Mr. Jonathan M.

Habac
Resource Speaker

Part 1 Hardware and Software Overview y Computer System s Components y Popular Software Used

Part 2 PC Troubleshooting and Maintenance
y Troubleshooting  Popular Troubles and their Solutions y PC Maintenance

10/20/2007

josh_9_1_1@yahoo.com

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Computer System s Components
Main Components of the PC y System Board (Motherboard) y Memory (RAM) y Processor (CPU) y Secondary Storage devices 
Hard Disk Drive  Optical Drives  Floppy Disk Drive  Flash Drive

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com 4 . Serial.y Input/Output Ports and Devices  Keyboards/Mice  USB. Parallel Ports  Other input/output devices y Interface Cards  Sound Card  Video Card  Network Interface Card (LAN)  Modem  Other Add-on interface 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.

y Monitor/ LCD y Power Supply y PC Casing 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.com 5 .

memory. and all the controllers required to control standard peripheral devices.System Board (motherboard) y The main circuit board of a microcomputer. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. keyboard. the motherboard contains the CPU. such as the display screen.com 6 . all these chips that reside on the motherboard are known as the motherboard's chipset. and disk drive. BIOS. y It contains the connectors for attaching additional boards. mass storage interfaces. Collectively. Typically. serial and parallel ports. expansion slots.

com 7 . screw hole. Obsolete Form Factors Baby-AT Full-size AT LPX (semiproprietary) WTX (no longer in production) ITX (flex-ATX variation.Motherboard Form Factors The form factor refers to the physical dimensions (size and shape) as well as certain connector. never produced) 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. and other positions that dictate into which type of case the board will fit.

most flexible design for power users.ATX . ATX boards support up to seven expansion slots. . mini-ATX boards support up to six expansion slots. mini-tower. enthusiasts.A slightly smaller version of ATX that fits into the same case as ATX. Mini-ATX . most common form factor today. Many so-called ATX motherboards are actually mini-ATX motherboards. low-end servers/workstations.Standard desktop. and higher-end home systems. and full-tower systems.

entertainment or appliance systems. or ATX chassis. Flex-ATX . used in Midrange desktop or mini-tower systems. micro-ATX.A smaller version of ATX. Fits in flex-ATX.com 9 . 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.micro-ATX .Smallest version of ATX. Fits micro-ATX or ATX chassis. used in expensive or low-end small desktop or mini-tower systems.

used in set-top boxes and compact/small form factor computers. NLX .com 10 . fast and easy serviceability.Minimum-size flex-ATX version. Fits in mini-ITX. or ATX chassis.Corporate desktop or mini-tower systems.Mini-ITX . highly integrated with one PCI expansion slot. flex-ATX. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. micro-ATX.

com 11 . Packard Bell. Hewlett-Packard. notebook/portable systems. and so on) 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.All Others Fully proprietary designs (certain Compaq.

com 12 .10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.

the ATX motherboard is oriented so that the CPU socket is near the power supply fan and case fan (if your case includes one).When mounted inside the case. .

ATX.com 14 . & micro-ATX motherboard I/O Ports PS/2 mouse port Parallel Port Line In Line/Speaker Out Mic In PS/2 Keyboard port Serial Ports USB Ports 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. mini-ATX.

com .ATX Motherboard Parts Chipset BIOS Chip AGP Slot I/O Ports PCI Slots CP Socket ATX Power Supply Connector CMOS battery DIMM/DDR Memory Socket 10/20/2007 IDE Drive Connectors Floppy Drive Connector 15 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.

Motherboard Slots y Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) standard specifies a computer bus for attaching peripheral devices to a computer motherboard.com 16 . These devices can take the form of:  integrated circuits fitted on the motherboard itself (called planar devices in the PCI specification). 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. or  expansion cards that fit in sockets.

The PCI bus is common in modern PCs. The bus will eventually be succeeded by PCI Express and other technologies. where it has displaced ISA and VESA Local Bus as the standard expansion bus.com 17 . 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. but it also appears in many other computer types. which have already started to appear in new computers.

com 18 .32-bit PCI expansion slots on a motherboard 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.

Available versions include: y AGP 1x. but this is something of a misnomer since buses generally allow multiple devices to be connected. 3. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. As of 2004.3 V signaling. using a 32-bit channel operating at 66 MHz resulting in a maximum data rate of 266 megabytes per second. while AGP does not.AGP y The Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) (also called Advanced Graphics Port) is a high-speed point-to-point channel for attaching a graphics card to a computer's motherboard. doubled from the 133MBytes/s transfer rate of PCI bus 33MHz / 32bit. AGP is slowly being phased out by PCI Express.com 19 . primarily to assist in the acceleration of 3D computer graphics. Some motherboards have been built with multiple independent AGP slots. Many classify AGP as a type of computer bus. newer versions of AGP increase the transfer rate from two to eight times.

using a 32-bit channel operating at 66 MHz octuple pumped to an effective 533 MHz resulting in a maximum data rate of 2133 megabytes per second.com 20 . 0. signaling voltages the same as AGP 1x. y AGP 4x. 1.5 V signaling. using a 32-bit channel operating at 66 MHz quad pumped to an effective 266 MHz resulting in a maximum data rate of 1066 megabytes per second. y AGP 8x. using a 32-bit channel operating at 66 MHz double pumped to an effective 133 MHz resulting in a maximum data rate of 533 megabytes per second.8 V signaling. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.y AGP 2x.

AGP slot (maroon).com 21 . 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. although the color is usually brown.

com 22 . but bases it on a completely different and much faster serial physical-layer communications protocol.PCIe (PCI Express) y PCI Express. (formerly known as 3GIO for 3rd Generation I/O. or PCIe. not to be mistaken for PCIX) is an implementation of the PCI computer bus that uses existing PCI programming concepts. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.

including AGP and PCI. cards and systems can be converted to PCI Express by changing the physical layer only existing systems could be adapted to PCI Express without any change in software. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.y PCI Express is intended to be used as a local interconnect only. As it is based on the existing PCI system.com 23 . The higher speeds on PCI Express allow it to replace almost all existing internal buses.

x1 and x16). compared to a traditional 32-bit PCI slot (bottom) 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. x16.com 24 .PCI Express slots (from top to bottom: x4.

any data that has been changed should be saved to a more permanent storage device (usually a hard disk) so it can be reloaded into memory in the future. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. It is a temporary storage area where the programs and data being operated on by the processor must reside. Memory storage is considered temporary because the data and programs remain there only as long as the computer has electrical power or is not reset. Before being shut down or reset.com 25 .Memory (RAM) Memory is the workspace for the computer s processor.

Disk memory is also randomly accessible. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.com 26 . Read-only memory (ROM). yet is usually differentiated from the system RAM because it maintains data without power and can t normally be written to.y Memory often is called RAM. This designation is somewhat misleading and often misinterpreted. for random access memory. but we don t consider that RAM either. Main memory is called RAM because you can randomly (as opposed to sequentially) access any location in memory. for example. is also randomly accessible.

com 27 .Types of RAM Package y DIP (dual in-line package) y SIPP (single in-line pin package) y SIMM (singe in-line memory module)  30-pin module  72-pin module (EDORAM) y DIMM (dual in-line memory module)  168-pin module (SDRAM)  184-pin module (DDR)  240-pin module (DDR2) y RIMM (Rambus in-line memory module)  184-pin or 232-pin RDRAM RIMMs 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.

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Latest DDR2 OCZ platinum edition 2GB Crucial Ballistix 2GB PC312800 DDR3 Dual Channel Memory Kit 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.com 29 .

In terms of computing power.com 30 . The CPU performs the system s calculating and processing.Microprocessor (CPU) The brain or engine of the PC is the processor (sometimes called microprocessor). The speed of the CPU is measured in Megahertz (MHz) and Gigahertz (GHz) 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. the CPU is the most important element of a computer system. or central processing unit (CPU).

Advanced Micro Devices Corp. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.com 31 .Common microprocessors available for desktop PC¶s are from Intel and AMD. Integrated Electronics Corp.

Examples of Microprocessor Intel Pentium III (Socket 370) Intel Pentium 4 Socket T (LGA-775) AMD Athlon XP (Socket A/462) Intel Pentium 4 (µPGA 478) AMD K6/III (Socket 7 / Super 7) 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.com AMD Athlon 64 FX (Socket 939) 32 .

com 33 .Latest Processor 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.

A cache is a buffer with a brain. allowing the processor to retrieve that data faster than if it came from main memory. or more in the latest processors. It holds the data the processor is most likely to need in advance of it actually being needed. and that is intelligence. But there is one additional feature of a cache over a simple buffer. The integrated L1 cache size varies from processor to processor. 64KB. Internal Level 1 Cache All modern processors starting with the 486 family include an integrated L1 cache and controller.com 34 .Cache Memory Cache memory is a high-speed memory buffer that temporarily stores data the processor needs. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. starting at 8KB for the original 486DX and now up to 32KB.

which means that the cache memory is split into four blocks. Each block also is organized as 128 or 256 lines of 16 bytes each. therefore reducing the time it takes to access if it would be from the main memory. which is also the same speed as the L1 cache.com 35 . The organization of the cache memory in the 486 and MMX Pentium family is called a four-way set associative cache. L2 cache holds data that the L1 cache missed. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.Level 2 Cache Newer processors have integrated L2 cache that runs at the same speed as the processor core.

such as the AMD K6-III.com 36 . these contain 2MB or 4MB of L3 cache that runs at full processor speed. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. such as many Super Socket 7 motherboards made for Pentium and Pentium-compatible processors. is used.L3 cache (level three) A third-level memory cache external to the processor core. L2 cache becomes L3 cache if a processor with integrated L3 cache. The only current Intel compatible processors to include L3 cache are the Itanium and Itanium 2 processors from Intel. Depending on the model. Motherboard-based cache modules run at FSB speeds. If a motherboard provides L2 cache. which are much slower than on-chip or on-die processor speeds. See also cache and disk cache.

which enable them to execute multiple instructions at the same time. This circuitry enables processors to conserve energy use and lengthen battery life. SSE2. .Processor Features SMM (Power Management) . Professional 3DNow! (AMD) these are instruction sets designed to enhance the processors performance in terms of multi-media applications.SSE3 (Intel).Spurred on primarily by the goal of putting faster and more powerful processors in laptop computers. Enhanced 3DNow!. MMX. 3DNow!. SSE. Intel has created power-management circuitry. Superscalar Execution . Extended MMX.The fifth-generation Pentium and newer processors feature multiple internal instruction execution pipelines. such as games.

It is a superset of the x86 architecture. allowing the operating system to schedule two threads or processes simultaneously. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.those that store the architectural state but not duplicating the main execution resources.Hyper-threading Hyper-Threading works by duplicating certain sections of the processor . 64-bit microprocessor architecture AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. which it natively supports.com 38 . Extended Memory 64-bit Technology (EM64T) is Intel's implementation of AMD64. This allows a Hyper-Threading equipped processor to pretend to be two "logical" processors to the host operating system. a 64-bit extension to the IA32 architecture.

Each socket or slot is designed to support a different range of original and upgrade processors.CPU Sockets Intel and AMD have created a set of socket and slot designs for their processors. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.com 39 .

AMD "Windsor" Athlon 64 X2. Pentium Extreme Edition.com 40 . Pentium D. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. AMD "Orleans4" Athlon 64 FX. AMD Athlon 64 / AMD Athlon 64 FX to 1GHz / Sempron AMD Opteron Sorted by date (most recent to oldest).PAC611 PAC418 Socket T (LGA775) Intel Pentium 4. AMD Opteron processor s. & Celeron Socket 604 Xeon Socket 603 Xeon Socket 480 Socket 479 Socket 478 Intel Pentium 4 & Celeron Intel Itanium Intel Itanium Intel Pentium M (Dual core) Intel Pentium M (Single core) & Celeron M Socket 423 Intel Pentium 4 Socket 370 Intel Celeron & Pentium III Socket AM2 Socket F Socket S1 AMD Turion 64 mobile processor s Socket 939 Socket 940 Socket 754 AMD Athlon 64 / Sempron AMD "Orleans" Athlon 64.

Socket A (Socket 462) Later AMD Athlon, Athlon XP, Duron and Sempron

Socket 563

Slot 2

Slot 1

Slot A

Socket 8

Super Socket 7 AMD K6-2 & AMD K6-III (socket 7 with 100 MHz Front side bus and AGP interface compatibility) 486 Socket Intel 486

Socket 7

Low-power Mobile Athlon XPM (µ-PGA Socket, mostly mobile parts) Socket 5 Intel Pentium 75-133MHz and compatible s

Intel Pentiu m II Xeon & Pentiu m III Xeon Socket 4 Intel Pentiu m 60/66M Hz

Intel Pentium II & early Pentium III

Early AMD Athlon & Alpha 21264

Intel Pentium Pro

Intel Pentium & compatibl es from Cyrix, AMD

Socket 6 Intel 486

Socket 3 Intel 486 (3.3v and 5v) and compatible s

Socket 2 Intel 486

Socket 1 Intel 486

Sorted by date (most recent to oldest).
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Socket A (462)

Socket 478

Socket 939

Socket T (LGA-775) Land Grid Array
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Processor Codenames
Code names have been used to identify microprocessors while in development. In some cases, the code name became the completed product's name, but most of these code names are no longer used once the associated products are released.

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Secondary storage is data on hard disks. and other external devices. Secondary storage is more permanent than main memory. On the other hand. Primary storage is much faster to access than secondary storage because of the proximity of the storage to the processor or because of the nature of the storage devices.com 44 . tapes. as data and programs are retained when the power is turned off. Primary Storage RAM & ROM 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.Secondary Storage Devices Secondary storage is also called auxiliary storage and is used to store data and programs when they are not being processed. secondary storage can hold much more data than primary storage.

HDD (Hard Disk Drive) A rigid magnetic disk fixed permanently within a drive unit and used for storing computer data. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. Hard disks generally offer more storage and quicker access to data than floppy disks do.com 45 .

Today. from 5.com 46 .Most desktop hard disks are IDE (ATAPI/EIDE). IDE drives are used in RAID arrays and in high-performance machines. whereas SCSI drives have traditionally been found on servers and high-performance workstations. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. which uses only one slot in the PC. they can be turned off when not being used to preserve battery life. In laptops.000 to 15. The SCSI advantage is that from seven to 15 devices can be attached to the same controller board. Hard disks provide fast retrieval because they rotate constantly at high speed.000 rpm. SCSI was the first drive technology to employ fault-tolerant RAID systems.

Parts of a Hard Disk Drive 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.com 47 .

10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. IDE ATA100 and the latest IDE ATA133. IDE ATA66. IDE ATA33. master & slave. IDE can only access one drive per channel at a time.com 48 .Types of Hard Disk Drive y IDE (IDE/ATAPI) Integrated Drive Electronics/Advanced Technology Attachment w/ Packet Interface . There are four IDE drive capabilities.A single IDE ATA channel can support up to two drives.

also known as IDE). SCSI is a fast interface.SCSI (pronounced scuzzy ) stands for Small Computer System Interface and is a general-purpose interface used for connecting many types of devices to a PC.is a computer bus primarily 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. servers.com 49 .y SCSI Small Computer System Interface. It is the successor to the legacy Advanced Technology Attachment standard (ATA. generally suited to highperformance workstations. . or anywhere the ultimate in performance for a storage system interface is needed. designed for transfer of data to and from a hard disk. y Serial ATA (S-ATA) .

0 uses a seven-wire data/ground cable and supports direct point-to-point connections to host adapters at initial speeds of up to 150MBps.Serial ATA 1. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.com 50 . which is faster than UltraATA-133. Serial ATA II is a version of the SATA standard designed for servers.

com 51 . and its associated signals. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.ATA y ATA (AT Attachment Interface) An IDE disk interface standard introduced in March 1989 that defines a compatible register set. See also IDE and SATA. a 40-pin connector.

IDE ATAPI Cable RED Wire (Pin 1) 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.com 52 .

com 53 . including scanners. SCSI remains popular on highperformance workstations. CDROM drives. servers. CD writers. and DVD drives. but also connects a wide range of other devices.SCSI SCSI is most commonly used for hard disks and tape storage devices. and high-end peripherals. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.

SCSI Cable & SCSI Host Adapter 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.com 54 .

Transfer rates for Serial ATA begin at 150MBps. One of the main design advantages of Serial ATA is that the thinner serial cables facilitate more efficient airflow inside a form factor and also allow for smaller chassis designs. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.com 55 .Serial ATA Serial-ATA is a serial link -.a single cable with a minimum of four wires creates a point-to-point connection between devices.

Serial ATA connectors on motherboard Serial ATA Cable and power supply adapter Serial ATA PCI Controller Card 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.com 56 .

com 57 . FDDs have been an key component of most personal computers for more than 20 years. a floppy disk drive reads and writes data to a small.Floppy Disk Drive y The floppy disk drive (FDD) was the primary means of adding data to a computer until the CD-ROM drive became popular. circular piece of metal-coated plastic similar to audio cassette tape. In fact. y Basically. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.

but they are portable. circular piece of metal-coated plastic similar to audio cassette tape. inexpensive. and universal.Floppy Disk floppy disks : Relatively slow and have a small capacity. Basically. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. a floppy disk drive reads and writes data to a small.com 58 .

com 59 . The design that makes this possible is a simple one: The CD surface is a mirror covered with billions of tiny bumps that are arranged in a long.Optical Storage The optical storage device that most of us are familiar with is the compact disc (CD). A CD can store huge amounts of digital information (783 MB) on a very small surface that is incredibly inexpensive to manufacture. tightly wound spiral. The CD player reads the bumps with a precise laser and interprets the information as bits of data. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.

CD-ROM Drive 52X 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.com 60 .

the laser beam passes through the CD's polycarbonate layer. The optoelectronic sensor detects these changes in reflectivity.y When you play a CD. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.com 61 . which are called lands. The bumps reflect light differently than the flat parts of the aluminum layer. reflects off the aluminum layer and hits an optoelectronic device that detects changes in light. and the electronics in the CD-player drive interpret the changes as data bits.

DVD Drive Philips DVD 52X rewriter Portable Drive 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.com 62 .

Flash Storage y A keydrive is a small removable data storage device that uses flash memory and a USB connector.com 63 . either by direct connection to its USB port or via a USB hub. it must be connected to a computer. and require no external power source or battery power when not in use. These storages device are active only when powered by a connection to a computer. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. To access the data stored in a keydrive.

com 64 . although some feature the smaller "miniUSB" connection. keydrives are run from the limited supply afforded by the USB connection. There is no separate power connection.y Most keydrives feature the larger type-A USB connection. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.

a pointing device. The most common input device is the keyboard. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.com 65 . In a GUI environment.Input Devices These are devices that are used to input data and give instructions to the computer. typically a mouse is used to move and select objects on the screen for action.

Keyboard One of the most basic system components is the keyboard. The primary keyboard types are as follows:  104-key Windows keyboard  101-key Enhanced keyboard  83-key PC and XT keyboard (obsolete)  84-key AT keyboard (obsolete) 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.com 66 . which is the primary input device. It is used for entering commands and data into the system.

com 67 .Keyboards are also classified according to their design: y Windows keyboard keyboards with key y Ergonomic keyboard a good example of ergonomic keyboard is the MS natural keyboard. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. (shown below) y Specialized keyboards are keyboards with special keys or buttons added such as volume controls for the audio. or launch the browser.

com 68 .Keyboard Connectors ‡ 5-pin DIN (PC/AT) ‡ 6-pin mini-DIN (PS/2) ‡ USB (Universal Serial Bus) PS/2 PC/AT USB 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.

com 69 . the plural can be either mice or mouses. and also because the motion of the pointer on the screen can be mouse like.Mice y A mouse is a handheld pointing device for computers. The mouse's 2D motion is typically translated into the motion of a cursor on the display. involving a small object fitted with one or more buttons and shaped to sit naturally under the hand. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. The underside of the mouse houses a device that detects the mouse's motion relative to the flat surface on which it sits. y It is called a mouse primarily because the cord on early models resembled the rodent's tail. In popular usage.

The standard mouse consists of several components:  A housing that you hold in your hand and move around on your desktop  A method of transmitting movement to the system: either ball/roller or optical sensors  Buttons (two or more.com 70 . conventional mice use a wire and connector. whereas wireless mice use a radio-frequency or infrared transceiver in both the mouse and a separate unit connected to the computer to interface the mouse to the computer 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. and often a wheel or toggle switch) for making selections  An interface for connecting the mouse to the system.

Onto-mechanical Mouse 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.com 71 .

Optical Mouse uses laser light to detect and transfer motion instead of ball and rollers .

com 73 .Pointing Device Interface ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Serial PS/2 USB Wireless (via USB port) 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.

Scanners  External drives  Digital cameras 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. It has a data transfer rate up to 60Mbps.Input/Output Ports y USB Universal Serial Bus is an external peripheral bus standard designed to bring Plug and Play capability for attaching peripherals externally to the PC. USB is a high-speed I/O port which enables you to connect several devices on a single USB port. Devices which connects to USB port:  Printers.com 74 .

Parallel Port USB Port 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.y Parallel Port .Parallel ports are normally used for connecting printers to a PC.com 75 . Even though that was their sole original intention. parallel ports have become much more useful over the years as a more general-purpose. relatively high-speed interface between devices (when compared to serial ports).

The asynchronous serial interface was designed as a system-to-system communications port. with each bit lining up in a series as the bits are sent.com 76 .y Serial Port . Asynchronous means that no synchronization or clocking signal is present. Devices that connects to a Serial Port  Serial Mouse  External Modem 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. so characters can be sent with any arbitrary time spacing. Serial refers to data that is sent over a single wire.

com 77 .10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.

Interface Cards Interface cards generally refer to devices which are inserted into the expansion slots on the motherboard to add capabilities to the computer such as playing music. Devices such as Sound card. connect to the internet and many more.com 78 . internal Modems. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. and Network Interface card are just some of the examples.

10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. Sound cards are necessary for nearly all CD-ROMs and have become commonplace on modern personal computers.com 79 . and manipulate sound stored on a disk. Sound cards enable the computer to output sound through speakers connected to the board. to record sound input from a microphone connected to the computer.Sound Cards An expansion board that enables a computer to manipulate and output sounds.

It can also accept sound from external sources such as microphone or stereo system for recording. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.Sound Cards converts digital signals on your computer to analog signal and send it out to the speakers.com 80 .

This leaves another slot open for other peripherals. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.com 81 .Current sound cards usually plug into a Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slot. Many of the computers available today incorporate the sound card as a chipset right on the motherboard. while some older or inexpensive cards may use the Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) bus.

com Line Out (no standard color) 82 .Sound Card Jacks Line IN (blue or light blue) MIDI / Game Port (gold) Mic IN (pink or red) 10/20/2007 Speaker Out (lime or green) josh_9_1_1@yahoo.

10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. most often a monitor utilizing a variety of display standards. Typically.com 83 .Video Cards A graphics card or video card is a component of a computer which is designed to convert a logical representation of an image stored in memory to a signal that can be used as input for a display medium. it also provides functionality to manipulate the logical image in memory.

This method requires the use of an AGP or a PCI expansion slot but provides the highest possible level of performance. Performance is generally less than with add-on video cards because older chipset designs are often used. and the largest choice of features.ideo Adapter Types The three ways computer systems connect to either CRT or LCD displays are as follows:  Add-on video cards. the greatest amount of memory. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.com 84 .  Video-only chipset on motherboard.

10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. but performance can also be very low. This has the lowest cost of any video solution. Motherboard chipset with integrated video.com 85 . especially for 3D gaming or other graphics-intensive applications. Resolution and color-depth options are also more limited than those available with add-on video cards.

Sound.ATX Motherboard with on-board Video. and Network Interface card.com 86 . 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.

10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.Network Interface Card A network card (also called network adapter.com 87 .) is a piece of computer hardware designed to provide for computer communication over a computer network. NIC. Most newer computers have a network interface built into the motherboard. network interface card. etc. so a separate network card is not required unless multiple interfaces are needed or some other type of network is used.

com 88 . The sending modem modulates the data into a signal that is compatible with the phone line. A modem is typically used to send digital data over a phone line. and the receiving modem demodulates the signal back into digital data. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.Modem The word "modem" is a contraction of the words modulator-demodulator.

10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. it get its power from the USB port.com 89 . Internal modems are installed on the expansion slot on the motherboard. USB modem doesn t require external power source.Modems come in two forms: External modem which are connected to your PC by means of Serial Port or USB Port. usually on the PCI slot.

Typical 56K Internal Modem External 56K USB Modem 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.com 90 .

10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.Power Supply The basic function of the power supply is to convert the type of electrical power available at the wall socket to the type the computer circuitry can use.3v. and +12v DC (direct current) power.com 91 . The power supply in a conventional desktop system is designed to convert either 115-volt (nominal) 60Hz AC (alternating current) or 230v (nominal) 50Hz AC power into +3. +5v.

power supplies.com 92 .Power Supply Form Factor Form factor is used to describe the size and format of PC motherboards. and add-in cards. also in regards to a human interface. The term can also be used refer to the shape of a housing or package or mechanical connection associated with a device or mechanism within the context of its interface with other devices or mechanisms. cases. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. but also of hard drives.

com 93 .Other power supply form factors are already obsolete. below are the still available in modern PC:  AT/Baby AT (being phased out)  ATX (new PC s have this type of power supply) 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.

com 94 .Power supply removed from the PC case 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.

Power Supply Output Voltage 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.com 95 .

All power supplies are generally sold based on their wattage rating. What people don't know is that this is the combined total wattage rating of the power supply at full load across each of the individual voltage lines. Since the power supply has multiple voltage outputs, each voltage rail will pull its own current from the power supply.

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Below is a chart of various PC case sizes and the recommended ratings of a power supply for that size case with the number of devices that could potentially be installed in the case:
Case Size Mini-tower Mid-tower Full tower Server tower Recommended Wattage 330-350 W 350-380 W 380-450 W 450-550 W Min. +12v Max Load 15 A 15 A 18 A 20A

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Monitor
A computer display, monitor or screen is a computer peripheral device capable of showing still or moving images generated by a computer and processed by a graphics card. Monitors generally conform to one or more display standards. Monitors can either be CRT (cathode ray tube or LCD (liquid crystal display)

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green. One end of the tube contains an electron gun assembly that projects three electron beams. CRTs consist of a vacuum tube enclosed in glass.CRT monitor The original display technology.com 99 . 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. one each for the red. the other end contains a screen with a phosphorous coating. and still the most popular. and blue phosphors used to create the colors you see onscreen. is cathode ray tube (CRT) technology the same technology used in television sets.

com 100 .10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.

com 101 . They have been used for years in the portable and notebook computing markets. LCD displays are lightweight. but recent developments have increase performance and size while reducing costs making them viable in the desktop environment. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. extremely thin and use much less power than CRT based monitors.LCD monitor LCD or flat panel computer displays are the latest and greatest offerings in the desktop computer industry.

Character-based applications (such as DOS command-line programs) require little resolution. The greater the number of pixels.com 102 . This quantity is expressed in the number of horizontal and vertical picture elements.Resolution is the amount of detail a monitor can render. contained in the screen. The resolution required depends on the application. whereas graphics intensive applications (such as desktop publishing and Windows software) require a great deal. the more detailed the images. or pixels. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.

com 103 .10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.

It also offers structural integrity for all the components in the system. it defines the cosmetic look of the system.Casing This is the box where all the components of the PC are installed. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. Most of all. The case provides electromagnetic insulation to keep radio radiation within.com 104 . keep the system cool by providing good ventilation. It also provide a hard mounting point for all the components is the system. Usually made of plastic and metal.

.Full Tower Mid-Tower Mini Tower Desktop Cube Cube Cases are designed for micro-ATX motherboards.

full-tower. mini-tower. mid-towers and LPX) 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.com 106 .Different case form factors: (right to left) desktop case.

Popular Software Used .

XP.Popular Software Used Operating System  Windows Family  Windows 98. ME. 2003. 2007  Windows Longhorn  Linux Operating System  Linux XP Desktop  Mandriva  Ubuntu Software Applications  Microsoft Office 2003. Vista  Windows 2000.com 108 . 2007  OpenOffice.Org 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.

y Other Software  Anti-virus  Network and Computer Games 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.com 109 .

. who was also a co-founder of Mandrakesoft and was fired from the company in 2006.Mandriva Linux (formerly Mandrakelinux or Mandrake Linux) is a Linux distribution created by Mandriva (formerly Mandrakesoft). It has since diverged from Red Hat and has included a number of original tools mostly to ease system configuration.0) in July 1998. The first release was based on Red Hat Linux (version 5. Mandriva Linux Mandriva Linux (at the time named Mandrake Linux) was originated by Gaël Duval.1) and KDE (version 1.

Ubuntu  (official IPA pronunciation /ùbúntú/ (oo-BOON-too)) is a predominantly desktoporiented Linux distribution. regular releases. 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo. Ubuntu Linux Ubuntu is sponsored by Canonical Ltd. based on Debian GNU/Linux but with a stronger focus on usability.com 111 . and ease of installation. owned by South African billionaire entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth.

multimedia extensions or matrix math extensions SSE .Streaming SIMD Extensions PAC = Pin array cartridge 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.System Management Mode MMX .Terms Used SMM .com 112 .

End of Part 1 10/20/2007 josh_9_1_1@yahoo.com 113 .

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