CHAPTER 7 COGNITION

Learning Objectives

How do organization, adaptation, and disequilibrium guide development?

Chapter 7: Cognition

• • • •

Cognition: The activity of knowing Typical of humans throughout lifespan Changes across the lifespan Piaget and Vygotsky

Piaget

• •

Genetic Epistemology – How we come to know reality Clinical Method – Question and answer technique – Used to discover how children reason

Intelligence: How well we adapt – Schemes/cognitive structures – Represent reality

Piaget

Assimilation – Using existing schemes to interpret new experiences – E.g., Birds are things that fly

Accommodation – Modifying schemes to fit new experience – E.g., Butterflies are different than birds even though they both fly

Piaget

• Adaptation
– Adjusting to the environment – Using assimilation and accommodation

• Intelligence = Adaptation • Constructivism
– Children construct own reality – Use their experiences (schemes)

Piaget

Four stages/changes in ability to reason – Sensorimotor: birth to 2 years – Preoperational: 2 to 7 years – Concrete operations: 7 to 11 years – Formal operations: 12+ years

• • •

Invariant sequence Rates may vary Requires maturation and experience

Learning Objectives

• •

What are the major achievements of the sensorimotor stage ? How do infants progress toward these achievements?

Piaget

• Sensorimotor Stage
– Newborn uses reflexes to understand world (sensory & motoric intelligence)

• Outcome of Stage
– Mental representation

• Evidence: Object Permanence
– Symbolic Capacity

• Evidence: Language

• Some common tests of the child’s ability to conserve.

Learning Objectives

What are the characteristics and limitations of preoperational thought?

Preoperational Stage

• Egocentric Thinkers • Problem Solving Limited
– Classification and seriation problems

• Ages 2–7: Preschool
– May have imaginary companions

• Lack Conservation
– Perceptual salience, Irreversible thinking – Centration

Learning Objectives

• •

What are the major characteristics and limitations of concrete operational thought? What are the main features of concrete operational thought?

Concrete Operations

• •

Age 7-11 Can Conserve • Decentration • Reversible thinking • Logical thinking (limited to reality) – Seriation and classification – Transitive thinking: • “ If J is taller than M, and M is taller than S, who is taller – J or S?”

Learning Objectives

• •

What are the main features of formal operational thought? In what ways might adult thought be more advanced than adolescent thought?

Formal Operations

• Adolescence/Puberty • Logical Thinking About Ideas
– Hypothetical and abstract thinking – Hypothetical-deductive reasoning

• Decontextual Thinking
– Ability to separate prior knowledge/beliefs from new evidence to the contrary

Formal Operations 2

Adolescent Egocentrism – Differentiating own thoughts from others’ • Imaginary audience – Also, learning to present themselves to a real audience • Personal fable – “No one has ever felt like this before!” – “I drive better when I’m drunk!”

Cognition in Adulthood

• Formal Operations Require
– Normal intelligence – Higher education (scientific thinking)

• Lower Performance on Formal Operations
– Why? Use only in field of expertise

• Postformal Thought (Highest Level)
– Relativistic thinking: Labouvie-Vief – No absolute answer in many situations

Learning Objectives

What are the limitations and challenges to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development?

Piaget

Contributions – Stimulated much research – Correct about cognitive development

Challenges – Underestimated competencies – Focused on performance not competence – Domain growth rather than stages – Social influences left out

Learning Objectives

• •

What is the main theme of Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development? How does social interaction contribute to cognitive development according to Vygotsky’s theory? In what ways are Vygotsky and Piaget similar and different in their ideas about cognition?

Vygotsky

Emphasized the Sociocultural Context – Culture effects how and what we think

Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) – Accomplishment with guidance – Where lessons should be aimed

• •

Guided Participation Learning Private Speech Guides Behavior – (3&4 yr olds)