# Wave Hydrodynamics

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Beach Terminology

The inner shelf is a friction-dominated realm where surface and bottom boundary layers overlap.
(From Nitrouer, C.A. and Wright, L.D., Rev. Geophys., 32, 85, 1994. With permission.)

Conceptual diagram illustrating physical transport processes on the inner shelf.
(From Nitrouer, C.A. and Wright, L.D., Rev. Geophys., 32, 85, 1994. With permission.)

Ocean waves may be classified by the generating force (wind, seismic events, or gravitational pull of the moon), the restoring force, (surface tension, gravity, the earth’s rotation), or the frequency of the waves.
Idealized Ocean Wave Spectrum

Ocean Waves

As the wind continues to transfer momentum to the water. friction and pressure differences create small ripples in the water surface. transferring energy and momentum to the water.A wind wave is generated by the friction of the wind over the water’s surface. . the wave becomes higher. The wind pushes on the back side of the wave and pulls on the front. Wind Waves As the wind blows over the surface of the water.

and fetch. Duration is the length of time the wind is blowing. The longer the wind blows.The area where wind waves are form and grow is called the generation area. duration. Higher wind speeds mean more momentum to transfer to the water. Wave Growth . The heights of the waves in the generation area are determined by three factors: wind speed. resulting in higher waves. the higher the waves and more chaotic the seas.

Fetch is important in the early stages of wave formation. . and will control how large the wave will be at a given time.Fetch Fetch is the horizontal distance that the wind blows across the water.

Swell This sorting by wave speed creates long regular wave patterns called swell. .As deep-water waves depart the generation area. they disperse with the long waves travel faster.

the wave breaks. causing the wave to tip forward. When H/L. .As a wave shoals (approaches the shoreline) the wave period remains constant. the ratio of the wave height to wavelength. Shoaling Waves Friction slows the bottom of the wave to while the top continues at the same speed. causing the wavelength to decrease and the wave height to increase. reaches the critical value of 1/7.

SEAS Waves under the influence of winds in a generating area Waves moved away from the generating area and no longer influenced by winds SWELL .

therefore. Pressure at the free surface is uniform and constant. the density is a constant. Coriolis effect is neglected. . Fluid is ideal (lacks viscosity). 4. Surface tension is neglected. 2. 5. 3.SMALL AMPLITUDE/FIRST ORDER/AIRY WAVE THEORY 1. Fluid is homogenous and incompressible.

. The wave amplitude is small and the wave form is invariant in time and space. fixed. 8.SMALL AMPLITUDE/FIRST ORDER/AIRY WAVE THEORY 6. 9. The wave does not interact with any other water motion. Waves are plane or low crested (two dimensional). The bed is a horizontal. and 3 and relax assumptions 4-9 for most practical solutions. impermeable boundary which implies that the vertical velocity at the bed is zero. Can accept 1. 7. 2.

WAVE CHARACTERISTICS T = WAVE PERIOD Time taken for two successive crests to pass a given point in space .

PROGRESSIVE WAVE Definition of Terms η =eta . SINUSOIDAL.ELEMENTARY.

then Since C = L/T. Relating wavelength and H2O depth to celerity. AND PERIOD PHASE VELOCITY/WAVE CELERITY: (C) speed at which a waveform moves. LENGTH.WAVE CELERITY. is . then NOTE: L exists on both sides of the equation.

When d/L >0. Since: Then: Since: Then: DEEP WATER: .5 = DEEP WATER Here.

Long waves (swell) move fast and lose little energy. Short wave moves slower and loses most energy before reaching a distant coast. Small increases in T are associated with large increases in L. 2. . Longer waves travel faster than shorter waves.1.

MOTION IN A SURFACE WAVE Local Fluid Velocities and Accelerations (HORIZONTAL) (VERTICAL) .

Water particle displacements from mean position for shallow-water and deepwater waves. .

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As waves approach a shoreline the water shallows and they change from deepwater to transitional waves. . As water shallows the waves steepen and finally break to form surf which surges towards the shoreline.

When surf reaches the beach it rushes up the beach face as swash and then runs back down the slope as backwash. Swash and backwash moves sediment up and down the beach face. .

SUMMARY OF LINEAR WAVES C = Celerity = Length/Time Relating L (Wavelength) and D (Water Depth) Since C = L/T. then becomes: Since C = L/T. then becomes: .

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is propagated shoreward from a depth d = 200m to a depth d = 3 m.PROBLEMS GIVEN: A wave with a period T = 10 secs. FIND: C and L at d = 200m and d = 3m. .

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wave crest) . (i.WAVE ENERGY AND POWER Kinetic + Potential = Total Energy of Wave System Kinetic: due to H2O particle velocity Potential: due to part of fluid mass being above trough.e.

.WAVE ENERGY FLUX (Wave Power) Rate at which energy is transmitted in the direction of progradation.

LINEAR (AIRY) WAVE THEORY: WAVE CHARACTERISTICS Summary of .

.Regions of validity for various wave theories.

2. • Distribution is skewed above SWL. Useful in calculating mass transport.HIGHER ORDER THEORIES 1. HIGHER ORDER WAVES ARE: • More peaked at the crest. . Better agreement between theoretical and observed wave behavior. • Flatter at the trough.

Comparison of second-order Stokes’ profile with linear profile. .

.USEFULNESS OF HIGHER ORDER THEORIES MASS TRANSPORT VELOCITY = U(2) The distance a particle is displaced during one wave period. NB: Mass transport in the direction of propagation.

HIGHER ORDER WAVES Stokes ) • Takes wave height to 2 order (H 2 and higher • Useful in higher energy environments nd 2nd order approximate wave profile is: .

use linear wave theory equation. reduces to: If H/L is small. If (H/L) is small.For deep H2O – Eq. . (Wave Velocity) NB. then profile can be represented by linear wave theory TERM: Peaks crests Flattens troughs Conforms to shallow H2O wave profile THIRD ORDER APPROX.

VELOCITY OF A WAVE GROUP WAVE GROUP/WAVE TRAIN Speed not equal to wave travel for individual waves GROUP SPEED = GROUP VELOCITY (Cg). Waves in DEEP or TRANSITIONAL WATER In SHALLOW WATER . INDIVIDUAL WAVE SPEED = Phase velocity or wave celerity.

24 Present Length = 3.065959 Keulegan and Patterson (1940) Cnoidal Wave Theory SI Units (m) Wave Height = .757897 Elliptical Modulus = .25 Wave Period = 2 WaterDepth = 1.4085376 Net Onshore Displacement Umass = Mass Transport Velocity .1 Deep Water Length = 6.K = .4085376 YT = 1.

783304 Tim e U(T ) UMa ss Sedim ent Transp ort T = 2s H= 0.24 L = 5.25m D= NB. Umass Symmetry .Airy Wave Theory LO = 6.

25m D= Depth at which C.24 L = 5.363072 Tim e U(T ) UMa ss Sedim ent Transp ort T = 2s H= 0. took place .Airy Wave Theory LO = 6.T.

Deformasi Gelombang • • • • Breaking Refraction Diffraction Reflection 44 .

45 .Refraction • Waves travel more slowly in shallow water (shallower than the wave base). • It focuses wave energy on headlands. • This is called refraction • This causes the wave front to bend so it is more parallel to shore.

1996 Surf / Breaker Zone .Wave Refraction Orthogonal l fast trave es Wav er i ter er wa n de p Waves ore slo a v el m tr w hallo ly i n s w wat er Beach 46 European Coast.

Wave Refraction Seabed contour Wave Crest Path of crests diverge and minimize impact of waves on shore Seabed contour Wave crest Path of crests converge and maximize impact of waves on shore Shallow Deep 47 .

Long shore Transport 48 .

Wave Diffraction 49 .

θ ) . 50 β .Wave Diffraction Hd β θ Hi r Breakwate r L Wave Diffraction Shadow Zone Energy Transfer Orthogonal Wave Crest Orthogonal Diffraction Coeficient ( K’ ) K’ = Hd / Hi K’ = φ (r/L.

Refleksi Gelombang 51 European Coast. 1996 .

dan Angka Irribarren (Ir) : Kr = Hr / Hi Kr = fungsi (a.Refleksi Gelombang  Untuk dinding vertikal. P. Ir) tan α Ir = Hi Lo 52 . kekasaran dasar laut.  Hanya sebagian saja energi yang dipantulkan jika gelombang menjalar di pantai yang agak landai  Refleksi tergantung pada kelandaian pantai. porositas dinding. kedap air. hampir seluruh energi akan dipantulkan kembali ke laut. n. dgn elevasi diatas muka air.

Perbedaan Gelombang 53 .

2002 .3 ξ > 3.5 tan β ξ= Ho Lo 0 .WAVES – BREAKING ξ < 0.5 < ξ < 3 .3 Dean and Dalrymple.

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