Plant hormones (also known as phytohormones). the shedding of leaves. Hormones regulate cellular processes in targeted cells locally and when moved to other locations. Hormones also determine the formation of f lowers. in other locations of the plant. and occur in extremely low concentrations. Plant hormones are signal molecules produced within the plant. stems. leaves. . and the development and ripening of fruit.

it was called dormin and abscicin II. was discovered and researched under two different names before its chemical properties were fully known. Once it was determined that the two latter compounds were the same.The five major classes are: y Abscisic acid  Abscisic acid also called ABA. it was named abscisic acid. The name "abscisic acid" was given because it was found in high concentrations in newly abscissed or freshly fallen leaves. .

y Induces seeds to synthesize storage proteins.Functions of Abscisic Acid y Stimulates the closure of stomata (water stress brings about an increase in ABA synthesis). y Inhibits shoot growth but will not have as much affect on roots or may even promote growth of roots. . y Has some effect on induction and maintenance of dormancy.

They also promote the production of other hormones and in conjunction with cytokinins. they control the growth of stems. bud formation and root initiation. roots.  Auxins are compounds that positively influence cell enlargement. and convert stems into flowers. .yAuxins  The term auxin is derived from the Greek word auxein which means to grow. and fruits.

yFunctions of Auxin y Stimulates cell elongation y Stimulates differentiation of phloem and xylem y Stimulates root initiation on stem cuttings and lateral root development in y y y y y y y y y tissue culture The auxin supply from the apical bud suppresses growth of lateral buds Delays leaf senescence Can inhibit or promote (via ethylene stimulation) leaf and fruit abscission Can induce fruit setting and growth in some plants Involved in assimilate movement toward auxin possibly by an effect on phloem transport Delays fruit ripening Stimulates growth of flower parts Promotes (via ethylene production) femaleness in dioecious flowers Stimulates the production of ethylene at high concentrations .

They were called kinins in the past when the first cytokinins were isolated from yeast cells. They have a highly synergistic effect in concert with auxins and the ratios of these two groups of plant hormones affect most major growth periods during a plant's lifetime. .y Cytokinins  Cytokinins or CKs are a group of chemicals that influence cell division and shoot formation.

. y Stimulates morphogenesis (shoot initiation/bud formation) in tissue culture. y Stimulates the growth of lateral buds-release of apical dominance.yCytokinin Functions y Stimulates cell division. y Stimulates leaf expansion resulting from cell enlargement. y Promotes the conversion of etioplasts into chloroplasts via stimulation of chlorophyll synthesis.

allowing it to grow around an object. it affects the stems natural geotropic response. which is to grow upright. when a growing shoot hits an obstacle while underground. preventing cell elongation and causing the stem to swell. If the shoot does not reach the surface and the ethylene stimulus becomes prolonged.yEthylene  Ethylene affects cell growth and cell shape. . ethylene production greatly increases. The resulting thicker stem can exert more pressure against the object impeding its path to the surface.

y Functions of Ethylene y Stimulates the release of dormancy. Stimulates flower opening. . y Stimulates shoot and root growth and differentiation y y y y y (triple response) May have a role in adventitious root formation. Stimulates flower and leaf senescence. Stimulates fruit ripening. Stimulates leaf and fruit abscission.

increasing internodal length. which are utilized by the growing seedling.y Gibberellins  Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that regulate growth and influence various developmental processes. or GA is transported to the aleurone layer. . GA produce bolting of rosette-forming plants. enzyme induction.  Gibberellins. including stem elongation. germination. and leaf and fruit senescence. flowering. sex expression. which responds by producing enzymes that break down stored food reserves within the endosperm. dormancy.

yFunctions of Gibberellins y Stimulate stem elongation by stimulating cell division y y y y y and elongation. Can cause parthenocarpic (seedless) fruit development. Induces maleness in dioecious flowers (sex expression). Stimulates bolting/flowering in response to long days. . Breaks seed dormancy in some plants which require stratification or light to induce germination. Can delay senescence in leaves and citrus fruits.