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** Rotating dumbbells in lab frame Moment of Inertial Tensor
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± Review of BCS and FCS systems ± Component notation for IEF

Physics 326 Spring 03 Lecture IX Page-1

**Moments and Products of Inertia
**

± Ix , Iy , Iz ± Pxy , Pxz , Pyz

**Moment of Inertia for a cube
**

± Cube centered on diagonal ± L not parallel to [ ± Required torque for rotation

Principal axes

± Axes where [ is parallel to L ± Eigenvector equation for PA

Rotating dumbbells

± Moment of intertia tensor ± L in BCS coordinates ± L viewed in FCS

Torque of the dumbbells Torque computed in BCS Precession of L in a space cone Cone precession of L requires torque Simple way view of dumbbell torque Centrifugal force description Axle forces I for a rectangular plate Reducing 3 p1 Product of inertia Iz=Ix+Iz Principal axes for a rectangular plate Secular equation method PA for square plate Properties of square plate PA solution Orthogonality of eigenvectors. Symmetric eigenvectors A nastier rectangular plate example

We next discuss the motion of the angular momentum in the FCS. We guess from symmetry one of the PA for the corner centered cube. We first compute the angular momentum and torque in the BCS. Finally we give a simple intuitive picture of why a rotating dumbbell requires a torque. L = I [ where I is tensor (a 3 by 3 matrix). We next compute the moment of inertia tensor for a rectangular plate and illustrate the formal way of finding the PA from the eigenvector equations solved using the secular equation. L is parallel to [ and no torque is required for a uniform rotation. We prove that two non-degenerate PA (i. We next illustrate many of the formal points with a simple system consisting of a dumbbell rotating at an angle with respect to its central axis. Two frames are used to describe the motion: a BCS frame which is fixed in the rotating body and a FCS frame which is fixed in space. We show that there are special rotation axes -.e. One finds the PA by solving an eigenvector equation similar to that Physics 326 Spring 03 Lecture IX Page-2 used in normal mode problems. . As a result. and a torque is required to keep an object uniformly rotating with a constant [. When the object is rotated about a PA. In the BCS . We show how to compute the I tensor for a uniform cube with an origin on one corner. PA with unequal eigenvalues ) are perpendicular.known as Principal Axes or PA. We first encounter what happens when the angular momentum is angled with respect to the angular velocity. L processes in a (space) cone about [.What will we do in this chapter? This is our first chapter on 3-d rotations. The diagonal components of this matrix are ³moments´ of inertia. and the off diagonal elements are 3 ³products´ of inertia.

t this instant r Ö Ö irst mass at r1 ! b cos E i b sin E k t later times the irst mass appears at ¨ x1 (t ) ¸ ¨ cos [ t sin [ t 0 ¸ ¨ b cos E ¸ © ¹ © ¹© ¹ y1 (t ) ¹ ! © sin [ t cos [ t 0 ¹ © 0 ¹ © © z (t ) ¹ © 0 0 1 ¹ © b sin E ¹ ª 1 º ª ºª º & x1 ! b cos E cos [ t p x1 ! [ b cosE sin [ t & y1 ! b cos E sin [ t p y1 ! [ b cos E cos [ t r r L1 ! L2 ! mb 2[ .Physics 326 Spring 03 Lecture IX Page-3 r [ E Lab frame motion of a rotating dumbbell Ö k At t=0 both angular momenta are given by b b m Ö j Ö i r r r L ! r v mv ! b cos E 0 Ö i Ö j 0 mb[ cos E Ö k b sin E 0 m We vie motion in the lab.

sin E cos E . cos2 E or r r r L ! L1 L2 ! 2 mb 2[ . 0.

In the lab its components are given at later times by: ¨ L x ¸ ¨ cos [ t © ¹ © © L y ¹ ! © sin [ t ©L ¹ © 0 ª zº ª sin [ t cos [ 0 0 ¸ ¨ mb 2[ sin 2E ¸ ¹ ¹© 0¹© 0 ¹ 1 ¹ © 2mb 2[ cos2 E ¹ ºª º L x ! mb 2[ sin 2E cos [ t L y ! mb 2[ sin 2E sin [ t L z ! 2mb 2[ cos2 E & z1 ! b sin E p z1 ! 0 Hence initially: r r @ v1 (0) ! b[ cos E Ö and v2 (0) ! b[ cosE Ö j j . cos 2 E r The L vector is in the plane of the dumbbell and rotates along with it. sin E cos E . 0.

the angular momenta.r [ E Torques in both frames Ö k Ö i Ö j Physics 326 Spring 03 Lecture IX Page-4 ultiplying this out sho s a constant torque r o X ! mb 2[ 2 sin 2E Ö in the dumbbell rame. . and the torque rotate together with the angular momentum vector forming a cone. j r [ r We can take the derivatives of L to find the torques in the lab frame d cos [ t ! mb 2[ 2 sin 2E sin [ t X x ! mb 2[ sin 2E dt d sin [ t ! mb 2[ 2 sin 2E cos [ t X y ! mb 2[ sin 2E dt d 2mb 2[ cos2 E !0 Xz ! dt r We can write X components in the dumbbell frame using the inverse rotation matrix ¨ X 'x ¸ ¨ cos [ t © ¹ © X 'y ¹ ! mb 2[ 2 sin 2E © sin [ t © ©X ' ¹ © 0 ª zº ª r X r E L Ö k' Ö i' Ö' j sin [ t 0 ¸ ¨ sin [ t ¸ ¹© ¹ cos [ 0 ¹ © cos [ t ¹ 0 1¹© 0 ¹ ºª º The above figure shows that dumbbell. We will call this the body cone The torque lies tangent to the base of the cone. But there must be an easier way of getting these results! It is much easier using a concept of the moment of inertia tensor.

Physics 326 Spring 03 Lecture IX Page-5 Thus r r r r ! § i mi ri v .Moment of Inertial Tensor We return to problem of rotations of a rigid body which we first discussed in our System Chapter. Recall that two coordinate systems are used: FCS coordinates which are with respect to a fixed point in an inertial coordinate system and BCS or body centered coordinate system which rotates with the rigid body with an angular velocity [. but write all vector components in the BCS. The traditional thing is to write the angular momentum L with respect to the fixed system.

all components are in coordinates.Using the r r r r r r r [ ! § i mi[ .[ v ri here unless speci ied other ise.

ri gri mi ri .

ri g r We ish to actor out [ and use component notation ith implied summation: r r ! § i mi[E .

rK( i ) rK( i ) mi rE( i ) rF( i )[ F E r (i) (i) (i) (i) r § i mi[ F H EF .

rK rK mi rE rF [ F r r ! « § i mi .

H EF rK( i ) rK( i ) rE( i ) rF( i ) » [ F ! IEF [ F ½ here IEF ! § i mi .

We make extensive use of the relation r «d» «d» ! ¬ ¼ [ v ? ABCS ¬ dt ¼ ½ FCS dt ½ BCS which we first used in acceleration reference frames in Physics 225.H EF rK( i ) rK( i ) rE( i ) rF( i ) I becomes a 3v3 matrix (or 2nd rank tensor) that multiplies the [ vector to give the L vector rather than a simple scalar such as mass. ence L will not lie parallel to [ which creates interesting new complications as we will see. The angular momentum for a system is r r r L ! § i mi ri v vi(FCS) where r r r r & vi( ) ! ri [ v ri or a rigid body r r r r & ! 0 and v ( ) ! [ v r ri i i .

Moments and Products of Inertia IEF ! § i mi .

I 22 .H EF rK( i ) rK( i ) rE( i ) rF( i ) First consider the diagonal elements or I11 . I 33 I11 ! I x ! § i mi .

H 11rK( i ) rK( i ) r1( i ) r1( i ) Physics 326 Spring 03 Lecture IX Page-6 ¨ Ix © I ! © Pxy © Pxz ª 2 i 2 i Pxy Iy Pyz Pxz ¸ ¹ Pyz ¹ Iz ¹ º xi yi xi2 zi2 § m .

x i i 2 i y z xi xi ! § i mi y z 2 i 2 i .

and I 22 ! I y ! § i mi .

xi2 zi2 I 33 ! I z ! § i mi .

y.xi2 yi2 These are just the ordinary I about the x.z axes On to the off-diagonal elements where H EF ! 0 Thus IEF ! § i mi .

r r (i) (i) E F ¨ yi2 zi2 © I ! § i mi © xi yi © xi zi ª z yi zi xi zi ¸ ¹ yi zi ¹ xi2 yi2 ¹ º There are b y b b x three "products of inertia. I13 ! Pxz ! § i mi xi zi I 23 ! Pyz ! § i mi yi zi Lets compute the moment of inertia tensor of a uniform density cube of dimension b about a corner. We need to compute 3 moments of inertia and 3 products of inertia. . I12 ! Pxy ! § i mi xi yi .

Moment of Inertia for a cube z b b b b 0 b 0 0 b 0 0 Physics 326 Spring 03 Lecture IX Page-7 y b b b b x b I x ! V ´ dx ´ dy ´ dz .

or example [ ! .y 2 z 2 ! V ´ dx ´ dy ´ dz z 2 V ´ dx ´ dz ´ dy y 2 ! 0 0 0 3 b 3 0 b b ¸ ¹ yz ¹ Iy yz Iz ¹ º ¨ 2 / 3 1/ 4 1/ 4 ¸ ¨ 8 3 3 ¸ 2 © ¹ mb © ¹ 3 8 3 ¹ I ! mb 2 © 1/ 4 2 / 3 1/ 4 ¹ ! © © 1/ 4 1/ 4 2 / 3 ¹ 12 © 3 3 8 ¹ ª º ª º r round most axes through the corner is not r r to [ .

0.[ 0 0 xy ¨ Ix © I ! © xy © ª xz xz ¨ 8 3 3 ¸¨ 1 ¸ ¨8¸ 2 r mb 2[ © ¹© ¹ mb [ © ¹ «z » «y » 3 8 3 ¹© 0 ¹ ! 3 L! V vbvbv ¬ ¼ V vbvbv ¬ ¼ 12 © 12 © ¹ © 3 3 8 ¹© 0 ¹ © 3 ¹ 3 ½0 3 ½0 ª ºª º ª º 3 2 r r 2mb b «d» «d» 3 pplying ¬ ¼ ! ¬ ¼ [ v ? A to ! 2 V v b v b v Since m ! V b . I x ! dt ½ dt ½ 3 3 r « r» r r r & & 2mb 2 X ! ¬ L ¼ ! I [ [ v L . e see that a torque is By symmetry I x ! I y ! I z ! ½ 3 required to rotate the cube about (1.0) axis 2 b 2 b r b b b & «x » «y » even or uni orm rotation ([ ! 0). In coords: Pxy ! V dz dx x dy y ! V b ¬ ¼ ¬ ¼ ! 0 0 0 Ö Ö Ö k i j 2 ½0 2 ½0 2 2 m[ 2b 2 r mb [ 5 2 X ! 1 0 0 ! b mb .

0 3 3 12 12 by symmetry Pxy ! Pyz ! Pxz V p Pxy ! 8 3 3 4 4 ´ ´ ´ ¢¡ ¢¡ ¢¡£ ¢¡£ .

called principal r r axes.Principal axes owever there are some axes . one principal r axis is the diagonal or [ =[ .where L P [ . For the cube.

1 1 1 ¨ 8 3 3 ¸ ¨ 1 ¸ ¨ 1¸ 2 r mb 2[ © ¹ © ¹ mb [ © ¹ L! 3 8 3 ¹ © 1¹ ! © © 1¹ 12 © 6 © ¹ 3 3 8 ¹ © 1¹ ª ºª º ª 1º r We see that [ =[ .

The eigenvalue Pi is the moment of intertia about the principal r & axis (or I ). A uniform rotation ([ ) about a i Physics 326 Spring 03 Lecture IX Page-8 z b b y As a second example. we will work out I for the case where the cube is centered on the origin of the BCS x b Ix ! V ´ V´ V´ b/2 b / 2 b/2 b / 2 b/2 dx ´ dx ´ b / 2 b/2 dx ´ b/2 b / 2 b/2 b / 2 dy ´ dz ´ b / 2 b/2 dy ´ b/2 b / 2 dz .1 1 1 acts as an eigenvector r r of I in the sense I [ i ! Pi[ i .

the 3 principal axes are B .y 2 z 2 ! b / 2 b/2 dz z 2 dy y 2 ! 3 b/2 principal axis requires no external torque since r r r r r r & X ! [ v L ! 0 if [ P L and [ ! 0. We can recycle our eigenvector t echniques learned for normal modes to find the principal axes. For example. Because such rotations require no torque these are often preferred axes for rotation to minimize bearing wear. «z » «y » V vbvbv¬ ¼ V vbvbv ¬ ¼ 3 ½ b / 2 3 ½ b / 2 b3 mb2 4 ! v V vbvbv ! ! I y ! Iz 3 8 6 b/2 b/2 b/2 Pxy ! V ´ dz ´ dx x ´ dy y ! 0 !Pyz !Pxz 3 b / 2 2 b / 2 b / 2 b / 2 b/2 ¨ 1 0 0¸ mb © r mb2 r ¹ I! © 0 1 0 ¹ Since I [ ! 6 [ . all 6 © ¹ ª 0 0 1º axes are principal axes for the centered cube! .

Rotating dumbbells in PA system z' 2b ¨0 0 0¸ y' © ¹ I ! 2mb 2 © 0 1 0 ¹ ©0 0 1¹ ª º x' r [ Physics 326 Spring 03 Lecture IX Page-9 z' b E These are two point masses a distance 2b apart. Lets compute L in the BCS frame. Since L points along z¶ it rotates with the body in a cone with a 1/2 angle of E about the vertical when viewed in the FCS. and the cross product of r and v lies along the z¶ axis which is transverse to the dumbbell axis. L is stationary in the BCS system and has the value that we computed from the I tensor. Since there is only separation of the masses along the x¶ axis there are no products of inertia. I¶ve doubled the L of one of the point masses. ¨ 0 0 0 ¸ ¨ [ sin E ¸ r r © ¹© ¹ L ! I [ ! 2mb2 © 0 1 0 ¹ © 0 ¹ © 0 0 1 ¹ © [ cos E ¹ ª ºª º r Ö L ! 2mb2[ cos E k We also easily view this system in the FCS but with BCS unit vectors The upper mass moves into the plane of the paper and the lower mass moves out of the plane of the paper with indicated velocities. The two moments of inertia are 2vmb2 e r [ Ö rb r rr ! b i ' L ! 2mr v v Ö ! 2mb i 'v b[ cos E Ö ' j Ö ! 2mb 2[ cos E k ' x r v ! [ b cos E Ö ' j r z' E x ' We now rotate the dumbbell at an angle E with with respect to x¶. The r vector points along the dumbbell. .

it rotates around [ in a cone of 1/2 angle E about the vertical axis. Since L points along the z¶ axis. r r r r &! 0 and X ! [ v L or uniform motion [ Ö Ö Ö' i' j k' r r r X ! [ v L ! 2mb 2[ 2 sin E 0 cos E r [ (t (L 2mb 2[ cos E sin E LB The change (L is again out o the -y¶ axis or out of the plane of the paper. X points along the hich is same ans er as be ore. X rotates ith the dumbbells as ell and is al ays tangent to the rim o the cone. We can also view the L vector in the FCS. The component of L along [ remains constant while the component in the horizontal plane rotates in a circle. . r or small (t. plane o the paper hen vie ed rom side.r [ z' E Torque of the dumbbells r x' r Ö L ! 2mb 2[ cos E k ' [ Physics 326 Spring 03 Lecture IX Page-10 r L 2mb 2[ cos E E r We begin by computing X using S. (L } LB[ (t and thus r 0 0 cos E (L r 2 2 X! ! LB[ ! 2mb 2[ 2 cos E sin E Ö' X ! 2mb [ sin E cos E j (t r ence at the instant depicted.

r [ b sin E b cos E E A final way of viewing dumbbell torque mrB[ 2 ! m .

b sin E [ 2 Physics 326 Spring 03 Lecture IX Page-11 The torque about the center point is r r X =2r v F=2 .

b cosE m .

Each force is a transverse distance of b cos E from the pivot point. ow the required torque is conveyed to the dumbbell system? Imagine welding the angled axis to a vertical axle which is held in place by a ring of ball bearings. they undergo centripetal acceleration and a the rotation is irrelevant to the bearing force. r [ . Because the two masses Note that the direction of are travelling in a circle of radius b sin E. centripetal force of F = m b [ sin Eacts on each mass.b sinE [ 2 ! 2mb 2[ 2 sin E cos E It is easy to see from the right hand rule that the torque is directed out of the paper. We can crudely think of the bearings countering the torque created by the centrifugal force as the dumbbell tries to align itself in the horizontal plane via centrifugal force. The purple bearings supply this torque. b m(b sin E )[ 2 b cos E This is perhaps the simplest way of visualizing the torque required to uniformly rotate the dumbbell. There is a torque directed out of the plane of the paper.

b ! 0 W ab 3 mb 2 ma 2 ! ! . Ix ! W 2 2 Physics 326 Spring 03 Lecture IX Page-12 y b ¨ yi zi © I ! § i mi © xi yi © x z i i ª xi yi 2 i x z yi zi 2 i xi zi ¸ ¹ yi zi ¹ xi2 yi2 ¹ º a x «y » dx ´ y dy ! W a ¬ ¼ ´ 3½ a b 3 2 0 0 For the plate in the z=0 plane. all of the products of inertia involving z vanish. A plate is a nice way of illustrating the techniques since it essentially only involves 2v2 matrices and the secular equation is just a (solvable) quadratic.I for a rectangular plate We show how to find the moment of inertia and principal axis for a rectangular plate. Since the plate has no extent in the z axis. Similarly I y ! 3 3 3 «x » «y » Pxy ! W ´ x dx ´ y dy ! W a ¬ ¼ ¬ ¼ 0 0 2 ½0 2 ½0 a b 2 2 a b ¨ Ix 0 ¸ xy © ¹ 0 ¹ I ! © xy Iy © 0 0 Ix I y ¹ ª º We also note that I z ! I x I y for a plate in the x-y plane. ets see hy I x ! § i mi . we need to compute 3 integrals rather than 6 for the general extended object. We place the plate in the z=0 plane.

yi2 zi2 p § i mi yi2 I z ! § i mi .

xi2 yi2 p I x I y I y ! § i mi .

xi2 zi2 p § i mi xi2 W a 2b 2 mab ! ! 4 4 ¨ 4b 2 3ab ¸ 0 ¹ m© 2 I ! © 3ab 4a 0 ¹ 12 © 2 2 ¹ © 0 0 4 .

a b ¹ ª º .

one principal axis (P ) is the z-axis.Principal axes for a rectangular plate ¨ 4b 2 3ab ¸ 0 ¹ m© 2 0 I ! © 3ab 4a ¹ 12 © 2 2 ¹ © 0 0 4 a b ¹ ª º Since there is no mixing bet een the z axes and another axis. Lets make sure. The criteria r r is I [ P[ here P is the moment o inertia about the . ¨ 4b 2 3ab ¸¨ 0¸ 0 ¹© ¹ m© 2 0 © 3ab 4a ¹© 0¹ ! 12 © 2 2 ¹©1¹ © 0 0 4 a b ¹ª º ª º ¨0¸ m4 a 2 b 2 © ¹ ©0¹ 12 ©1¹ ª º The other are transverse to the .

Physics 326 Spring 03 Lecture IX Page-13 The technique for finding the other PA or eigenvectors begins by solving the secular equation for the eigenvalues P .0.1 and there ore lie in ths x-y plane. Lets review r r this procedure I [ =P[ can be written as r .0.

The only way to get a solution r other than [ =0 is to make . I-P 1 [ =0.

Lets begin with the case of a ! b. . Rather than this lets work some specific cases. The secular equation reads: -m3ab m 4b 2 P 12 12 ! 0 We could solve this 2 -m3ab m 4a P 12 12 for P in general since it is a quadratic equation. We only need consider the x-y components since only these mix. I-P 1 singular or I-P 1 =0.

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Thus [ ! .¨ 4 3 ¸ ¨ 1 ¸ ¨ 4 3 x ¸ ¨ 1¸ !© ! 7© ¹ © ¹© ¹ ¹ ª 3 4 º ª x º ª 3 4 x º ª xº p 4 3x ! 7 p x ! 1 2 2 2 8ma ma 7 ma ote that § P ! Tr I ! .

Here is ho . r ma 2 % I '. % 2 12 12 12 This is true in general. We prove it later. 1 has P 7 P! .1. We rite . ¸ ¹ ma 2 ¨ 4 3 ¸ ¹! © ¹ ¹ 12 ª 3 4 º ¹ º ma 2 I find it easier to not carry along the 12 part by factoring it out.

P ' 1 % 3 4P %2 32 ! 0 ! 0 p 4P % 3 4 P % % % p 4 P 3 4 P 3 ! 0 p P ! 1 .P 1 [ ! 0 here P ! P 12 We have a simple secular equation I '.P 1 [ ! 0 Let I ! 12 r ma 2 % % % as I . 7 or or a ! b e have ¨ m 4a 2 -m3a 2 © 12 I ! © 12 2 © -m3a m4 a 2 © ª 12 12 PA for square plate Physics 326 Spring 03 Lecture IX Page-14 % Having ound P values e can solve or r [ . I typiclly do this by inserting [ ! (1. x ) r r % % into I [ ! P[ and solving or x. We % begin ith P 1: ¨ 4 3 ¸ ¨ 1 ¸ ¨ 4 3 x ¸ ¨ 1 ¸ © ¹© ¹ ! © ¹ ! 1© ¹ ª 3 4 º ª x º ª 3 4 x º ª x º or 4 3 x ! 1 p x ! 1. I . We get .

same solution or the second equation % 3 4 x ! x p x ! 1. [ ! .

1.1 has P 1 1 % n to the eigenvector ith P 1: .

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Its apparent why I1 is small and I3 is large given how far the mass is from each PA.y ma 2 I1 ! 12 Properties of square plate PA solution Here is a graphic summary of the 3 PA and their Ii values. Physics 326 Spring 03 Lecture IX Page-15 a e 8ma 2 I3 ! 12 x a 7ma 2 I2 ! 12 xy ¸ ¨ 1¸ ¨ I0 ¨ 1¸ © ¹ © ¹ ! .

I 0 xy © ¹ I 0 º ª 1º ª 1º ª xy xy ¸ ¨ 1 ¸ ¨ I0 ¨1¸ © ¹ © ¹ ! .

I 0 xy © ¹ I 0 º ª 1 º ª 1 º ª xy ote P1 P2 ! I 0 xy I 0 xy ! Tr I This choice of PA will work for any symmetric plate where Ix=Iy =I0 as shown below: r r r r Let I [ i ! Pi[ i and I [ j ! P j[ j and I T ! I . r r r r r Mult 1st eqn by [ T : [ T I [ i ! Pi [ T [ i j j j r Mult 2nd eqn by [ iT : r r r r [ iT I [ j ! P j[ iT [ j Transpose both sides: rT r T rT r T .

[ i I [ j ! P j .

[ i [ j r r r r r r [ T I T[ i ! [ T I [ i ! P j [ T[ i j j j r r Equating both expressions for [ T I [ i j r r r r r r [ T I [ i ! Pi [ T [ i ! P j [ T [ . j j j r r Thus .

Pi P j [ T [ i ! 0.e. . j r r r r If Pi { P j we conclude [ T [ i ! [ j g i ! 0 [ j We also see that the 3 PA are orthogonal as was the case with normal mode eigenvectors. For example for the centered cube all eigenvalues are I= mb2/6 any three axes (perpendicular or not) will be PA. If the two eigenvectors are degenerate (i. It relies on symmetry of I tensor. equal) they are not necessarily transverse. The proof is very similar.

.. or eigenvectors. Lets illustrate this for the square plate.. nder rotations I (2) ' ! .. § mi RKE rE(i ) RHF rF(i ) ! KH 1 1 r r e1 w .Diagonalization Physics 326 Spring 03 Lecture IX Page-16 The matrix required to rotate to the principle axis system is constructed from (normalized) matrix. It is easy to show that I ' ! RIR t . § mi rE rF of inertia about the PA. The eigenvalues are the moments (2) (i ) (i ) example consider the piece I EF ! .

1 1 ! .

1 1 . e2 ! .

1 1 t I (2) ' ! .. RKE .

2 2 KH 1 ¨1 1 ¸ ma 2 ¨ 4 3 ¸ The irst piece trans orms the same ay. ultiply by R and use R R ! 1 I'=RIR ! © ¹© ¹© ¹ 2 12 ª 1 1 º ª 3 4 º ª1 1 º t t t t t to get IR ! R I ' or IEF RFK ! R EF PK H FK ! PK R EK 1 ma 2 ¨ 1 1 ¸ ¨ 1 7 ¸ ma 2 ¨ 1 0 ¸ ! © ¹© ¹! © ¹ 2 12 ª 1 1º ª 1 7 º 12 ª 0 7 º r r mass transform as ri ' ! Rri where Consider building R t out of 3 column vectors r r r r (K ) r (K ) t t The PA system can be thought of as an R t ! .§ mi rE( i ) rF( i ) RFH p I (2) ' ! RI (2) R t . I= © ¹ 1 1 º 12 ª 3 4 º 2ª or that diagonalizes I' such that I'EF ! PF H EF . t t t 1 ma 2 ¨ 1 1 ¸ ¨ 4 3 ¸ ¨ 1 1 ¸ t Want RIR ! I '. earch Thus R= © ¹ .

How does I transform under rotations? R= © e2 ¹ I e (K ) ! PK e (K ) and I'= © 0 P2 0 ¹ rt ©0 0 P ¹ © e3 ¹ nder a rotation the diplacements of each 3º ª ª º is a rotation .e (1) e (2) e (3) p EK ! eE or FK ! eF alternative coordinate system that is rotated r (K ) r (K ) t and IEF FK ! PK tEK p IEF eF ! PK eE with respect to the original BCS system. nder r this rotation. all of the products of inertia ¨ e1t ¸ ¨ P1 0 0 ¸ ©rt ¹ r r © ¹ vanish.

Diagonalization and Trace Theorem Note this R cannot be written as a actual 1 ¨ 1 1 ¸ ¨ cos E sin E ¸ © ¹{© ¹ 2 ª 1 1º ª sin E cos E º This R is an "improper" rotation. Had we rotation: R= r 1 1 ¨ 1 1¸ written e= .

Problem was initial PA choice formed a left handed coord sys. Tr I ' ! Tr RIR t ! Tr R IR t ! Tr IR t R ! Tr I The trace theorem almost ollo s rom inspection: Tr ( AB ) ! . Physics 326 Spring 03 Lecture IX Page-17 8ma 2 We noted TrI ! § IEE ! TrI ' ! § Pi ! .1 1 then R= © ¹ 2 2 ª 1 1º corresponding to E ! . 12 asy to prove rom trace theorem Tr AB ! Tr BA.

AB EE ! AEF BF a ! BF a AEF ! .

BA FF ! Tr BA hecking the trace is a great ay to check a calculation! .

y x' x a a e y' Our eigenvector prescription technically gives an othogonal matrix but not necessarily a proper rotation matrix! .

Let a ! 2b ¨ m 4b © 12 I !© © -m3ab © ª 12 2 Physics 326 Spring 03 Lecture IX Page-18 .A nastier rectangular plate example Here is a typical ugly problem.

-m3ab ¸ 2 ¹ 12 ¹ mb ¨ 2 3 ¸ ! © ¹ 2 6 ª 3 8 º m 4a ¹ ¹ 12 º % 2 P 3 mb 2 % % ¨ 2 3 ¸ !0 I! I . I !© ¹p % 3 8 º 6 3 8 P ª % % % % 2 P 8 P 9 ! 0 p P 2 10P 7 ! 0 r n to [ 2 % ith P2 ! 5 3 2 ¨ 2 3 ¸ ¨ 1 ¸ ¨ 1¸ ! 5 3 2 © ¹ p 2 3x ! 5 3 2 © ¹© ¹ ª 3 8 º ª x º ª xº p x ! 2 1 ¨ 1 ¸ % © ¹ has P2 ! 5 3 2 ª 2 1º r r [ Quick checks: [1 g 2 ! 1 2 1 1 2 ! 0 r Thus [ 2 .

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% % % 10 s 72 P1 P2 ! 5 3 2 5 3 2 ! 10 ! TrI ! ! 5s3 2 2 2 ¨1¸ ¨ 2 3 ¸ ¨ 1 ¸ mb 2 5 3 2 y © ¹ © ¹ ! 5 3 2 © ¹ p 2 3x ! 5 3 2 I1 ! ª xº ª 3 8 º ª x º 6 % P! 10 s 100 4 .

7 .

p x ! 1 2 b e 5mb 2 I3 ! 3 r ¨ 1 ¸ % Thus [1 = © ¹ has P ! 5 3 2 ª 1 2 º mb 2 or P ! 5 3 2 6 x 2b I2 ! mb 2 5 3 2 6 .

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