. It accounts for the effectiveness of the heat exchanger as well as the radiation and convection losses. The following are the key factors to understanding efficiency calculations. 1. Flue gas temperature 2.Fuel specification 3.Excess air 4.Ambient air temperature 5.Radiation and convection losses.

How To Increase The Efficiency Of Boiler
High boiler efficiency is the result of specific design criteria, including: - Number of boiler passes - Burner / boiler compatibility - Repeatable air/fuel ratio control - Heating surface - Pressure vessel design

y y y y y

How To Increase The Efficiency Of Boiler
Number Of Passes: There are minimum of 1 and maximum of 4 passes in a boiler. Higher the number of passes greater will be the efficiency. As the no. of passes will be more less fuel would be used resulting in low fuel cost. Burner & Boiler Compatibility: Boiler and burner manufacturers should be same as maximum compatibility is attained in that case.

How To Increase The Efficiency Of Boiler
Air-to-Fuel Ratio: Proper Air to fuel ratio throughout the firing is necessary for the maximum efficiency of boiler. Air-Fuel Ratio should be uniform during a firing order. Heating Surface: Wider Heating surface generate maximum efficiency of the boiler. As larger area is available for the production of steam.

Safety Measurements
Current Inspection Certificate: For every Boiler a Current Inspection Certificate is generated, This certificate is issued on the basis of boiler·s life time, working and safety measures to be adopted while usage. Engineers should study that detailed manual before and during the usage of boiler. Leakage Inspection: There should be no leaks from any part of boiler or piping external to boiler.

Safety Measurements
Particle Accumulation: Remove Mud from boiler periodically because it causes corrosion and blockages in the boiler tubes which leads to burst and leakages to the boiler tubes. Uniform Flame: Flame should be correct and uniform throughout the working cycle of boiler. Valves & Gauges Inspection: All gauges, valves and meters should be checked periodically. If any defect found should be repaired on time.

Safety Measurements
Trash Control: No trash (plastic, paper) or combustible material near boiler as it causes serious damage or even bursting of boiler.

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