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IP NETWORK CONVERGENCE
1.Describe the OSI Model and OSI layers 2. Understand the TCP/IP protocols 3. How to make IP address 4. How to route data in IP network
IP OVER EVERYTHING
Chapter 1: OSI model
Separate functions of networking
Carries data Receiver .Converts data into transmittable signals Transmission System .Converts received signal into data Destination .Takes incoming data IP OVER EVERYTHING .A i ti l Purpose of Communications Exchange of data (information) between entities Key elements: Source .Generates data to be transmitted Transmitter .
Communications Model IP OVER EVERYTHING .
such as electronic mail and file transfer. At each layer of a protocol architecture. Each protocol provides a set of rules for the exchange of data between systems.Pr t l Ar it t r A protocol architecture is the layered structure of hardware and software that supports the exchange of data between systems and supports distributed applications. IP OVER EVERYTHING . one or more common protocols are implemented in communicating systems.
ISO began work on a universal set of specifications that would enable computer platforms across the world to communicate openly This model. called the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model. Each layer has the property that it only uses the functions of the layer below. divides network communications into layers The OSI model divides the functions of a protocol into seven layers.The OSI Model In the early 1980s. and only exports functionality to the layer above IP OVER EVERYTHING .
Each layer has a predefined set of functions Layers provide services to their immediate upper layers, hiding the details of the service Peer layers communicate using a Peer Protocol Layers are separated from each others with interfaces
Layer N Peer Protocol
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Host 1 Layer 5
Layer 5 Protocol
Layer 4 Protocol
H4 M H4 M
Layer 3 Protocol Layer 2 Protocol
H3 H4 M1 H3 M2 H3 H4 M1 H3 M2
H2 H3 H4 M1 T2 H2 H3 M2 T2 H2 H3 H4 M1 T2 H2 H3 M2 T2
Layer 1 Protocol
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Application Protocol Application
Network Layer Host-Router Protocol Data Link Layer Host-Router Protocol Physical Layer Host-Router Protocol Internal Subnet Protocols
Network Layer Host-Router Protocol Data Link Layer Host-Router Protocol Physical Layer Host-Router Protocol
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or first. layer of the OSI Model Generate voltage so as to transmit signals Receiving data detect voltage and accept signals Pass on to the Data Link layer IP OVER EVERYTHING . Ph ic l: Transmission of unstructured data stream over physical medium Data Unit: Bit (on the wire) Lowest.O IL r 1.
acknowledgment Physical addressing Flow control Error control Access control MAC IEEE has divided the Data Link layer into two sublayers Logical Link Control (LLC) . Media Access Control (MAC) ± Append physical address to frame IP OVER EVERYTHING .O IL r 2. reliability and flow control. detection.Provides common interface.«) Framing: Creation. Ethernet. D t Link: Transforms the physical layer to a reliable link to achieve. ATM. node-to-node delivery Data Unit: Frame (PPP.
N twork: r End-to-end delivery of packets across the netwo rk Data Unit: Packet (IP. IPX.O IL 3. OSPF) Logical addressing Route packets from source to destination by using Routing protocols 4. Tr n port: End-to-end delivery of the entire message Data Unit: segment (TCP. RTP) Service point addressing (port) Connection and flow control Error control IP OVER EVERYTHING . UDP. RIP.
«) Separates data into Protocol Data Units (PDUs) PDUs progress down through OSI Model layers 6. ion: r Establishing and keeping alive the communications link for the duration of the session Synchronization connections between apps 6. and 1 IP OVER EVERYTHING . 2. 3. pplic tion: Tools to access the network (FTP. encryption. 5. Pr nt tion: Accept Application layer data and format it Data format translation. SMTP. HTTP.O IL 5. 4. and compression 7.
and protocols OSI model is very useful to classify other protocol stacks.O I l Biggest contribution: Distinction of services. Network. Session. Data link. the seven layers (Physical. In the network design OSI model. interfaces. Transport. and Application) can be remembered with the mnemonic: Please Do Not Throw ausage Pizza way ll People eem To Need Data Processing (Application -> Physical) ny Person tudying This Needs Desperate Psychotherapy IP OVER EVERYTHING . you're just conquered a huge part of understanding networking. Presentation. If you can follow this progression and understand what's happening to every packet at each stage.
Chapter 2: TCP/IP Overview .
1995. 1983. 1984. NSF funds a TCP/IP based backbone network. which becomes the successor of the ARPANET. called the ARPANET. ARPANET adopts TCP/IP. The Internet is completely commercial. NSF stops funding the NSFNET. History Lat 1960s.T I t r t T P/IP A global information system consisting of millions of computer networks around the world. At this time. ARPA sponsors the development of a packet-switching network. 1974. the ARPANET has 200 routers. The TCP/IP protocols and model are proposed by Cerf and Kahn. This backbone grows into the NSFNET. IP OVER EVERYTHING .
Internet Organizations ISOC Internet Society CCIRN Coordination Committee for Intercontinental Research Networks IANA Internet Assigned Internet Corp Standards Numbers Authority for Assigned Names and Numbers ICANN IETF IEPG Internet Engineering and Planning Group MINC RIPE NCC Europe ARIN American Registry for Internet Numbers APTLD APNG (APCCIRN/APEPG) Asia Pacific Networking Group APNIC Asia-Pacific (JCRN) Japan JEPG/IP Japan Other NIC¶s VNNIC and ISP¶s Vietnam CNNIC TWNIC KRNIC JPNIC JPRS Source: China Taiwan Korea Japan tsushi ENDO IP OVER EVERYTHING .
T P/IP Pr t Internet Protocol Suite A combination of different protocols Organized into four layers l IP OVER EVERYTHING .
OSI compared to TCP/IP 7 pplication pplication 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical Transport Internet Network Interface ± Network ccess IP OVER EVERYTHING .
Functions: Synchronization. Functions: Everything is application specific. flow control. switching. IP OVER EVERYTHING .F ti ft Layer Data Link Layer Service: Reliable transfer of frames over a link. Transport Layer Service: Controls delivery of data between hosts. addressing. error control. Network Layer Service: Moves packets inside the network. flow control. Functions: Connection establishment/termination. error control. Application Layer Service: Handles details of application programs. Functions: Routing. congestion control.
Protocols in Different Layers IP OVER EVERYTHING .
Names for Data at Each Layer IP OVER EVERYTHING .
IP OVER EVERYTHING .Encapsulation The lower layers use encapsulation to put the protocol data unit (PDU) from the upper layer into its data field and to add headers and trailers that the layer can use to perform its function.
it does the following: It reads the physical address and other control information provided by the directly connected peer data link layer. It strips the control information from the frame. It passes the datagram up to the next layer. thereby creating a datagram. IP OVER EVERYTHING . following the instructions that appeared in the control portion of the frame.e-E apsulati When the data link layer receives the frame.
Transmission Control Protocol UDP .User Datagram Protocol IP OVER EVERYTHING .Transport Layer Two main protocols: TCP .
T P Transmission Control Protocol Reliable connection Connection Temporary logical association between entities in different systems TCP PDU Called ³TCP segment´ Includes source and destination port Identify respective users (applications) Pair of ports identify a connection (together with the IP addresses). such an identification is necessary in order TCP to track segments between entities. IP OVER EVERYTHING .
IP OVER EVERYTHING .TCP ormat TCP segments have a 20 byte header with >= 0 bytes of data.
Applications Applic tions Ports: 23 80 104 TCP P 7 80 16 TCP Ports: IP IP OVER EVERYTHING . server port number> and <server IP address. Two pairs <client IP address. server port number> identify a TCP connection. port number> identifies one endpoint of a connection. A pair <IP address.T P eader fields Port Number: A port number identifies the endpoint of a connection.
(those from 0 through 1023) The Registered Ports.The Port Numbers The port numbers are divided into three ranges: The Well Known Ports. (those from49152 through 65535) The Well Known Ports are controlled and assigned by the I N (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) The Registered Ports: Ports are used in TCP/UDP to identify the ends of logical connections which provide system services and channel communications. (those from 1024 through 49151) The Dynamic and/or Private Ports. complete list of the port numbers can be obtained from many sites on the Internet IP OVER EVERYTHING .
Examples of Well Known Port Numbers ftp-data ftp-data ftp ftp telnet telnet smtp smtp tftp tftp www-http www-http 20/tcp 20/udp 21/tcp 21/udp 23/tcp 23/udp 25/tcp 25/udp 69/tcp 69/udp 80/tcp 80/udp ile Transfer [Default Data] ile Transfer [Default Data] ile Transfer [Control] ile Transfer [Control] Telnet Telnet Simple Mail Transfer Simple Mail Transfer Trivial ile Transfer Trivial ile Transfer World Wide Web HTTP World Wide Web HTTP IP OVER EVERYTHING .
Otherwise if the SYN flag is not present then the first data byte is the sequence number. So the range of SeqNo is 0 <= SeqNo <= 232 -1 } 4. If the SYN flag is present then this is the initial sequence number and the first data byte is the sequence number plus 1.3 Gbyte The sequence number has a dual role.T P eader fields Sequence Number (SeqNo): Sequence number is 32 bits long. Initial Sequence Number (ISN) of a connection is set during connection establishment and is random number IP OVER EVERYTHING .
I.e a segment from A -> B can contain an acknowledgement for a data sent in the B -> A direction A hosts uses the AckNo field to send acknowledgements. (If a host sends an AckNo in a segment it sets the ³ CK flag´) The AckNo contains the next SeqNo that a hosts wants to receive Example:The acknowledgement for a segment with sequence numbers 0-1500 is AckNo=1501 IP OVER EVERYTHING .TCP header fields cknowledgement Number ( ckNo): Acknowledgements are piggybacked.
T P eader fields Acknowledge Number (cont¶d) TCP uses the sliding window flow protocol to regulate the flow of traffic from sender to receiver In transmit flow control. The purpose of the sliding window is to increase throughput. IP OVER EVERYTHING . sliding window is a variable-duration window that allows a sender to transmit a specified number of data units before an acknowledgement is received or before a specified event occurs.
T P eader fields Header Lengt ( 4bits) (Data offset ): Length of header in 32-bit words Note that TCP header has variable length (with minimum 20 bytes) The minimum size header 20 bytes and maximum of 60 bytes IP OVER EVERYTHING .
t e following bytes contain an urgent message in t e range: SeqNo <= urgent message <= SeqNo+urgent pointer ACK: Acknowledgement Number is valid PSH: PUSH Flag Notification from sender to t e receiver t at t e receiver should pass all data that it has to the application Normally set by sender when the sender¶s buffer is empty IP OVER EVERYTHING .T P eader fields Flag bits: URG: Urgent pointer is valid If t e bit is set.
TCP header fields Flag bits: RST: Reset the connection The flag causes the receiver to reset the connection Receiver of a RST terminates the connection and indicates higher layer application about the reset SYN: Synchronize sequence numbers Sent in the first packet when initiating a connection FIN: Sender is finished with sending Used for closing a connection Both sides of a connection must send a FIN IP OVER EVERYTHING .
TCP header fields Window Size: Each side of the connection advertises the window size Window size is the maximum number of bytes that a receiver can accept. Maximum window size is 216-1= 65535 bytes TCP Checksum: TCP checksum covers over both TCP header and TCP data Urgent Pointer: Only valid if URG flag is set IP OVER EVERYTHING .
the higher layers¶ headers are just a part of the message to be delivered The higher layers never see the lower layer headers because the lower layers remove them before passing the message up IP OVER EVERYTHING .Layered Headers Each layer adds its own header to the message that it receives from the layer above As far as the lower layer is concerned.
TCP Protocol: Message Fragmentation And Reassembly TCP client at source divides message into segments Each segments gets a sequence number Stored in the header TCP segments becomes payload of IP packet TCP software at destination reassembles If arrive out of order. use sequence number IP OVER EVERYTHING .
TCP uses headers to correctly reassemble original packet IP OVER EVERYTHING .Example of data splits Header Payload Original data TCP divides original into segments fragments« Adds headers to new packets and passes to IP to deliver At destination.
Why Fragment Messages? If part of message is lost or garbled. you only have to resend the affected packet(s) Speed Store-and-forward delay is minimized A can send packet 1 to B while receiving packet 2 from S Not possible if whole message sent at once S A B R IP OVER EVERYTHING .
TCP Pr t l: Guaranteed eli ery Error Detection on TCP Packets Checksum detects if IP packet is corrupt E..g. the sender resends packet Receiver may get two copies! Just ignore the second one IP OVER EVERYTHING . discard packet Sender remembers packets it sent Receiver ACKs each packet received Clever optimization: piggyback ACK to data packet already flowing other direction If ACK not received within a specified timeout interval. parity check: even or odd number of 1s in payload If error detected.
except emo The sender will retransmit if ACK not received within the timeout interval When packet reaches destination. IP OVER EVERYTHING .TCP Guaranteed eli ery Same as before. receiver must acknowledge by telling the class the sequence number of the packet received The TCP header includes error checking information.
TCP er i e: Conversational Context Two machines must establish a connection before they can exchange data Must agree on a session ID before sending first message Each message includes the session ID At end of conversation the machines agree that the conversation is over Called session tear-down IP OVER EVERYTHING .
while port 23 indicates that the message is destined for a Telnet server IP OVER EVERYTHING .TCP Service: Specify Process at Destination TCP packets specify a source and destination port number The source and destination port numbers do not have to be the same The port number is used to determine which process (application) will receive the message For example. port 80 specifies that the message should be sent to a web server.
TCP Service: Specify Process at Destination Port Process Host Port Process Host IP: host-to-host SourcePort DestinationPort (rest of UDP or TCP header) Encapsulated in IP packet Payload IP OVER EVERYTHING .
Identifying A Connection: Another Use Of TCP Ports Each side of a TCP connection is referred to as a socket. and can be identified by the IP (We will learn IP later) address and port A logical connection between a source and destination host is uniquely identified by the two sockets involved IP OVER EVERYTHING .
c No ) SYN_RCV EST BLISHE EST BLISHE IN (SeqNo IN_ IT_ (active close) IN_ IT_ ( c No m m) ) CLOSE_ IT ( assive close) IN (SeqNo ( c No n n) L ST_ C TI E_ IT ) CLOSE IP OVER EVERYTHING .TCP States in ³Normal´ Connection Lifetime SYN_SENT (active o en) SYN (SeqNo SYN (SeqNo ( c No ) ) LISTEN ( assive o en) .
What is a SYN Flood? SYN attack is one kind of DOS attack (Denial of Services) Send spoofed SYN packets to system System responds with SYN/ACK Never receives final connection Backlog in connection queue Happened with the help of BOT Web servers are particularly vulnerable IP OVER EVERYTHING .
P Alternative to TCP is User Datagram Protocol: Not guaranteed delivery No preservation of sequence No protection against duplication Minimum overhead IP OVER EVERYTHING .
Video conference«) IP OVER EVERYTHING .P atagram format 0 o r ort gt Data ar abl ) P 32 bit 16 t at o ort m 31 SNMP. bootp Real time application (Voice over IP. DNS Lightweight file transfer: tftp.
Network Layer Protocols: IP ± Internet Protocol ICMP .Internet Control Message Protocol ARP ± Address Resolution Protocol IP OVER EVERYTHING .
out-of-order with no notification Connectionless (each packet treated independently) IP software provides routing IP OVER EVERYTHING . Packet may be lost. unreliable (no guarantees).Int rnet Pr t c l Application services Transport Services Connectionless packet delivery service IP layer (basic unit of transfer in TCP/IP) provides: Best-effort (does not discard capriciously). duplicated.
Internet datagram Basic transfer unit Datagram header Datagram data area Format of Internet datagram 19 24 0 4 8 16 31 Vers Hlen Type of serv. Total length Identification Flags Fragment offset TTL Protocol Header Checksum Source IP address Destination IP address IP Options (if any) Data « IP OVER EVERYTHING Padding .
now being used for QoS Total length (16 bits .535 ): length of datagram in bytes. so the header length is 5*4 = 20 Type of Servi e ± TOS (8 bits): little used in past.IP datagram format ( ont. the minimum value for this field is 5 without options. The minimum size datagram which any host is required to be able to handle is 576 bytes. includes header and data.) Vers (4 bits): version of IP protocol (IPv4=4) Hlen (4 bits): Header length in 32 bit words.65. IP OVER EVERYTHING .
g.) Time to live ± TTL (8bits): specifies how long datagram is allowed to remain in internet Routers decrement by 1 When TTL = 0 router discards datagram Prevents infinite loops Protocol (8 bits): specifies the format of the data area Protocol numbers administered by central authority to guarantee agreement.IP datagram format (cont. TCP=6. e. UDP=17 « IP OVER EVERYTHING .
) Sour e & destination IP address (32 bits each): contain IP address of sender and intended recipient Options (variable length): Mainly used to record a route. or specify routing IP OVER EVERYTHING .IP Datagram format ( ont. or timestamps.
200bytes (note 20 bytes for IP header) Routers do NOT reassemble.IP Fragmentation How do we send a datagram of say 1400 bytes through a link that has a Maximum Transfer Unit (MTU) of say 620 bytes? Answer the datagram is broken into fragments Net 1 MTU=1500 Net 2 MTU=620 Net 3 MTU=1500 Router fragments 1400 byte datagrams Into 600 bytes. up to end host IP OVER EVERYTHING . 600 bytes.
535.Fragmentation Control Identification: copied into fragment. allows destination to know which fragments belong to which datagram Fragment Offset (13 bits): specifies the offset in the original datagram of the data being carried in the fragment Measured in units of 8 bytes starting at 0 This method allows for a maximum packet length of 65.1)*8 which exceeds the maximum IP packet length of 65. IP OVER EVERYTHING .528 ((2^13 .
1% of TCP packets are fragmented .5% .0. IP OVER EVERYTHING . About 0.Fragmentation Control « Flags (3 bits): control fragmentation Reserved (0-th bit) Don¶t Fragment ± DF (1st bit): useful for simple (computer bootstrap) application that can¶t handle also used for MTU discovery if need to fragment and can¶t router discards & sends error to source More Fragments (least sig bit): tells receiver it has got last fragment TCP traffic is hardly ever fragmented (due to use of MTU discovery).
what does TCP/IP work? Sender Application Layer Application Layer Receiver HTTP Request HTTP Request Transport Layer TCP HTTP Request Transport Layer TCP HTTP Request Network Layer IP TCP HTTP Request Network Layer IP TCP HTTP Request Data Link Layer Ethernet IP TCP HTTP Request Data Link Layer Ethernet IP TCP HTTP Request Physical Layer Physical Layer IP OVER EVERYTHING .So«.
Chapter 3: IP Address The Identify of devices on Internet .
This allows information passed onwards on behalf of the sender to indicate where to send it next The receiver of the information to know that it is the intended destination. and some telephones ² must have its own unique address. internet FAX machines. Any participating device ² including routers.What is IP address An IP address (Internet Protocol address) is a unique number that devices use in order to identify and communicate with each other on a network utilizing the Internet Protocol standard. IP OVER EVERYTHING . computers. time-servers. printers.
In keeping with standard UNIX release conventions. IPv6: The new (but not yet widely deployed) standard protocol for the Internet. IP OVER EVERYTHING .4028236692093846346337460743177 × 1038 unique host interface addresses. there would be exactly 2^128.296) unique host interface addresses in theory. IPv5: Existed only as an experimental non-IP real time streaming protocol. should suffice for the foreseeable future. IP addresses consist of 32 bits. or about 3. In theory.IP address versions IPv4: The current standard protocol for the Internet. This version was never intended to be implemented. the protocol was not abandoned.294.967. even with generous assignment of netblocks. addresses are 128 bits wide. which makes for over 4 billion (4. which.
Consists of network and host portions Enables routers to keep 1 entry/network instead of 1/host Class .1 . 127.79.g. B.0.0.1.I r ssing I addr ss is a 32 bit int g r Refers to interface rather than host is a unique number that de ices use in order to identify and communicate with each other on a network utilizing the Internet Protocol standard. C for unicast Class D for multicast (IGM ) Class E reserved Written as octets/bytes in decimal format IP OVER EVERYTHING E.16. 13 .
Finding the class in decimal notation IP OVER EVERYTHING .
Finding the class in binary notation IP OVER EVERYTHING .
Host ID Network ID is the part which says what network the computer is on.Net or ID vs. IP OVER EVERYTHING . Host is the part which says which computer it is.
Example 10000011 01101011 00000011 00011000 131 . 24 Network ID Host ID IP OVER EVERYTHING . 3 . 107 .
Netid and hostid IP OVER EVERYTHING .
126 128 .191 192 .Num er of net or s et . Number of networks Class A Class B Class C 126 16 384 2 097 152 Number of hosts per Network 16 777 214 65 534 254 First octet starts with 1.223 IP OVER EVERYTHING .
Router) is translating their address to a real one. something (Firewall.0.1 IP OVER EVERYTHING . Loop-Back address: 127.0. but they are not DIRECTLY connected to the internet.pecial IP addresses Private addresses 3 ranges of addresses were defined as being ³private´ These addresses are specifically dropped by routers on the internet Millions of computers in the world can have the same private address.
0.168.0.255 172.168.0 172.255 220.127.116.11.0.255.0 .The Private´ Addresses 10.0 192.10.255 IP OVER EVERYTHING .255.16.31.
u net Addressing Subnet mask Indicates how much of the IP address represents the network or subnetwork Standard (default) subnet masks are as follows: Class A subnet mask is 255.0.0.0.255.0 IP OVER EVERYTHING .0 Class B subnet mask is 255.0 Class C subnet mask is 255.255.255.
Subnet Addressing Figure 3-17: ANDing operations IP OVER EVERYTHING .
150.12. you can determine that on a subnet using mask 255.4 is a valid host IP address However.150.12.0. the address 222.u net Address One of the IP networking rules stipulates that a TCP/IP host must have a nonzero host identifier From this information.255.0 is not a host address. the IP address 122.255. but a network identifier IP OVER EVERYTHING .
Subnet Masking Figure 3-21: Subnet mask values IP OVER EVERYTHING .
Learning to Subnet Figure 3-22: Subnet masking example IP OVER EVERYTHING .
CIDR Classless InterDomain Routing (CIDR) Notation method that specifies the number of masked bits in an IP address/subnet mask combination IP OVER EVERYTHING .
Broadcast Types Broadcast types There are two different types of broadcasts: Flooded broadcasts Directed broadcasts IP OVER EVERYTHING .
Broadcast types « IP OVER EVERYTHING .
Class D: Multicast Multicast is the delivery of information to a group of destinations simultaneously using the most efficient strategy to deliver the messages over each link of the network only once and only create copies when the links to the destinations split Example of protocols supported Multicast : Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) Multicast OSPF (MOSPF) Multicast BGP (MBGP) IP OVER EVERYTHING .
Chapter 3: Routing
Help data goes in right way
Type of routing protocols Static routing protocol Dynamic routing protocols:
Distance-vector routing protocol : They use the Bellman-Ford algorithm to calculate paths, poor convergence Link state algorithm: They generally use some variant of Dijkstra's algorithm to calculate the shortest path
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Understanding Packet Transmission: Routers on the Network
Figure 3-26: Configuration of a router with four segments
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UDP Routing protocols path selection RIP.The Internet Network layer Host. OSPF. router network layer functions: Transport layer: TCP. BGP IP protocol addressing conventions datagram format packet handling conventions Network layer routing table ICMP protocol error reporting router ´signalingµ Link layer physical layer IP OVER EVERYTHING .
9 223.2.1 223.1.1. router and physical link router¶s typically have multiple interfaces host may have multiple interfaces IP addresses associated with interface.1 223.4 223.1. router 223.2 223.3 223.1.Network with Router IP address: 32-bit identifier for host. router interface interface: connection between host.1 = 11011111 00000001 00000001 00000001 223 1 1 1 IP OVER EVERYTHING .1 18.104.22.168.2 22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 223.27 223.3.1. not host.2.1.
1.3.2 223.3 223.1 223.2 network consisting of 3 IP networks (for IP addresses starting with 223.4 184.108.40.206 LAN 223.1 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168.3.1.2 What¶s a network ? (from IP address perspective) device interfaces with same network part of IP address can physically reach each other without intervening router 223. first 24 bits are network address) IP OVER EVERYTHING .22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199 223.1.IP Addressing IP address: network part (high order bits) host part (low order bits) 223.1.
1 223.2.2 223.4 223.1 223.1. host Create ³islands of isolated networks Int r nnected s stem consisting of six net or s 223.1 188.8.131.52.2 184.108.40.206.1.1.1 IP OVER EVERYTHING .1.1.0 223.1.6 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 223.1.27 223.IP Addressing How to find the networks? Detach each interface from router.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.3 223.2.0 223.8.2 188.8.131.52 223.1.8.
Delivery of an IP datagram Vi w at th data li lay r lay r: I t r twor is a coll ctio of LANs or oi t-tooi t li s or switch d twor s that ar ct d by rout rs co R1 oi t-to.oi t li R2 Poi t-to.oi t li 2 N t r of Eth r t switch s Eth r t IP 1 R3 T Ri LAN R4 Eth r t IP OVER EVERYTHING .
0/24 R2 20.0/16 H1 R3 R4 IP OVER EVERYTHING .1.0/16 10.0.2.1.0.0/24 20.2.1.Delivery of an IP datagram View at the IP layer: An IP network is a logical entity with a network number We represent an IP network as a ³cloud´ The IP delivery service takes the view of clouds. and ignores the data link layer view R1 10.0.0/28 H2 IP 10.2.0/24 10.1.3.1.
1.1.2. Interface: what is the output port? Next hop and interface column can often be summarized as one column Destination Next Routing table of a host or router IP datagrams can be directly delivered (³direct´) or is sent to a router (³R4´) 10.0/24 10. Destination address: where is the IP datagram going to? 184.108.40.206.Routing ta les Each router and each host keeps a routing ta le which tells the router how to process an outgoing packet Main columns: 220.127.116.11.0/24 20.0/28 Hop direct direct R4 direct R4 R4 interfac e eth0 eth0 serial0 eth1 eth0 eth0 IP OVER EVERYTHING .0/16 20.0/24 10.2. Next hop: how to send the IP datagram? 18.104.22.168/24 10.
0/24 10.1.2.0.2.2.0/16 20.1.0/16 22.214.171.124.0.1.2.0.0.0/24 10.1.0/24 10.2/28 to: 126.96.36.199/28 e t o 1 1 direct 4 direct direct Desti atio 10.0/16 188.8.131.52.2.0.0/24 10.0/16 R3 Desti atio 10.1.1.1.1.Delivery with routing tables Desti atio 10.1.0.3.184.108.40.206.0.1.0.2.0/16 20.0/24 10.0/24 10.2.1.1.220.127.116.11/24 10.2.0/28 e t o direct direct 4 direct 4 4 R4 Desti atio 10.0.1.0/24 10.1.3.1.1.0/24 20.0/28 e t o 2 2 2 2 2 direct R1 10.1.0/24 18.104.22.168.3.0/28 H2 10.2 H1 Desti atio 10.0/16 20.3.0/24 10.2.2.0/24 10.0/24 10.1.0/16 22.214.171.124.0/24 10.0/24 126.96.36.199/24 188.8.131.52/24 10.3.0/24 10.1.2.0/28 e t o 3 3 2 direct direct 2 IP OVER EVERYTHING .0/24 184.108.40.206.0/24 R2 220.127.116.11.0/24 10.1.1.2.1.1.0/24 18.104.22.168/24 10.0/24 10.0/28 e t o direct 3 3 3 3 3 10.0/24 10.1.0/16 20.1.0/24 10.0/28 e t o 3 direct direct 3 2 2 Desti atio 10.1.2.1.2.0/24 20.
Forwarding: How to pass a packet from an input interface to the output interface? 2.Delivery of IP datagrams There are two distinct processes to delivering IP datagrams: 1. is done in kernel of the operating system Routing is less time-critical On a PC. Routing: How to find and setup the routing tables? Forwarding must be done as fast as possible: on routers. routing is done as a background process IP OVER EVERYTHING . is often done with support of hardware on PCs.
Processing of an IP datagram in IP IP router: IP forwarding enabled Host: IP forwarding in default is disabled IP OVER EVERYTHING .
Processing of an IP datagram in IP Processing of IP datagrams is very similar on an IP router and a host Main difference: ³IP forwarding´ is enabled on router and disabled on host IP forwarding enabled if a datagram is received. the datagram will be dropped IP OVER EVERYTHING . the datagram will be sent to a different system IP forwarding disabled if a datagram is received. but it is not for the local system. but it is not for the local system.
9. 6. 2. IP header validation Process options in IP header Parsing the destination IP address Routing table lookup Decrement TTL Perform fragmentation (if necessary) Calculate checksum Transmit to next hop Send ICMP packet (if necessary) IP OVER EVERYTHING . 7. 8.Processing of an IP datagram at a router Receive an IP datagram 1. 4. 3. 5.
How do routing ta les get updated? Adding an interface: Configuring an interface eth2 with 10.0.2.0. .0/ ext / i terf ce et Adding a default gateway: Configuring 10. .0.0/0 ext / i terf ce 10.0.1 IP OVER EVERYTHING .0.0.1 as the default gateway adds the Desti entry: ti Static configuration of network routes or host routes Update of routing tables through routing protocols ICMP messages 0.3/24 adds a routing table entry Desti ti 10.2.
1.Routing table manipulations with ICMP When a router detects that an IP datagram should have gone to a different router.0. the router (here R2) forwards the IP datagram to the correct router sends an ICMP redirect message to the host (If need) Host uses ICMP message to update its routing table Destination Next Hop R1 R2 10.0.0/24 R2 « R1 IP OVER EVERYTHING .0/24 « R1 Ethernet H1 Destination Next Hop 10.1.
Routing in the Internet The Global Internet consists of Autonomous Systems (AS) interconnected with each other: Stub AS: small corporation Multihomed AS: large corporation (no transit) Transit AS: provider Two-level routing: IGP: Use inside an AS EGP : Use between AS to exchange Routing information IP OVER EVERYTHING .
Internet AS Hierarchy EGP for e terior gateway routers IGP for interior gateway routers IP OVER EVERYTHING .
IGP Routing Stand for Internal Gateway Protocols Most common IGPs: RIP: Routing Information Protocol OSPF: Open Shortest Path First IGRP: Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (Cisco propr.) EIGRP: Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol IP OVER EVERYTHING .
RIP ( Routing Information Protocol) Distance vector algorithm (Bellman-Ford ) Distance metric: # of hops (max = 15 hops) Distance vectors: exchanged every 30 sec via Response Message (also called advertisement) Each advertisement: route to up to 25 destination nets IP OVER EVERYTHING .
of hops to dest.RIP (Routing Information Protocol) z w A D C Destination Network Next Router Num. Routing table in D IP OVER EVERYTHING ... 2 2 7 1 . y B w y z x «.. A B B -«.
RIP: Link Failure and Recovery If no advertisement heard after 180 sec --> neighbor/link declared dead routes via neighbor invalidated new advertisements sent to neighbors neighbors in turn send out new advertisements (if tables changed) link failure info quickly propagates to entire net poison reverse used to prevent ping-pong loops (infinite distance = 16 hops) IP OVER EVERYTHING .
periodically repeated IP OVER EVERYTHING .RIP Ta le processing RIP routing tables managed by applicationlevel process called route-d (daemon) Advertisements sent in UDP packets.
22.214.171.124.114. 224.0.6 U 3 0 le0 193.55.RIP Table example (continued) Router: giroflee.114.1 192.0.0 default Gateway Flags Ref Use Interface -------------------.168.5 U 2 25 qaa0 193.168.eurocom.6 U 3 58503 le0 192.0.0.-----.168.fr Destination -------------------127.0.0 Loopback interface (for debugging) IP OVER EVERYTHING .126.96.36.199.168.2.55.----.129 UG 0 143454 Three attached class C networks (LANs) Router only knows routes to attached LANs Default router used to ³go up´ Route multicast address: 224.5 U 2 13 fa0 193. 192. 193.1 UH 0 26492 lo0 192.----.55.3.--------127.
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) ³open´: publicly available Uses Link State algorithm LS packet dissemination Topology map at each node Route computation using Dijkstra¶s algorithm OSPF advertisement carries one entry per neighbor router Advertisements disseminated to entire AS (via flooding) IP OVER EVERYTHING .
high for real time) Integrated uni. TCP connections used Multiple same-cost paths allowed (only one path in RIP) For each link.and multicast support: Multicast OSPF (MOSPF) uses same topology data base as OSPF Hierarchical OSPF in large domains. multiple cost metrics for different TOS (eg.O PF advanced´ features (not in RIP) Security: all OSPF messages authenticated (to prevent malicious intrusion). satellite link cost set ³low´ for best effort. IP OVER EVERYTHING .
Hierarchical OSPF IP OVER EVERYTHING .
Area border routers: ³summarize´ distances to nets in own area. Boundary routers: connect to other ASs. Link-state advertisements only in area each nodes has detailed area topology. Backbone routers: run OSPF routing limited to backbone.Hierarchical OSPF Two-level hierarchy: local area. IP OVER EVERYTHING . only know direction (shortest path) to nets in other areas. advertise to other Area Border routers. backbone.
bandwidth.IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) CISCO proprietary. successor of RIP (mid 80s) Distance Vector. reliability. (DUAL) based on diffused computation IP OVER EVERYTHING . load etc) Uses TCP to exchange routing updates Loop-free routing via Distributed Updating Algorithm. like RIP Several cost metrics (delay.
the Inter-AS routing IP OVER EVERYTHING .EGP.
g.e.. sequence of ASs) to destination E.Y3.Z) = X.Y1. Z: Path (X. Gateway X may send its path to dest.Internet inter-AS routing: BGP BGP (Border Gateway Protocol): Path Vector protocol: Similar to Distance Vector protocol Each Border Gateway broadcast to neighbors (peers) entire path (I.Z IP OVER EVERYTHING .«.Y2.
Z) = W.g.Internet inter-AS routing: BGP Suppose: gateway X send its path to peer gateway W W may or may not select path offered by X Cost. loop prevention reasons. Path (X.. then: Path (W. policy (don¶t route via competitors AS). If W selects path advertised by X.Z) Note: X can control incoming traffic by controlling its route advertisements to peers: e. don¶t want to route traffic from Z -> don¶t advertise any routes to Z IP OVER EVERYTHING .
BGP messages: OPEN: opens TCP connection to peer and authenticates sender UPDATE: advertises new path (or withdraws old) KEEPALIVE keeps connection alive in absence of UPDATES. also used to close connection IP OVER EVERYTHING . also ACKs OPEN request NOTIFICATION: reports errors in previous msg.Internet inter-AS routing: BGP BGP messages exchanged using TCP.
Introduction to Routers .
IP OVER EVERYTHING .The is I S The is I S (Internetw rk perating System) is the perating system f all is r uters and atalyst swit hes The I S pr vides the f ll wing netw rk servi es: Basi r uting and swit hing fun ti ns Reliable and se ure a ess t netw rked res ur es Netw rk s alability The is I S s ftware uses a command-line interface (CLI) as the traditional console environment.
ethods of Accessing the CLI
Through a console session
uses a low speed serial connection directly from a computer or terminal to the console connection on the router
Through a dialup connection
uses a modem connected to the router AUX port Note: Neither of the above methods require that the router have any network services configured
Telnet to the router
at least one interface must be configured with an IP address, and virtual terminal sessions must be configured for login and passwords.
IP OVER EVERYTHING
The Cisco command-line interface (CLI) uses a hierarchical structure Mainly, there are two access levels
user EXEC mode privileged EXEC mode (also called enable mode)
IP OVER EVERYTHING
User EXEC vs. Privileged EXEC
User EXEC mode
allows only a limited number of basic monitoring commands referred to as a ³view only´ mode cannot change router configuration identified by the ³>" prompt
Privileged EXEC mode
accesses all router commands (including configuration) can be configured to require a password and user ID so that only authorized users access the router. Global configuration mode and all other more specific configuration modes can only be reached from the privileged EXEC mode identified by the "#" prompt
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Moving Between User EXEC and Privilege EXEC or ³en´ for short or ³dis´ for short or ³ex´ for short IP OVER EVERYTHING .
IP OVER EVERYTHING .Cisco IO oftware Features There are numerous IOS images for different Cisco device models and feature sets But basic configuration command structure is the same Configuration and troubleshooting skills acquired on any one device apply across a wide range of products The Cisco Software Advisor is an interactive tool that provides the most current information and Allows for the selection of options that meet network requirements.
Cisco IO oftware Features The naming convention for the different Cisco IOS releases contains three parts: The platform on which the image runs The special features supported in the image Where the image runs and whether it has been zipped or compressed IP OVER EVERYTHING .
The how Version Command When selecting a new IOS image« Make sure it is compatibility with the router flash and RAM memory Newer releases have more more features and require more memory Before installing. check to see if the router meets the memory requirements for that image which include: Flash Memory RAM IP OVER EVERYTHING .
The how Version Command Use the show version command to« Check the current IOS image The Cisco support site has tools available to help determine the amount of flash and RAM required for each image Check the amount of RAM Show the configuration-register IOS Image file RAM Configuration register IP OVER EVERYTHING .
The how ersion Command The following information can be obtained from the show version command: IOS version and descriptive information Bootstrap ROM version Boot ROM version Router up time Last restart method System image file and location Router platform Configuration register setting Number and type of interfaces on the router NOTE: Use the show version command to identify router IOS image and boot source IP OVER EVERYTHING .
how Flash Command To find out the amount of flash memory« issue the show flash command IP OVER EVERYTHING .
the system administrator can change the configuration register setting IP OVER EVERYTHING .Operating Environments The Cisco IOS devices have three distinct operating environments or modes: ROM monitor (cannot be accessed through any of the network interfaces) Boot ROM (limited subset of the Cisco IOS feature set) Cisco IOS (normal operations) To change the default start up mode of the router.
Router Initiali ation A router initializes by loading the« bootstrap operating system configuration file If the router cannot find a configuration file. it enters setup mode Performs POST first (tests hardware) IP OVER EVERYTHING .
possibly due to write erase´ router has not been configured yet or that the NVRAM has been erased The router must be configured and the configuration file saved to NVRAM IP OVER EVERYTHING .Examining Initial Router Bootup ³NVRAM invalid.
and no flow control IP OVER EVERYTHING . 1 stop bit. no parity. 8 data bits.Establishing a HyperTerminal Session To connect a terminal to the console port on the router: Connect the terminal using the rollover cable and an RJ-45 to DB-9 or RJ-45 to DB-25 adapter Configure the terminal or PC terminal emulation software for: 9600 baud.
you must enter global configuration mode ± type config t) IP OVER EVERYTHING .RECAP of Router Access Levels For security purposes. In this mode. router configuration changes are not allowed Privileged EXEC mode ± Typical tasks include those that change the router configuration to make configuration changes. the router has two levels of access to commands: User EXEC mode ± Typical tasks include those that check the router status.
Router Configuration Interface Subinterface Line Router Route-map odes The following are specific sub-modes that can be accessed from the global configuration mode: disable command or exit returns user to the privileged EXEC mode from the global configuration mode Ctrl-Z returns user directly to the privileged EXEC mode from any sub-mode of global configuration. IP OVER EVERYTHING .
Help with the Router CLI To access help type a question mark (?) Whenever a "--More--" prompt appears. press the Return or Enter key. Press any other key to return to the prompt The caret symbol (^) indicates a syntax error in a command (The placement of the caret symbol shows where the possible problem is located) IP OVER EVERYTHING . the next available screen can be viewed by pressing the space bar To display just the next line.
IOS Editing Functions IP OVER EVERYTHING .
IO Command History The command history is enabled by default and the system records ten command lines in its history buffer The maximum number of commands is 256 IP OVER EVERYTHING .
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