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Has many aspects:
What is Standard of Living?
3 Jhe living conditions of the people
3 access to education, health care , recreation etc
3 infrastructure
3 Employment opportunities, types of employment
3 Equated with economic growth (refers to the level of wealth that the
people in the country has achieved.)

3 What is Quality of life ?

3 (refers to the well being of the people and their satisfaction with their lives
3 Characteristics of Development:
1. It is a continuous process
Jhere is no maximum growth for development
2. Jhe success and rate of development for each country is uncertain
3. Development can have positive and negative impacts


Differences between core & periphery countries

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- Higher concentration of 
people and wealth - ewer jobs
- Higher standard of living - ainly agricultural activities
- ore employment opportunities -Limited services
- ore schools, shopping -oor infrastructure like
centres, roads or piped
-etter housing water supply
- etter transport
Core countries processed raw materials into finished
products. Sells back to periphery at higher cost

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Developed countries - ewer jobs
-Develops because of natural - lack skills and technology
Advantage like good location  

 Jo manufacture goods.
Natural resources.
-gains reputation     -lose people and resources
-become dependent on core
-attracts investment or goods
-continues to grow

Raw materials are sold to core country at low prices

eople migrate to look for jobs



Development may spread from the core to the
Inequalities between the two are gradually reduced.

Sometimes, the wealth and development may be
concentrated only in the core. Labour and raw
materials are drained from the periphery.
Jhis negative effect is called the backwash.


It failed to explain the rapid growth rates of some
East Asian economies like Singapore and Jaiwan.
Jhese periphery countries were colonised by core
countries and are still highly dependent on them for
trade and investment even after independence.
Yet they achieved high growth rates of about 8% to
10% annually (except between 1997 and 1998) and
a high living standard comparable with some core
Economic Indicators: Social
Indicators: Indicators:
- population
- N per structure - access to
capita water and
- life expectancy sanitation
-Employment - infant mortality
Structure - adult
rate literacy
- rban rate


3 N = A + ( ± C)

3 A =total value of goods & services produced

by citizens
3 and non citizens in the country
3 = income earned by citizens working
3 C =income earned by non-citizens working in
the country


3 As the N is affected by size of the population, a

better way to ensure accuracy is to use an average
3 N is divided by total population

eg. N = N per capita

Jotal op
3 Jhe general guidelines to classify economies are:

S $10 726 & above- high income economies

S $876-10 725 ± middle income economies
S 875 & below ± low income economies
rimary Industries:
3     ! !"   #     

3 $
3   involves growing crops and rearing animals, providing food
3    and %  involves extracting raw materials - oil and coal,
3   involves catching sea life.
Secondary Industries:
3     (from the primary sector), such as refining oil into petrol.
3   - making products from raw materials (such as cars.
3 |   - for example, using raw materials, such as wood and stone, to build houses.
3 "  - making clothing products from raw materials, such as wood, or man-made
materials, such as plastics.
Jertiary sector
3 &
3 ' is selling goods produced by the secondary sector in shops.
3    is providing services to people who are travelling for fun.
3   is teaching people new skills in schools and colleges.
  is providing services to ill people.
3   is providing financial services, such as lending people money and helping them
invest their money.


  ‡ Farming mechanised
‡ High primary (farming)
‡ Automation of manufacturing
‡ Little mechanisation on or transfer of manufacturing
farms (low technology) to NICs

‡ Little manufacturing ‡ Very strong tertiary sector

with large numbers
‡ In early stages of economic employed in health,
development education and tourism
‡ Growth of jobs in the
‡ Informal service sector in knowledge economy based
the cities is quite strong on the processing of
knowledge and information
using telecommunications



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' !   
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(  *  
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3 opulation Structure (by age groups)

3 Life Expectancy
3 Infant ortality
3 rban opulation
uemographic Indicators: Population Structure
We can interpret a population pyramid by looking at:
- Jhis shows the proportion of young people (aged 15 yrs
and below).
- It tells us about the birth rate of the country.
- It tells us about the rate of population growth.
- Jhis shows the proportion of elderly (aged 60 yrs and
- It tells us about the life expectancy of the population.
- If this proportion is small, this means people do not live
- Death rate is likely to be high. It shows a developing
uemographic Indicators: Population Structure

In -|# In -|#
- dependent young is small - dependent young is large
- dependent aged is larger - dependent aged is small


- Jhe 3 bars at the base of the pyramid are the longest in the
graph. Jhey represent the number of people below 14 years of
age. Jhese 3 bars make up almost half the population.
- Jhis country has a young population. It shows high birth rate and
a rapidly growing population. It is likely to be !

- Jhis is a !
uemographic Indicators: Population Structure


Look at the peak of the pyramid.

- Jhe bars are short, especially aged 60 and above. All these bars add up
to a  

- Jhis tells us that the people do not live long.  "
   . Jhere are few elderly in the country. Jhe medical and
healthcare services may not be adequate.
- Jhis is characteristic of a !
uemographic Indicators: Population Structure



Jhe middle portion shows the working population, aged 19 to 60. Jhis
group contributes to the economy and helps to support the young and
- In this diagram, this group makes up slightly less than half the total
- Jhis tells us that the burden on this group is high. -

'    $
- Jhis is characteristic of a !
uemographic Indicators: Life Expectancy

3 It refers to the average number of years that a

person can expect to live in a particular


‡ inadequate health
‡ better health care
‡ more accessible
‡ few doctors, clinics
health facilities
‡ poor hygiene &
(enough clinics,
doctors, hospitals)
‡ people can afford
better diets
uemographic Indicators: Fertility Rates
3 Refers to number of live births a year per 1000 women
between ages of 15 to 44.
ë  Ñ 
 Fertility rates ë Fertility Rate
Why? Why?

‡ lack knowledge of birth ‡ higher education, more

control concerned with careers
‡ sees children as assets ‡ knowledge of
on their farms and work contraception and birth
‡ cultural /traditional control
thinking eg preference for ‡ aware of advantages of
males small families
uemographic Indicators: Infant Mortality Rate

3 Refers to the rate at which babies less than 1

years old dies, for every 1000live births, in a year
ë  Ñ 
(Ethiopia - 100 per 1000 live (Singapore - 2 per
births) 1000 live births)

Why? Why?
å  å 
‡ war & political instability ‡ good health care system
‡ drought ‡ good diet & nutrition
‡ famine and starvation good std of hygiene &
‡ poor diet & nutrition clean water
‡ no access to medical ‡ high income - can
care (doctors, hospitals) afford proper health care
uemographic Indicators: Urban Population

3 Jhis refers to the percentage living in an urban area.

-| -|
  % living in cities
  % living in cities
Why? Why?
- less resources for city -have the financial resources to
infrastructure. develop cities with modern
- more people engaged in
primary industries - a large proportion of the people are
which are in rural areas. engaged in secondary & tertiary
industries which are located there.
- have the technology to build facilities
like roads, hospitals, housing,
Urban Population - Recent Changes

Urban population no longer accurate. Why?

3 Trend of counter-urbanisation (urban population
relocating to suburbs because of increasing congestion
and pollution).
3 Quality of life in cities is
not necessarily better
than rural areas. More
people migrating to
cities have resulted in
poor housing conditions
like slums and squatters
(cramped, makeshift
houses, no water and
electricity, dirty). .  !      
Social Indicator: Access to Clean Water

‡ Early deaths have been caused by contaminated

water and infectious diseases caused by poor
ë  Ñ 

‡uue to the lack of new ‡Have new technology like

advance technology to treat reverse osmosis to help treat
water. waste water into portable
‡Lack of water system to water.
connect the whole country with ‡Good network of water pipes
a efficient water network. They to bring water to everyone.
have to walk long distance to
collect water.
Social Indicators: Adult Literacy Rate

3 This refers to the percentage of population aged 15 and

above who can read, write and understand simple

ë  Ñ 
ë  literacy rate.   literacy rate.
Why? Why?
‡ not enough schools. ‡ government has financial
‡ parents cannot afford to pay for resources to invest in education.
schooling. ‡ government builds schools,
‡ children needed on farms. trains teachers, subsidizes cost
‡ social customs such as of education.
restricting females from ‡ people can afford to send
attending schools. children to schools.
Immeasurable Aspects of uevelopment

3 While economic , demographic and social

3 indicators can be measured in numbers and
3 figures, other indicators of development
3 such as:
3 safe working conditions
3 freedom to choose jobs, practice religion
3 freedom of speech and movement
3 freedom from violence, oppression
3 sense of satisfaction and belonging etc.
How is overall development measured?

3 It combines 3 important indicators:
3 ë    !  "

3 ë    !   "

The average scores of the 3 indicators are

calculated and compared.
The index considers economic wealth as well as
quality of life (education and health).
The Human uevelopment Index

3 ë   

 ! "
Generally a higher GuP per capita leads to a
higher HuI value. However, it is only an
average figure. It does not show the
distribution of wealth in the country.
For instance, the GuP per capita of Canada is
the lowest but its HuI is ranked 2nd. This
suggests that a rich country may distribute
its wealth fairly to improve the quality of life
for all the people in that country.
The Human uevelopment Index

3 ë   

 ! "!#"
It is only accurate if data can be obtained.
For example, in places where the majority of
the economy relies on informal trading,
income is only an estimate.
On the other hand, some countries may not
be as wealthy but the level of human
development may be higher.