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Dr. Om Prakash
Aerospace Engineering
UPES, Dehradun
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 Dr. Om Prakash, UPES, Dehradun


 


y 
 Oeed for Pressurizing the
Cabin, Pressuring System, Oxygen Arrangements, Air
Conditioning System, Control of Temperature Integrated Air
Conditioning System.
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Oavigation Methods, Dead Reckoning, Astronavigation, Ratio
Aids, Positive Fixing, Related modern instruments. Instruments
landing system, HF & VHF System, Simple Description of
Communication Systems using Earth Station & Satellites,
Oetworks Communication System.
y    Hydraulic System: details &
various components, Selector & Sequence, Switches, Electro-
Hydro-Mechanical System, Pneumatic System, Auto Pilot System

 Dr. Om Prakash, UPES, Dehradun


  !"#! $%$"&

y Oeed for Pressurizing the Cabin, Pressuring System (Ref [1]


, pp. 539-542)
y Oxygen Arrangements (Ref [1] , pp. 587-589)
y Air Conditioning System (Ref [1] , pp.558-561)
y Control of Temperature Integrated Air Conditioning System.
(Ref [1] , pp. 565-568)
Ref [1]: Airframe and Powerplant MECHAOICS (Airframe
Book), FAA

' Dr. Om Prakash, UPES, Dehradun


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y Oeed for Pressurizing the Cabin


y Less fuel for given speed at high altitude
y Pressure decreases with altitude
y Assure adequate passenger comfort and safety
y Fast exchange of air from inside to outside the cabin

y Basic Requirements
y Source of cabin pressure: engine compressor, supercharger,
air bled from engine
y Pressure regulator for controlling cabin pressure
y Pressure relief valve to limit cabin pressure
y Heat exchanger of refrigeration system for regulation
y Sealing of cabin to prevent leakage
y Cabin design to with stand pressure differential
y Typical Pressurizing systems

 Dr. Om Prakash, UPES, Dehradun


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y Oxygen
y Atmosphere consists of 21% oxygen
y Less oxygen at high altitude
y Passenger comfort

y Continuous Flow System Pressure-Demand System

o Dr. Om Prakash, UPES, Dehradun


     
y Air Conditioning
y To maintain a comfortable air temperature in cabin
y Distribution of conditioned air in cabin
y Control of humidity
y Heater and cooler are set to operate
y Functions include: Supply of ventilated air, Supply of heated air, Supply of cooling air

y Heating system
y Heating by supercharger compression
y Gasoline combustion heater, Electric heater, re-cycling of compressed air, exhaust
gas air to air heat exchanger
y Ventilation: blower for air circulation, a ram-air inlet, cabin compressors

y Cooling System
y Expansion turbine (cooling turbine),
y air to air heat exchanger,

+ Om valves
Dr. y Prakash, UPES, Dehradun
 
y Typical pressurization
and Air Conditioning
system

A Dr. Om Prakash, UPES, Dehradun


!,  $( $-%$"&

y Hydraulic System: details & various components [Ref. [1],


pp315-316]
y Selector & Sequence, Switches [Ref. [1], pp329-330]
y Electro-Hydro-Mechanical System [To be covered]
y Pneumatic System [Ref. [1], pp511-515]
y Auto Pilot System [Ref. [1], pp511-515]

. Dr. Om Prakash, UPES, Dehradun



  
 

y Hydraulic Systems
y Light weight, ease of installation, minimum maintenance, simple for inspections
y Operations: Landing gears, wing flaps, flight control surfaces, wheel brake
y 100 % efficient, minimum number of components
y Basic Hydraulic System
y Hand pump
y Power driven pump
y Reservoirs
y Actuating Cylinder
y Selector Valves

å Dr. Om Prakash, UPES, Dehradun


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åå Dr. Om Prakash, UPES, Dehradun


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y Selector Valves

å Dr. Om Prakash, UPES, Dehradun



  

y Employ air for transmitting power in hydraulic
systems
y Brakes, opening and closing of doors, deriving pumps,
Operating emergency devices
y High pressure: air bottles
y Medium pressure: air from jet engine compressors
y Low pressure: vane-type pump in reciprocating
engine aircraft
y Components: Relief Valves, Control Valves, Check
Valves, Restrictor, Filters, Air Bottles, Lines and
Tubing

å Dr. Om Prakash, UPES, Dehradun





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å' Dr. Om Prakash, UPES, Dehradun


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y Basic Auto Pilot system

å Dr. Om Prakash, UPES, Dehradun


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y Block Diagram

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y Components

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y Different Oavigation Methods, Dead Reckoning
y Astronavigation, Ratio Aids, Positive Fixing, Related modern
instruments
y Instruments landing system, HF & VHF System
y Simple Description of Communication Systems using Earth
Station & Satellites
y Oetworks Communication System.

åA Dr. Om Prakash, UPES, Dehradun


      

y Safe aircraft operation


y voice transmission and reception between aircraft or aircraft and
ground
y Marker beakons receivers, Instrument
landing system, radar, area navigation system, Omni-direction
radio receivers

å. Dr. Om Prakash, UPES, Dehradun


 
y VHF (Very High Frequency)communication system
y Operate in range of 108.0 Hz to 135.95Hz
y Radio waves follow approx. straight line
y Distance is determined by the heights of transmitting and receiving antenas
y Have transmitter, receiver, power supply, operating controls into single unit

y HF (High Frequency) communication system


y Used for long range communication
y Operates in range of 3 MHz to 30 Mhz
y Longer transmission range
y HF transmitter have high power output
y Low speed aircraft: Long wire antenna;
y High speed aircraft: antenna probes in vertical stabilizer

 Dr. Om Prakash, UPES, Dehradun


 
y Oavigation Methods

y Doppler Oavigations

y Inertial Oavigation

å Dr. Om Prakash, UPES, Dehradun