# Module 7 Sampling and sampling distribution

.Population • A group of individuals or items that share one or more characteristics from which data can be gathered and analyzed.

) of an observable entity enumerated to distinguish objects or individuals. • Each observation measures one or more properties (weight. especially for the purposes of statistical inference. etc.sampling • Sampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of individual observations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern. . location.

3. 7. 6. Defining the population of concern Specifying a sampling frame. 5. 4. 2. a set of items or events possible to measure Specifying a sampling method for selecting items or events from the frame Determining the sample size Implementing the sampling plan Sampling and data collecting Reviewing the sampling process .The sampling process comprises of several stages 1.

or informants are selected from a universe .Two types of data collection • Census technique • In this technique each and every item or unit constituting the universe is selected for data collection • Also called 100% enumeration technique • Sample technique • Under this technique some representative units.

Methods of sampling Non-probability sampling method Probability sampling method .

an interviewer may be told to sample 200 females and 300 males between the age of 45 and 60. Also refer merits and demerits .Sub classification of non-probability sampling • Quota method • whole universe is divided first into certain parts and the total sample is allocated among these parts • Then judgment is used to select the subjects or units from each segment based on a specified proportion • For example.

Also refer merits and demerits • Convenience method • It is a type of purposive sampling in which the sample units are selected purposively by the investigator to suit his convenience in the matter of location. and contact with the units • it is the method most commonly employed in many practical situations .

• Sequential method • It is type of purposive sampling in which a number of sample lots are drawn one after another in order of a sequence till a satisfactory sample lot is obtained Also refer merits and demerits .

• Each element of the frame thus has an equal probability of selection: the frame is not subdivided or partitioned .Sub classification of probability sampling • Simple random sampling • Is a type of unrestricted random sampling in which each and every item of the universe is selected by chance. without interference of any bias or purpose on the part of the invigilator • In a simple random sample of a given size. all such subsets of the frame are given an equal probability.

• and [2] to improve efficiency by gaining greater control on the composition of the sample .• Stratified random sampling • In this different number of samples are drawn at random from different strata. or divisions of the universe • The two main reasons for using a stratified sampling design are [1] to ensure that particular groups within a population are adequately represented in the sample.

numerical .• Systematic random sampling or quasi random sampling • In this the initial unit of the sample is selected at random from the initial stratum of the universe . alphabetical or geographical order • Selecting (say) every 10th name from the telephone directory is called an every 10th sample.and the other units are selected at a certain space interval from the universe arranged in a systematic order like. which is an example of systematic sampling .

g. or certain time-periods only • Cluster sampling is an example of '' or ' multistage sampling': in the first stage a sample of areas is chosen. . and certain such clusters are selected at random to provide for sample • Sometimes it is cheaper to 'cluster' the sample in some way • e. by selecting respondents from certain areas only.• Cluster sampling • In this whole universe is subdivided into certain prominent subgroups called clusters. in the second stage a sample of respondent within those areas is selected.

and may form a frame for further sampling if desired.• Area sampling • The total area under investigation is divided into small sub-areas which are sampled at random or by some restricted random process. • Each of the chosen sub-areas is then fully inspected and enumerated. • Suitable for any common problem of population .

Sampling errors • Are those errors which occur on account of the use of sample techniques in the collection of data • There is always some difference between the exact and estimated values of the parameters which is nothing but sampling error .

Causes of sampling errors • Selection of irrelevant . or unrepresentative items as the samples • Improper substitution of the sample items • Bias in the estimating method • Variability of the population • Faulty demarcation of the statistical units • Fluctuation of sampling • Smallness of the size of the sample .

Relation between sampling errors and size of the sample Size of the error Size of the sample .