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National Informatics Centre, DIT, Govt.

of India

Agenda

• Computer Hardware
– Input Devices
– Output Devices
– Secondary Storage
• Computer Software
– System Software
– Application Software
– Working with Windows
• Computer Network Basics

National Informatics Centre, DIT, Govt. of India

A Computer is a device which allows you to

Input raw data
Perform Computations/Processing
Store the data for retrieval
Obtain desired information

National Informatics Centre, DIT, Govt. of India

A computer is:

• An electronic machine that can be
programmed to accept data
(input), and process it into useful
information (output). Data is put in
secondary storage for
safekeeping or later use.
• The processing of input into output
is directed by the software, but
performed by the hardware.

National Informatics Centre, DIT, Govt. of India

. COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY IS COMPLEX BUT BASED ON SIMPLE PRINCIPLE Input as Raw Data Output as Information Instructions ............. .... of India ...... Govt........ ... DIT...... .. Storage National Informatics Centre.

• Two digits represent these states: 0 for the electronic state of Off. which has two discrete states: On or Off. DIT. National Informatics Centre. Govt. of India . • Computers are devices powered by electricity.Computers process data by means of a binary system. and 1 representing On (the presence of an electronic charge).

of India . What are the main components ? • Hardware • Software National Informatics Centre. Govt. DIT.

of India . Govt. Basic Computer Hardware National Informatics Centre. DIT.

• Processing devices are contained in a computer’s system unit and are comprised of circuitry. The main circuit board is the motherboard. e. • Output devices display the processed information understandably and usefully. with its central processing unit (CPU) and memory. monitors. of India . microphone. National Informatics Centre. e. Govt. printers. speakers.g. Data and commands can also be sent to the processing unit. DIT. scanners.Computer systems consist of the following hardware components: • Input devices accept data or commands in a form useable by computers.g.. mice. digital camera. keyboards.

Zip drives. hard disk drives.•Storage devices include secondary storage for data and programs outside the computer’s processing unit. CD-RW and DVD-ROM drives. National Informatics Centre. of India . Drives read from and write to storage media (the physical material that can store data and programs). e. DIT. Govt. floppy disk drives. allowing for exchange of information and data with other computers via transmission media such as cables. telephone lines and satellites.g. •Communication devices provide connections between computers and communication networks. CD-ROM.

DIT. of India . Graphic Representation of Computer Components: National Informatics Centre. Govt.

PROCESSOR CPU. ALU. DIT. of India . Govt. CU Input Devices OUTPUT DEVICES MEMORY Secondary Storage National Informatics Centre.

LET US HAVE A LOOK INSIDE National Informatics Centre. DIT. of India . Govt.

Govt. DIT.National Informatics Centre. of India .

Govt. The Motherboard National Informatics Centre. DIT. of India .

National Informatics Centre. Govt. of India . DIT.

DIT. INPUT DEVICES Keyboard Scanner Mouse Joystick Microphone National Informatics Centre. of India . Govt.

  Form when changing a window’s height  Form when changing a window’s width  Form when changing a window’s height and width simultaneously  Form when changing a width of a field in a table Form when inserting the text  Form when moving a field to a new position in the table Form when application being executed or a wait state National Informatics Centre. DIT. of India . Mouse Pointer Forms  Standard Pointer form. Govt.

/ Enter 0 . = Up { } | Page 7 8 9 Tab Q W E R T Y U I O P Delete End [ ] \ Down Home PgUp + Caps : “ 4 5 6 A S D F G H J K L Enter Lock . DIT. Ctrl Alt Alt Ctrl Ins Del SPACE BAR National Informatics Centre. Esc F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 Print Scroll Pause Num Caps Scroll Screen Lock Break Lock Lock Lock ~ ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ + Page Num Insert Home Lock / * - ` 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 . ‘ 1 2 3 < > ? Shift Z X C V B N M Shift End PgDn . . Govt. of India .

of India . DIT. Govt. INPUT DEVICES Contd… TV tuner card Digital Camera Digital Video camera Bar code Scanner National Informatics Centre.

OUTPUT DEVICES Printer Monitor Speakers Fax National Informatics Centre. DIT. Govt. of India .

DIT. SECONDARY STORAGE DEVICES Magnetic Tape Floppy CDROM Hard Disk National Informatics Centre. Govt. of India .

and Smart Media National Informatics Centre. Govt. DVD-ROM (~5GB/side) – read only (-ROM). re-writeable (-RW) • Combination drive – CD-RW/DVD-ROM.Secondary Storage Devices Contd… • Disk drives – Internal & External – Hard drives – Removable disk drives • Floppy disks (1. Multi Media Card.4 MB) • ZIP disks (100/250 MB) • CD-ROM (700MB). DIT. Compact Flash. write once (-R). CD-RW/DVD-R • Many other forms • Memory Stick. of India .

commonly called Fire Wire. Govt. DIT. and 800Mbps (in 1394b). is a very fast external bus standard that supports 60 GB External Hard Drive data transfer rates of up (Fire Wire) to 400Mbps (in 1394a) Universal Buslink Corp. of India . Iomega 60GB Portable USB Hard Drive National Informatics Centre. External Hard Drives • IEEE 1394.

0 GHz Cache Memory 512KB  Hard Disk Drive 80GB  Floppy Disk Drives 1. Govt. of India . DIT.Computer Configuration Characteristic Example  Present day PC Family Pentium IV / AMD Memory 512MB/1GB Microprocessor chip Intel P IV / AMD Clock Speed 3.44 MB  CD Drive 52 X Monitor TFT Digital Monitor 2MB RAM ( 1024 X 768) National Informatics Centre.

Latest Technology Bluetooth Products Bluetooth Mobile Phone. of India . PDAs Mouse Bluetooth printer and laptop with Cordless Bar code Scanner bluetooth adapter National Informatics Centre. DIT. headset. Govt.

DIT. Govt. Hardware recap National Informatics Centre. of India .

Basic Computer Software National Informatics Centre. of India . Govt. DIT.

Software System Application Software Software Operating General Compilers for high Utilities Purpose Level Languages System National Informatics Centre. DIT. Govt. Software: A set of instruction ( programs ) that makes the hardware perform a particular set of tasks. of India .

Text based 2003 . of India . Govt.Kernel •DOS Hardware • Windows XP Kernel •Unix USER INTERFACE Shell(s) •Windows . DIT.Windows based •Linux National Informatics Centre.

Anti Virus etc. File WINDOWS 2000. Lotus SmartSuite. Pagemaker. Operating System Utilities System Software Ms-Office. DIT. JAVA Ventura. User Designed Application Software National Informatics Centre.NET Framework. Software Layers in a Computer System DOS. etc. Govt. . WINDOWS XP. C++. etc. Memory Management. C. SmallTalk. UNIX. Linux. of India . Management. Application Software Higher Level Languages General Purpose Software Scientific Business Design Marketing Entertainment ……….OS2. J2Eetc.

Computing Environments • Single user • Multi user • Networked National Informatics Centre. of India . Govt. DIT.

DIT. PCDOS • Resource sharing cannot be done National Informatics Centre. Personal Computer Single User System • One user can work on it • No efficient use of System • Operating System like MSDOS. of India . Govt.

Govt. of India . Linux etc • Resource sharing can Multi User System be done National Informatics Centre. Xinex. Workstation Main Computer • More than one user can Terminal work on the system • Operating System like Unix. DIT.

of India . Network Basics • What is networking? • Goals of a Networking • Classification of Network National Informatics Centre. Govt. DIT.

DIT. National Informatics Centre. Networking What is a Network?  A network is a group of interconnected systems which share services and interact with each other by means of a shared communication link  These systems can be located anywhere  Network is often classified according to its geographical size. of India . Govt.

DIT. The primary reasons for networking Pc's are as follows: Sharing files Sharing printers and other devices Provide Distributed Computing Centralized administration of Resources Security of Resources National Informatics Centre. Govt. of India .Goals of networking Goal of having networking environment is to provide services and to reduce the equipment costs.

Govt. Classification of Network The most common classification of networks are: • Local Area Network (LAN) • Wide Area Network (WAN) • Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) National Informatics Centre. DIT. of India .

DIT. LANs • A local area network is a group of computers and network communication devices interconnected within a limited area such as a building or a campus • Local area network is less expensive and data transfer rate is quite high National Informatics Centre. of India . Govt.

of India . Govt. Unix/NT Server LINE Printer Ethernet Cable LTS(LAN Terminal Server) WORKSTATION LASER Printer TERMINAL National Informatics Centre. DIT.

Govt. DIT. of India .Wide area network may be located around the world • It is quite expensive as the technology required to connect different LAN's is more complex and sophisticated. Also the data transmission is more susceptible to errors in case of WANs as transmission is for long distances National Informatics Centre. WANs • Wide area network interconnects LANs.

Satellite LAN Fiber Link Dish Antenna LAN LAN LAN Leased Telephone Line PC Modem Dial-up Line National Informatics Centre. Govt. of India Modem . DIT.

DIT. The Internet Every machine transparently connected to every other National Informatics Centre. of India . Govt.

Govt. DIT. of India .National Informatics Centre.