Training Session on Energy Equipment

Thermal Systems/Fuels

Fuels & Combustion
Presentation from the “Energy Efficiency Guide for Industry in Asia” www.energyefficiencyasia.org

1 © UNEP 2006

Training Agenda: Fuels & Combustion
Thermal Systems/Fuels
Introduction Type of fuels Performance evaluation Energy efficiency opportunities

2 © UNEP 2006

Introduction The Formation of Fuels
• Solar energy is converted to chemical energy through photo-synthesis in plants • Energy produced by burning wood or fossil fuels • Fossil fuels: coal, oil and natural gas
3 © UNEP 2006

Thermal Systems/Fuels

Training Agenda: Fuels & Combustion
Thermal Systems/Fuels
Introduction Type of fuels Performance evaluation Energy efficiency opportunities

4 © UNEP 2006

Type of Fuels Liquid Fuels  Usage • Used extensively in industrial applications Thermal Systems/Fuels  Examples • Furnace oil • Light diesel oil • Petrol • Kerosine • Ethanol • LSHS (low sulphur heavy stock) 5 © UNEP 2006 .

• kg/m3 • Useful for determining fuel quantity and quality Thermal Systems/Fuels 6 © UNEP 2006 .Type of Fuels Liquid Fuels  Density • Ratio of the fuel’s mass to its volume at 15 oC.

95 LSHS (Low Sulphur Heavy Stock) 0.Type of Fuels Liquid Fuels  Specific gravity • Ratio of weight of oil volume to weight of same water volume at a given temperature • Specific gravity of water is 1 • Hydrometer used to measure Table 1.89-0. Specific gravity of various fuel oils (adapted from Thermax India Ltd.) Fuel oil type Specific Gravity LDO (Light Diesel Oil) 0.85-0.98 7 © UNEP 2006 Thermal Systems/Fuels .88-0.87 Furnace oil 0.

Type of Fuels Liquid Fuels  Viscosity • Measure of fuel’s internal resistance to flow • Most important characteristic for storage and use • Decreases as temperature increases Thermal Systems/Fuels  Flash point • Lowest temperature at which a fuel can be heated so that the vapour gives off flashes when an open flame is passes over it • Flash point of furnace oil: 66oC 8 © UNEP 2006 .

Type of Fuels Liquid Fuels  Pour point • Lowest temperature at which fuel will flow • Indication of temperature at which fuel can be pumped Thermal Systems/Fuels  Specific heat • kCal needed to raise temperature of 1 kg oil by 1oC (kcal/kgoC) • Indicates how much steam/electricity it takes to heat oil to a desired temperature 9 © UNEP 2006 .

Type of Fuels Liquid Fuels  Calorific value • Heat or energy produced • Gross calorific value (GCV): vapour is fully condensed • Net calorific value (NCV): water is not fully condensed Fuel Oil Kerosene Diesel Oil L.500 10.D.700 10.O Furnace Oil LSHS Gross Calorific Value (kCal/kg) 11.100 10.800 10.600 Thermal Systems/Fuels 10 © UNEP 2006 .

0.Type of Fuels Liquid Fuels  Sulphur content • Depends on source of crude oil and less on the refining process • Furnace oil: 2-4 % sulphur • Sulphuric acid causes corrosion Thermal Systems/Fuels  Ash content • Inorganic material in fuel • Typically 0.07% • Corrosion of burner tips and damage to materials /equipments at high temperatures 11 © UNEP 2006 .03 .

Type of Fuels Liquid Fuels  Carbon residue • Tendency of oil to deposit a carbonaceous solid residue on a hot surface • Residual oil: >1% carbon residue Thermal Systems/Fuels  Water content • Normally low in furnace oil supplied (<1% at refinery) • Free or emulsified form • Can damage furnace surface and impact flame 12 © UNEP 2006 .

Type of Fuels Liquid Fuels  Storage of fuels • Store in cylindrical tanks above or below the ground • Recommended storage: >10 days of normal consumption • Cleaning at regular intervals Thermal Systems/Fuels 13 © UNEP 2006 .

8 0.25 14 0. Sulphur Total.98 93 72 10600 0.D.95 66 20 10500 0. % Wt.5 1. g/cc at 150C) Flash Point (0C) Pour Point (0C) G.V.S.25 < 0.) Thermal Systems/Fuels Properties Furnace Oil Density (Approx.87 66 18 10700 0.85-0. 0.89-0.1 Fuel Oils L.O 0. Max. Water Content. Max.25 < 4. % Wt. Max. Max.Type of Fuels Liquid Fuels Typical specifications of fuel oils (adapted from Thermax India Ltd.1 L.02 © UNEP 2006 . (Kcal/kg) Sediment. % Vol.C.1 < 1.S 0.0 1.0 0.88-0.0 0. Ash % Wt.H.

anthracite. and sub-bituminous 15 © UNEP 2006 Thermal Systems/Fuels . semi-bituminous.Type of Fuels Solid Fuels  Coal classification • Anthracite: hard and geologically the oldest • Bituminous • Lignite: soft coal and the youngest • Further classification: semi.

Type of Fuels Solid Fuels  Physical properties • Heating or calorific value (GCV) • Moisture content • Volatile matter • Ash Thermal Systems/Fuels  Chemical properties • Chemical constituents: carbon. 16 oxygen. hydrogen. sulphur © UNEP 2006 .

000 Indonesian South Coal African Coal 5.500 Indian Coal 4.000 Thermal Systems/Fuels GCV (kCal/kg) 17 © UNEP 2006 .Type of Fuels Solid Fuels (Physical properties)  Heating or calorific value • The typical GVCs for various coals are: Parameter Lignite (Dry Basis) 4.500 6.

Type of Fuels Solid Fuels (Physical properties)  Moisture content • % of moisture in fuel (0. hydrocarbons. other • Typically 25-35% • Easy ignition with high volatile matter • Weight loss from heated then cooled crushed coal © UNEP 2006 18 .5 – 10%) • Reduces heating value of fuel • Weight loss from heated and then cooled powdered raw coal Thermal Systems/Fuels  Volatile matter • Methane. CO. hydrogen.

oxygen. nitrogen residues • Heat generator during combustion 19 © UNEP 2006 . sulphur.Type of Fuels Solid Fuels (Physical properties)  Ash • Impurity that will not burn (5-40%) • Important for design of furnace • Ash = residue after combustion Thermal Systems/Fuels  Fixed carbon • Fixed carbon = 100 – (moisture + volatile matter + ash) • Carbon + hydrogen.

hydrogen. moisture and ash • Useful to find out heating value (GCV) • Simple analysis equipment  Ultimate analysis of coal • Determines all coal component elements: carbon. flue duct design) • Laboratory analysis 20 © UNEP 2006 . volatile matter. oxygen.Type of Fuels Solid Fuels (Physical properties) Thermal Systems/Fuels  Proximate analysis of coal • Determines only fixed carbon.g flame temperature. sulphur. other • Useful for furnace design (e.

70 34.5 17 Moisture Ash Volatile matter Fixed Carbon 13.79 23.22 21 © UNEP 2006 .43 Coal 8.98 38.63 20.79 46.99 29.Type of Fuels Solid Fuels (Physical properties)  Proximate analysis Typical proximate analysis of various coals (%) Indian Indonesian South African Coal 5.69 Thermal Systems/Fuels Coal 9.28 51.

% 5.41 9. % 9.76 1.56 11.99 58.63 41.1 x Ash) Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Sulphur Oxygen Indian Coal.88 Thermal Systems/Fuels GCV (kCal/kg) 4000 5500 22 © UNEP 2006 .Type of Fuels Solid Fuels (Chemical Properties)  Ultimate analysis Typical ultimate analysis of coal (%) Parameter Moisture Mineral Matter (1.22 0.43 13.89 Indonesian Coal.96 4.98 38.16 1.02 0.11 2.

Handling & Preparation • Storage to minimize carpet loss and loss due to spontaneous combustion • Reduce carpet loss: a) a hard surface b) standard concrete/brick storage bays • Coal preparation before use is important for good combustion Thermal Systems/Fuels 23 © UNEP 2006 .Type of Fuels Solid Fuels (Chemical Properties)  Storage.

Type of Fuels Gaseous Fuels  Advantages of gaseous fuels • Least amount of handling • Simplest burners systems • Burner systems require least maintenance • Environmental benefits: lowest GHG and other emissions 24 © UNEP 2006 Thermal Systems/Fuels .

Type of Fuels Gaseous Fuels  Classification of gaseous fuels (A) Fuels naturally found in nature -Natural gas -Methane from coal mines (B) Fuel gases made from solid fuel -Gases derived from coal -Gases derived from waste and biomass -From other industrial processes (C) Gases made from petroleum -Liquefied Petroleum gas (LPG) -Refinery gases -Gases from oil gasification (D) Gases from some fermentation Thermal Systems/Fuels 25 © UNEP 2006 .

460 0.6 1.52 1.Type of Fuels Gaseous Fuels  Calorific value • Fuel should be compared based on the net calorific value (NCV).290 0.96 Thermal Systems/Fuels Higher Heating Value kCal/Nm3 9350 22200 28500 Air/Fuel ratio Flame m3/m3 Temp oC 10 25 32 1954 1967 1973 Flame speed m/s 0. especially natural gas Typical physical and chemical properties of various gaseous fuels Fuel Gas Relative Density Natural Gas Propane Butane 0.870 26 © UNEP 2006 .

butane and unsaturates. lighter C2 Thermal Systems/Fuels and heavier C5 fractions • Hydrocarbons are gaseous at atmospheric pressure but can be condensed to liquid state • LPG vapour is denser than air: leaking gases can flow long distances from the source 27 © UNEP 2006 .Type of Fuels Gaseous Fuels  Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) • Propane.

other gases • High calorific value fuel • Does not require storage facilities • No sulphur • Mixes readily with air without producing smoke or soot Thermal Systems/Fuels 28 © UNEP 2006 . propane. butane. carbon dioxide. pentane. nitrogen.Type of Fuels Gaseous Fuels  Natural gas • Methane: 95% • Remaing 5%: ethane.

89 1.63 5.41 9.Type of Fuels Comparing Fuels Fuel Oil Carbon Hydrogen Sulphur Oxygen Nitrogen Ash Water 84 12 3 1 Trace Trace Trace Thermal Systems/Fuels Coal 41.22 38.75 29 © UNEP 2006 .76 0.11 2.98 Natural Gas 74 25 Trace 0.

Training Agenda: Fuels & Combustion Thermal Systems/Fuels Introduction Type of fuels Performance evaluation Energy efficiency opportunities 30 © UNEP 2006 .

9% oxygen.Performance Evaluation Principles of Combustion • Combustion: rapid oxidation of a fuel • Complete combustion: total oxidation of fuel (adequate supply of oxygen needed) • Air: 20. 79% nitrogen and other • Nitrogen: (a) reduces the combustion efficiency (b) forms NOx at high temperatures • Carbon forms (a) CO2 (b) CO resulting in less heat production 31 © UNEP 2006 Thermal Systems/Fuels .

Performance Evaluation Principles of Combustion • Control the 3 Ts to optimize combustion: 1T) Temperature 2T) Turbulence 3T) Time • Water vapor is a by-product of burning fuel that contains hydrogen and this robs heat from the flue gases Thermal Systems/Fuels 32 © UNEP 2006 .

Performance Evaluation Principle of Combustion Oxygen is the key to combustion Thermal Systems/Fuels Bureau of Energy Efficiency. India. 2004 33 © UNEP 2006 .

Performance Evaluation Stochiometric calculation of air required  Stochiometric air needed for combustion of furnace oil  Theoretical CO2 content in the flue gases  Actual CO2 content and % excess air  Constituents of flue gas with excess air  Theoretical CO2 and O2 in dry flue gas by volume 34 © UNEP 2006 Thermal Systems/Fuels .

India. 2004 35 © UNEP 2006 .Performance Evaluation Concept of Excess Air • Measure CO2 in flue gases to estimate excess air level and stack losses Thermal Systems/Fuels Excess air (%) Carbon dioxide (%) Source: Bureau of Energy Efficiency.

India.Performance Evaluation Concept of Excess Air Thermal Systems/Fuels • Measure O2 in flue gases to estimate excess air level and stack losses Excess air (%) Residual oxygen (%) Bureau of Energy Efficiency. 2004 36 © UNEP 2006 .

Performance Evaluation Draft System  To exhaust combustion products to atmosphere  Natural draft: • • Caused by weight difference between the hot gases inside the chimney and outside air No fans or blowers are used Thermal Systems/Fuels  Mechanical draft: • • Artificially produced by fans Three types a) balanced draft. b) induced draft and 37 c) forced draft © UNEP 2006 .

Training Agenda: Fuels & Combustion Thermal Systems/Fuels Introduction Type of fuels Performance evaluation Energy efficiency opportunities 38 © UNEP 2006 .

Energy Efficiency Opportunities Four main areas  Preheating of combustion oil  Temperature control of combustion oil  Preparation of solid fuels  Combustion controls Thermal Systems/Fuels 39 © UNEP 2006 .

Energy Efficiency Opportunities Preheating of Combustion Oil  Purpose: to make furnace oil easier to pump  Two methods: • Preheating the entire tank • Preheating through an outflow heater as the oil flows out Thermal Systems/Fuels 40 © UNEP 2006 .

Energy Efficiency Opportunities Temperature Control of Combustion Oil  To prevent overheating • • With reduced or stopped oil flow Especially electric heaters Thermal Systems/Fuels  Using thermostats 41 © UNEP 2006 .

6 mm) • Screen to separate fines and small particles • Magnetic separator for iron pieces in coal Thermal Systems/Fuels 42 © UNEP 2006 .Energy Efficiency Opportunities Preparation of Solid Fuels Sizing and screening of coal • Important for efficient combustion • Size reduction through crushing and pulverizing (< 4 .

Energy Efficiency Opportunities Preparation of Solid Fuels Conditioning of coal: • Coal fines cause combustion problems • Segregation can be reduced by conditioning coal with water • Decrease % unburnt carbon • Decrease excess air level required Thermal Systems/Fuels 43 © UNEP 2006 .

Energy Efficiency Opportunities Preparation of Solid Fuels Blending of coal • Used with excessive coal fines • Blending of lumped coal with coal containing fines • Limits fines in coal being fired to <25% • Ensures more uniform coal supply Thermal Systems/Fuels 44 © UNEP 2006 .

and removal of combustion gases • Three controls: • On/Off control: burner is firing at full rate or it is turned off • High/Low/Off control: burners with two firing rates • Modulating control: matches steam pressure demand by altering the firing rate 45 © UNEP 2006 Thermal Systems/Fuels . air supply.Energy Efficiency Opportunities Combustion Controls • Assist burner to achieve optimum boiler efficiency through the regulation of fuel supply.

Training Session on Energy Equipment Fuels & Combustion THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION  Thermal Systems/Fuels 46 © UNEP GERIAP .

2006. and shall not be liable for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of. the contents of this publication. © UNEP.Disclaimer and References • This PowerPoint training session was prepared as part of the project “Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction from Industry in Asia and the Pacific” (GERIAP).energyefficiencyasia. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure that the contents of this publication are factually correct and properly referenced. UNEP does not accept responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of the contents.org Thermal Systems/Fuels © UNEP 2006 . • The GERIAP project was funded by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) • Full references are included in the textbook chapter that is 47 available on www. or reliance on.

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