What is Architecture?
Comes from the Greek word ³Arkhitekton´ which can mean:
The art and science of designing and erecting buildings and other physical structures. A general term to describe buildings and other structures. A style and method of design and construction of buildings and other physical structures.
Architecture is both the process and product of planning, designing and constructing form, space and ambience that reflect functional, technical, social, and aesthetic considerations. It requires the creative manipulation and coordination of material, technology, light and shadow. Architecture also encompasses the pragmatic aspects of realizing buildings and structures, including scheduling, cost estimating and construction administration. As documentation produced by architects, typically drawings, plans and technical specifications, architecture defines the structure and/or behavior of a building or any other kind of system that is to be or has been constructed. Architectural works are often perceived as cultural and political symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.
Types of Architecture
000 years. Ancient Egyptian houses were made out of mud collected from the Nile river. the two predominant building materials used in ancient Egypt were sun-baked mud brick and stone. The Egyptian kings or pharaohs built pyramids as their eternal tombs. fortresses. It was placed in molds and left to dry in the hot sun to harden for use in construction. but also sandstone and granite in considerable quantities. This edifices still stand today after more than 5. the walls of temple precincts and towns. they mastered mummification for the preservation of the human body. Due to the scarcity of wood. mainly limestone. From the Old Kingdom onward.
The Egyptians believed in the after life thus. and for subsidiary buildings in temple complexes. while bricks were used even for royal palaces. stone was generally reserved for tombs and temples.
With few openings. the pyramids had complex mazes of tunnels and rooms all hidden by the massive hunks of stone. The Great Pyramid. which was probably completed 2580 BC. and is the only surviving monument of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. is the oldest and largest of the pyramids. which were built in the Fourth Dynasty.The Pyramids of Giza The pyramids.
. testify to the power of the pharaonic religion and state.
enabling it to reach a size. but the size and number of features is overwhelming. Few of the individual features of Karnak are unique. Construction work began in the 16th century BC. Approximately 30 pharaohs contributed to the buildings. complexity and diversity not seen elsewhere.
.The hypostyle hall of Karnak Temple
The key difference between Karnak and most of the other temples and sites in Egypt is the length of time over which it was developed and used.
.The well preserved Temple of Horus at Edfu is an example of Egyptian architecture.
walls. terracotta. used for roof tiles and ornaments.
. used for decorative details. were made of wood or mud-brick or clay. especially for private homes. and upper portions of temples and public buildings. used for supports and roof beams. used for columns. and metals. limestone and marble. plaster. But since many Greek buildings in the colonization period (8th . nothing remains of them except for a few ground-plans. unbaked brick.6th century BC). Common materials of Greek architecture were wood. especially bronze. when plebeian life and prosperity recovered to a point where public building could be undertaken. and almost no written sources on early architecture or descriptions of these embryonic buildings exist. used for walls. used for sinks and bathtubs.Greek Architecture
Architecture was extinct in Greece from the end of the Mycenaean period (about 1200 BC) to the 7th century BC.
The Temple of Olympian Zeus. Athens
substantial remains remain visible today and it continues to be a major tourist attraction. is a colossal ruined temple in the centre of the Greek capital Athens that was dedicated to Zeus. as it fell into disuse after being pillaged in a barbarian invasion in the 3rd century AD.
. In the centuries after the fall of the Roman Empire. During the Roman periods it was renowned as the largest temple in Greece and housed one of the largest cult statues in the ancient world. Despite this. The temple's glory was short-lived. king of the Olympian gods. the temple was extensively quarried for building materials to supply building projects elsewhere in the city. who envisaged building the greatest temple in the ancient world. It was probably never repaired and was reduced to ruins thereafter.The Temple of Olympian Zeus also known as the Olympieion or Columns of the Olympian Zeus. Construction began in the 6th century BC during the rule of the Athenian tyrants. but it was not completed until the reign of the Roman Emperor Hadrian in the 2nd century AD some 638 years after the project had begun.
Besides the citadels. there are also isolated forts that undoubtedly served to militarily control territory. which means that they were constructed of large.The Lion gate at Mycenae
The principal Mycenaean towns were well fortified. Mycenaean walls were often made in a fashion called cyclopean. loosely fitted without the clay mortar of the day. against a large hill as in Mycenae. The town could be situated on an acropolis as in Athens or Tiryns. or on the coastal plain. unworked boulders up to eight meters (26 ft) thick. like Gla or Pylos.
Between these boulders. The exterior faces of the large boulders may be roughly hammer-dressed. the term normally applied to the masonry style characteristic of Mycenaean fortification systems. unworked limestone boulders which are roughly fitted together. 'Cyclopean'. but the boulders themselves are never carefully cut blocks.
. describes walls built of huge.Cyclopean Walls
The walls are usually founded in extremely shallow beddings carved out of the bedrock. smaller hunks of limestone fill the interstices.
A typical stretch of Cyclopean walling (near Grave Circle A at Mycenae).
Its column is short in proportion to its diameter. DORIC
The oldest architectural Greek style. It is the most massive of the three.Three Greek Orders
1. is plain.
. The Doric style is rather sturdy and its top (the capital).
The Column from the Shirehall
Perry·s victory and peace memorial
Temple of Poseidon Paestum. Italy
The Parthenon. Athens
This style was found in eastern Greece and the islands. Its capital is decorated with a scroll-like design (a volute). IONIC The Ionic style is thinner and more elegant.
.Temple of Athena Nike.
.Temple of Apollo at Didyma.
Temple of Artemis at Ephesus
Its capital is very elaborate and decorated with acanthus leaves.
The Corinthian style is seldom used in the Greek world. but often seen on Roman temples.3.
The Temple of Sybil. Rome
. France.Maison Carrée. Nîmes.
The Romans were the first to use bricks and cement and were able to develop a variety of architecture that can be seen in their public buildings. basilicas.
. aqueducts and amphitheaters. arches. The coliseum. The groined vault was their most important engineering invention.
Two Roman Orders:
1. Its column is seven diameters in height. and appeals to people for whom less is more. Composite The Romans also created the Composite order. It is a fluteless modification of the Doric.
2. It is composed of an Ionic shaft and a Corinthian capital. Tuscan The Tuscan order is a uniquely Roman concoction.
. Exterior walls are divided into two zone by the cornis but no correspondence with the height of the interior cornis. The wall is 6.05m thick and on the lower level are seven niches with a pair of Corinthian columns. 118-35 A.
The interior is a perfect circle which diameter and height are exactly same. The lower level and the second level are divided by the cornis in the ratio of a square root of 2 to 1.Pantheon.D. The hemispherical dome has the skylight oculus of 8. 43m. Rome. Italy.9m in diameter.
Roman Arch: Acueducto Segovia
Pont Du Gard
The Coliseum in Rome. Italy
Campanile disengaged from facade. such as basket capitals. and the synagogue. Square coffered ceiling. the Roman public building. 3. The Early Christian period saw the growth of Christianity. such as the Greek temple.
. Plain buttressed facade sometimes with small round window and compound arches. Roman basilica plan of center aisle. the private Roman house. 5. This was achieved by a process of assimilating and rejecting various precedents. effectively an underground Eastern mystery cult during the first three centuries AD. 4.Early Christian Architecture
The invention of the Christian church was one of the brilliant--perhaps the most brilliant--solutions in architectural history. one or two aisles and apse. General Characteristics: 1. Variations of Roman orders. Interior marble mosaics 6. 2.
The Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore is the largest church in Rome dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary.
The basilica itself stands over the remains of the Castra Nova equitum singularium, the 'new fort' of the imperial cavalry bodyguard. The fort had been established by Septimius Severus in AD 193, but following the victory over Maxentius (whom the Equites singulares augusti had fought for) at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge by Constantine I the guard were abolished and the fort demolished. Substantial remains of the fort lie directly beneath the basilica nave. The rest of the Basilica site was occupied during the early Roman Empire by the palace of the gens Laterani.
Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire. The empire gradually emerged as a distinct artistic and cultural entity from what is today referred to as the Roman Empire after AD 330, when the Roman Emperor Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire east from Rome to Byzantium. Byzantium, "New Rome", was later renamed Constantinople and is now called Istanbul. The empire endured for more than a millennium, dramatically influencing Medieval and Renaissance era architecture in Europe and, following the capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks in 1453, leading directly to the architecture of the Ottoman Empire. The dome supported on pendentives, was commonly used. A typical feature found in practically all Byzantine churches was the iconostasis and the floor plan was based on the Greek cross.
The Palatine Chapel of the Norman Kings of Sicily.
. Built with Byzantine architectural conventions and with mosaics attributed to Byzantine artists.
.The basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo.
.The Haggia Sophia Church is the most important structure of the Byzantine Style and served as the basis for countless adaptation until 19th century.
with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 10th centuries. characterized by semi-circular arches. beginning in the 12th century. Although there is no consensus for the beginning date of the style. more or less complete and frequently in use. Combining features of Western Roman and Byzantine buildings. making Romanesque architecture the first pan-European architectural style since Imperial Roman Architecture.Romanesque Architecture
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Medieval Europe. The style can be identified right across Europe. despite regional characteristics and different materials. The Romanesque style in England is more traditionally referred to as Norman architecture. but they are greatly outnumbered by churches. large towers and decorative arcading. and evolving into the Gothic style. Many castles were built during this period. sturdy piers. its thick walls. round arches. examples can be found across the continent. Each building has clearly defined forms and they are frequently of very regular.
. many of which are still standing. characterised by pointed arches. The most significant are the great abbey churches. symmetrical plan so that the overall appearance is one of simplicity when compared with the Gothic buildings that were to follow. groin vaults. Romanesque architecture is known by its massive quality.
.Facade of Angoulême Cathedral.
. Belgium.South transept of Tournai Cathedral. 12th century.
.The façade of the cathedral of Lisbon.
Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the great cathedrals. A great number of ecclesiastical buildings remain from this period. town halls. of which even the smallest are often structures of architectural distinction while many of the larger churches are considered priceless works of art and are listed with UNESCO as World Heritage Sites. private dwellings. universities and to a less prominent extent. its characteristics lending themselves to appeal to the emotions. For this reason a study of Gothic architecture is largely a study of cathedrals and churches. Its characteristic features include the pointed arch.
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It is also the architecture of many castles. with the term Gothic first appearing during the latter part of the Renaissance. It is in the great churches and cathedrals and in a number of civic buildings that the Gothic style was expressed most powerfully. the ribbed vault and the flying buttress. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Originating in 12th century France and lasting into the 16th century. palaces. abbeys and churches of Europe. guild halls. Gothic architecture was known during the period as "the French Style" (Opus Francigenum).
is an important example of a monastery with its church and other significant buildings dating from the Gothic period.
.Batalha Monastery. Portugal.
.Notre Dame de Paris.
The Gothic east end of Cologne Cathedral represents the extreme of verticality.
. dating to the 19th century). (nave.
as well as the use of semicircular arches. the Renaissance style quickly spread to other Italian cities and then to France. geometry and the regularity of parts as they are demonstrated in the architecture of classical antiquity and in particular ancient Roman architecture. Developed first in Florence. Orderly arrangements of columns. There was a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture. proportion.
. of which many examples remained.Renaissance Architecture
Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe. Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture and was succeeded by Baroque architecture. hemispherical domes. England. with Filippo Brunelleschi as one of its innovators. Russia and elsewhere. Stylistically. Germany. niches and aedicules replaced the more complex proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings. pilasters and lintels. The Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry.
. it became the model for Bramante's Tempietto.Temple of Vesta. 205 AD. Rome. As the most important temple of Ancient Rome.
. 1502. Rome. This small temple marks the place where St Peter was put to death.Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio. by Bramante.
light and shadow and dramatic intensity. Circular plans and ornamentation 2. crests. that took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion. cartouches. Accent on sculpture above eye level 4. Elaborate console brackets. starting in the late sixteenth century in Italy.
1. and fountains
. clocks. Overly dramatic and exuberant light-and-dark patterns 5. Playful in-and-out movement of curved steps and balustrading 3.Baroque Architecture
Baroque architecture is a term used to describe the era. It was characterized by new explorations of form. often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church and the absolutist state.
The church served as model for innumerable Jesuit churches all over the world. Officially named Church of the Most Holy Name of Jesus.
. The Church of the Gesù is located in the Piazza del Gesù in Rome. introducing the baroque style into architecture. its facade is "the first truly baroque façade". a Roman Catholic religious order also known as the Jesuits. especially in the Americas.The Church of the Gesù is the mother church of the Society of Jesus.
The modern church dedicated to Saint Susanna was rebuilt in 1585²1603.
.Baroque façade of Santa Susanna The Church of Saint Susanna at the baths of Diocletian is a Roman Catholic parish church on the Quirinal hill in Rome. with a titulus associated to its site that dates back to about 280.
aluminum. and continues as a dominant architectural style for institutional and corporate buildings in the 21st century. skeleton construction. Also. The first variants were conceived early in the 20th century. and cantilever construction were introduced in architectural process. General Characteristics: 1. glass. The prohibitive cost of land in urban centers brought the introduction of skyscrapers.Modern Architecture
Modern architecture is characterized by simplification of form and creation of ornament from the structure and theme of the building. structural steel. New methods such as ³reinforced concrete. Modern architecture was adopted by many influential architects and architectural educators. Usage of new construction materials ( Pre-stressed concrete hard plastic.) 2. 4.´ ( a process in which steel rods are added to concrete to give tensile strength). Hydraulic and steel cable elevators made higher structures possible. galvanized iron. asbestos. gained popularity after the Second World War. etc. escalators are used in lieu of the traditional stairways. 3.
The Seagram Building. Regarded as one of the finest examples of the functionalist aesthetic and a masterpiece of corporate modernism. New York City.Marina City (left) and IBM Plaza (right) in Chicago.
Borgata(2003) in Atlantic City is a recent example of modern architecture.
. La Défense district. in the Paris suburb Courbevoie.Tour Total designed in a contemporary modern architectural style.
As a result. grass.
. convents and fortifications. with their heavy "earthquake baroque" style. It developed from the pre-colonial influences of our neighboring Malay brothers. continuing on to the Spanish colonial period. and other native materials. in the dwellings of its various peoples. the American mission style architecture as well as the buildings of commerce with their modern 20th century styles. the American Commonwealth period. the Philippines has become an architectural melting pot-. and the modern contemporary times. and in the buildings that have risen in response to the demands of progress and the aspirations of the people. the massive Spanish colonial churches. nipa. bamboo.uniquely Filipino with a tinge of the occidental.The history and culture of the Philippines are reflected in its architectural heritage. The Philippine's architectural landscape is a contrast among small traditional huts built of wood. Architecture in the Philippines today is the result of a natural growth enriched with the absorption of varied influences. albeit "modern mundane" concrete structures of the cities. in churches and mosques. and today's contemporary.
Five types of bahay kubo.
Its architecture speaks of intelligence and practical way of living. I t is built for protection from the low temperature and the rains. Ifugao Hut (Ulog) The Ulog is the traditional house in Ifugao. It has sheltered even their ancestors.1.
The STEPS leading to the hut looks like a ladder. After a meal members of the family can shake off from the floor any leftovers and crumbs directly feeding the chicken below the floor.The FLOORING of the hut is made of woven bamboo slabs which can be conveniently spread or rolled. It is also easy to clean.
. It can be conveniently detached and carried inside the house. This keeps the family inside the house secure from intruders and enemies. This can serve the purpose of easy access to the area below to flee from enemies anytime.
The rounded piece of wood embracing the posts looks like adornments but their function are more on protecting the house from rats. The house is set on 4 inverted tree trunks as posts whose forked branches touch the ground. crops and farm implements. Ifugaos keep their livestock. giving more stability to the house.
.Beneath the raised floor. Posts are not anchored deep into the ground since Ifugaos are known to move or transfer homes to other locations. These are called the halipan.
Treehouse of Aetas houses are usually built in bamboo sticks.
. Bahay Kubo made of bamboo and nipa.3. the most common construction materials found in luzon and visayas made of straw or thatched roof.
road or lake shore. The roof. Depending on its size. placing one set of halved bamboo face up and covering all the spaces in between with the other halves in sequential patterns. doors and windows are made of bamboo material lashed together with rattan. But if they have enough bamboo. Some use wood shingles as roof. Most of the houses have no ceiling.9 meters. without partitions. The Maranao house is raised on pilings from .
. measure about 7. dry-rice areas hamlets are smaller and their houses cluster in an irregular pattern near a water source. which is steep and shaped like the carabao·s horns. walls. Each hamlet is made up of three to 30 multi-family dwellings raised on pilings 31.86 to 18.5 to 220. The Maranao House
he Maranao arrange their houses in a line patter along a liver. In the hilly. For the roof. flooring. the house usually has nine to 12 posts and the main room.21 meters above the ground. the Maranao usually use thick cogon grass and lash this to a split bamboo frame with rattan. they use them for roofing instead.5 centimeters above the ground.31 to 2.4. but this is not a traditional practice.
The huts and stilts of seafarers Many stilt houses can be seen in zamboanga and sulu.5.
. It·s made of nipa hut and bamboo.
Spanish Colonial Houses
brass nails. The Vigan Houses (16th to 17th century. jalousies. barandillas. stone arches. and ceramic balustrades. sala. colonnades.)
Set on cobbled stone street with brick walls. elaborate grillwork. azotea and verandillas. wooden doors and floors.
. The parts of the house are the caida. concrete walls.1. tiled roofs. Capiz shell windows.
Batanes( Ivatan) houses (18th Century)
Two and a half feet thick stone and lime wall with thick thatched roof of cogon held by sticks. reeds and rattan characterized by durability and resistance to typhoons
kamagong. Capiz shells.3. media-agua and brandillas
. banguerra ( dish rack). molave. tangile. Philippine wood such as narra. sahig. mahogany. Bahay na bato(19th century)
A synthesis of native and western style (stonehouse) with sawali ceiling.
wrought iron grills.4. Ancestral house of Negros
Mansions and plantation houses characterized by foliate scrollwork. and minored side-board(ibid). virinas. aparador. cupboard. staircase iron grills. piedra china. grandfather's clock.
. brass knocker. porte cochere. floral scrolls.
. The City Beautiful Movement of Chicago 3. The Philosopy of french 4. 2. The Bauaus School of Gropius which started in germany but blossomed in USA academies where Filipino architect scholars studies during early third quarter of this century.American Colonial houses
Four movements that affected Philippine architecture in the 20th century are: 1. The Classical Roman Urban design and the plaza complex in Europe through the Laws of Indies of Philip 1.
a.Classic(up to 1920) -GI sheets. public buildings under Burnham who hired Michael Parsons as architect who was responsible for building the Philippine General Hospital and Philippine Normal College. Neo.
Antonio Toledo. and Juan Arellano. They used the monumental approach to buildings using roman columns which dominate the facades of the Legislative Bldg. Neo-Classic (Filipino style from 1920-30's) -The government architects wer Carlos Baretto. Tomas Mapua. ( now the dept.b.
The Manila Post-Office
. of tourism) and the post office building.
Manila Metropolitan Theatre By Juan M. Arellano
Leanrdo Locsin designed the ultramodern hemispherical domed chapel of the UP. Juan Nakpil and Cesar Concio designed the proposed University of The phil diliman. After the war. a monumental architectural landmark even up to this day. a recipient of numerous awards and citations for excelence in architecture is credited for the design of the CCP. new buildings were erected in Manila and other places. manila.
. Leandro Locsin. quezon city. Fernando Ocampo. who designed the PerezSamanillo building at Escolta. and Juan Nakpil. who designed the Paterno Building near McArthur Bridge. were Andres Luna de San Pedro.Modern Architecture in the Philippines
Pre-War prominent architects in the Phil.
Famous Filipino Architects
that are conceptually welldesigned and conscientiously executed. While mindful of contemporary design. 1899-1986)
(National Artist for
Geronimo de los Reyes Building UP administration building and library Quezon Institute Building of Social Security System State and Ever Theaters International Eucharistic Congress altar. First Filipino Architect who became a member of American Institute of Architects
Capitol Theater Captain Pepe Building Manila Jockey Club Avenue Hotel and Theater Rufino Building Philippine Village Hotel Philippine Trust Building
. is a pioneer and innovator in Philippine architecture. both private and public. and civic leader. He has shared his outstanding talents and services in creating edifices.Juan F. teacher. 1937 Magsaysay Building Rizal Theater
architect. Nakpil has always advocated a distinctive architecture reflective of Philippine traditions and culture. Nakpil
Manila Jockey Club
November 15. 1976 Philippine Plaza Hotel. Laguna. 1955 Hyatt Regency Hotel sa Pasay. 1979 Istana Nurul Iman -palasyo ng Sultan ng Brunei
pagsasaayos ng Manila Hotel. 1971 Folk Arts Theater. Los Baños. He was proclaimed a National Artist of the Philippines for Architecture in 1990 by President Corazon C.Leandro V. 1974 Ayala Museum. artist. 1967 Cultural Center of the Philippines. 1994) was a Filipino architect. UP Diliman. Locsin(National Artist for
Works: Chapel of the Holy Sacrifice. 1976 Philippine Center for International Trade and Exhibitions or PHILCITE. 1969 Makati Stocks Exchange Building. known for his use of concrete. 1976 National Arts Center sa Makiling. 1976 Mandarin Oriental Hotel. 1976 terminal ng Manila International Airport (ngayon ay NAIA). 1976
(August 15. he was fond of modern painting and Chinese ceramics. Aquino. 1928 . andinterior designer. floating volume and simplistic design in his various projects. An avid collector. 1974 Philippine International Convention Center.
Cultural Center of the Philippines
Hyatt Regency Hotel
National Arts Center at Makiling Los Banos. Laguna
who grew up in Malabon. Jr. and the Orchard Golf and Country Club in Imus.'s contribution to modern Filipino landscape architecture was the seminal public landscape in Paco Park.'s most recent projects were the Tagaytay Highland Resort. Jr. Jr. made his first mark with the Makati Commercial Center where he introduced a new concept of outdoor shopping with landscaped walks.Ildefonso Santos Jr. distinguished himself by pioneering the practice of landscape architecture--an allied field of architecture--in the Philippines and then producing four decades of exemplary and engaging work that has included hundreds of parks. Santos. Santos.. fountains and sculptures as accents. Santos. gardens. the Mt. Cavite
. Malarayat Golf and Country Club in Lipa. plazas. Also designed the rizal park and loyola memorial park in marikina. and a wide range of outdoor settings that have enhanced contemporary Filipino life.. (National Artist
For Architecture 2003. Batangas. Jr. Father of landscape architecture) Ildefonso Paez Santos.
Tagaytay highlands resort
Boulevard-Alhambra (now Bel-Air) apartments.Pablo S. Lyric Theater. 1975) was a Filipino architect. he was Electronics). He was conferred the rank and title of National Artist of the Philippines by President Ferdinand Marcos in 1976. recognized in some quarters as the foremost Filipino modernist architect of his time. Galaxy Theater. Capitan Luis Gonzaga Building. Antonio
Far Eastern University Administration and Science buildings. (January 25. A pioneer of Ramon Roces Publications Building (now Guzman Institute of modern Philippine architecture. Manila Polo Club. 1902 ± June 14.
. Ideal Theater.
FEU¶ s admission
Arellano went to the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1911 and then transferred to Drexel to finish his bachelor's degree in Architecture. Jones Bridge and the development of Quezon City. best known as the architect of Manila's Metropolitan Theater.Born into a cultured. and Fabian de la Rosa. He was trained in the Beaux Arts and subsequently went to work for George B. Juan attended the Ateneo Municipal and graduated in 1908. the Manila Post Office Building .Juan Arellano (1888-1967)
Juan Marcos de Guzmán Arellano was a Filipino architect and painter. the "Ermita Master. artistic family.
." Toribio Antillon. His first interest was reportedly painting and he trained under Lorenzo Guerrero. Post & Sons in New York City. where he worked for Frederick Law Olmsted. Jr.
Pyramid of Giza
20 years of making It is believed that the Great Pyramid of Giza was built by moving huge stones from a quarry and dragging and lifting them into place.
Stonehenge The stones are aligned almost perfectly with the sunrise on the summer solstice, and it is almost unquestioned that Stonehenge was built as a spectacular place of worship.
Manila City Hall (top view)