CHAPTER 9 INTELLIGENCE AND CREATIVITY

Learning Objectives

• What is the psychometric
approach to intelligence and how have different psychometric theorists defined intelligence? • What are the traditional measures of intelligence and what are some of the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches? • What are some alternatives to these traditional measures of intelligence?

Intelligence and Creativity

What Is Intelligence? – Adaptive thinking or actions (Piaget) – Ability to think abstractly, solve problems?

Characteristics of Intelligence – Genetic determination about 50% – Environmental influence about 50%

Creativity: Ability to produce novel responses appropriate in context, valued by others

The Psychometric Approach
• • •
A trait – can be identified, measured A single attribute? Spearman – “g” = general; “s” = special Many attributes? Thurstone – Seven primary mental abilities

• Spatial ability, perceptual speed, numeric reasoning,
verbal meaning, word fluency, memory, inductive reasoning

IQ tests and IQ score

Cattell and Horn

Fluid Intelligence: Decreases in older adults – Used to solve novel problems – Skills: reasoning, seeing relationships, inferences, – Free of cultural influences

Crystallized Intelligence: Increases with age – Knowledge from experiences (learned) – General information, vocabulary, etc.

Gardner: Theory of Multiple Intelligences

• Not measured with IQ

tests: 8 types 1) Linguistic 2) Logicalmathematical 3) Musical 4) Spatial 5) Bodily-kinesthetic 6) Interpersonal 7) Intrapersonal 8) Naturalist

Savant Syndrome
• • •
Extraordinary talent in one area Otherwise mentally retarded Musical, artistic, calculation abilities Example: stephen wiltshire, “a prodigy among savants”

Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory

• Contextual

Component

– Adapting to the environment – “Street smart,” age group, culture, etc.

• Experiential Component: Automatization
– Response to novelty

• Componential Component
– Information processing – Efficiency of strategies

Robert Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

The Stanford-Binet IQ Test
• • • •
The “standard” in traditional IQ testing Age-graded items used Older Version: Concept of mental age (MA) – IQ = MA/CA X 100 Modern S-B Scales – Test norms used

• Large, representative
samples – IQ score of 100 is average

The Wechsler Scales (IQ Test)

Widely Used Today – WPPSI: ages 3-8 (2002) – WISC-III: ages 6-16 (1991) – WAIS-III: adults

Three IQ Scores Derived – Verbal IQ – Performance IQ – Full-scale IQ

• The approximate distribution of IQ scores

Intelligence Testing Today
• •
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children – How problems are solved Dynamic assessment approach – How quickly learning occurs

Cognitive Assessment System – Predicts academic success

Learning Objectives

• What methods have been • • •

used to assess infant intelligence and how successful is each method? To what extent is infant intelligence related to later intelligence? Are IQ scores stable during childhood? What factors contribute to gains and losses in IQ scores? What are the typical characteristics of creative children?

The Infant

Developmental Quotient (DQ) – Bayley Scales: Ages 2-30 months – Correlations with Child IQ are low to zero – Useful for diagnostic purposes

Best Predictors of IQ – Measures of information processing – E.g., attention, speed of habituation, preference for novelty

The Child
• • •
DQ does not predict later IQ IQ at age 4 predicts later IQ IQ Gains Due to: – Parents who foster achievement – Neither strict nor lax parenting

IQ Drops: Poverty – Cumulative Deficit Hypothesis

Learning Objectives
• •
How well do IQ scores predict school achievement? To what extent is IQ related to occupational success?

The Adolescent

Brain growth spurt at age 11/12 (puberty) – Formal operational thinking – Improved memory and processing skills – Stability of IQ evident

IQ score a good predictor of school achievement

Learning Objectives

• How do IQ and mental • • •

abilities change with age? What factors predict declines in intellectual abilities in older adults? To what extent does wisdom exist in older adults? How does creativity change throughout adulthood?

The Adult

Strong Relationships Between: – IQ and occupational prestige – IQ and job performance – IQ and good health/longevity

IQ decline by age 80 (longitudinal studies) – C-S studies show cohort effects – Fluid IQ peaks at about age 24 – Crystallized (verbal) unchanged until 80’s

Predictors of Gains and Decline

• Decline: Poor health, • Gain (or maintain)

unstimulating lifestyle – Above average SES – Intact marriages – Intellectually capable spouses – Active lifestyles

• “Use it or lose it!”

Wisdom

Expert Pragmatic Knowledge – Rich procedural knowledge: strategies esp. for handling conflict – Lifespan contextual knowledge – Relativism of values & life priorities – Recognition and management of uncertainty – Age does not predict wisdom – Intelligence, personality and cognitive style

Learning Objectives

• What evidence shows genetic influence on IQ
scores? • What other factors influence IQ scores?

Factors that Influence IQ • • • • •
The Flynn Effect: Increases in IQ generally Genes: Accounts for half (Twin studies) Home environment; higher SES helps – Environment is powerful – Parental involvement and stimulation Firstborn, smaller family are advantages Racial and ethnic differences – Stereotype threat – Culture bias in IQ test

Learning Objectives

• How are mental retardation and giftedness

defined? • What are the outcomes for individuals who are mentally retarded or gifted?

Mental Retardation
• • • •
Below-average intellectual functioning: IQ 75 Limited adaptive behavior: Before age 18 – Self-care and social skills Below age-appropriate expectations Causes – Organic: e.g., Down syndrome – Cultural-familial: genes & environment

Giftedness
• • • • •
High IQ Special abilities: math, arts, leadership Renzuli: combination high IQ, creativity, and task commitment Can be identified by 18 months Terman’s “Termites” – Remarkable into adulthood – Well adjusted

Creativity

• Ability to produce novel
responses

• Divergent thinking: A
variety of solutions

• Convergent Thinking
– Focusing on best solution – Measured by IQ test

• Ideational Fluency

• Freedom, originality, humor, violence,
playfulness

Creativity in Childhood and Adolescence

• More fantasy and pretend play • More open to new experience • Little genetic influence: Related to home
– Value nonconformity and independence – Encouragement of curiosity and playfulness – Freedom to explore independently

Creative Achievement in Adulthood
• •
Increases in the 20’s, 30’s, and early 40’s – Then declines Peak Times Vary by Fields – Humanities scholars peak in 60’s – Artists peak in 30’s and 40’s – Scientists peak from 40’s to 70’s

Enthusiasm and experience required.