D Doan, Brian Gee, Esther Lee, Julie Tran COGS 175 March 5, 2008



Introduction to daydreaming (Julie) Content and function (Brian) Developmental changes (Esther) Sleepiness and daydreaming study (D)

Singer. 1975 . toward an unfolding sequence of private responses made to some internal stimulus.DEFINITION  ³Daydreaming represents a shift of attention away from some primary physical or mental task we have set for ourselves.´ -Jerome L. or away from directly looking at or listening to something in the external environment.

HISTORY      Negative reputation Associated with laziness 1800s ± daydreams = self-gratifying selfattempts at "wish fulfillment´ (Nelson) 1950s ± parents warned not to let their children daydream 1960s ± Singer & Antrobus created daydream questionnaire called the Imaginal Processes Inventory (IPI) .

CHARACTERISTICS       Occurs in private world Begins spontaneously Triggered by internal or external stimuli or cues (Klinger. 1990) Deals most often with life concerns Lack of self-awareness selfDissociation from waking .

colorful selfcharacters who act out evolving story lines 2. associations.MAJOR FORMS 1. . interior monologues and occasional elaborated fantasies of a spontaneous nature associated with particular problems or chains of thought The repeated. complex fantasies involving self-created. The ongoing stream of associations.

CONTENT  ActivityActivity-related content Rehearsal of alternatives  Judgment making   FantasyFantasy-related content  Exploration of ³what might be´  Freedom from logical constraints .

CONTENT Butler (2006)  Key structural aspects Positive orientation  Negative emotional tone  Mind wandering  .

FUNCTION Butler (2006)   Absorption suggests assignment of cognitive resources Engage unconscious processes Intuition  Creativity  .

FUNCTION  A form of mental processing Recall of ³current´ memories  Resolution of daily issues   Disruption of processing Depression  Post Traumatic Stress Disorder  .

1545 men  17-95 years old 17 Longitudinal and cross-sectional crossstudy  Imaginal Processes Inventory (IPI)  .DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES   Age affects frequency and content of daydreams Giambra (2000) 1782 women.

1970) .Imaginal Processes Inventory (IPI) (Singer & Antrobus.

Imaginal Processes Inventory (IPI) (Singer & Antrobus. 1970) .

DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES Giambra (2000)  As age increases«  Daydream frequency  Absorption or dominance of attention  Visual imagery .

DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES Giambra (2000)  As age increases« Problem solving daydreams ± little change  Bizarre-improbable daydreams ± BizarreU-shaped age function  .

DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES Giambra (2000)  As age increases«  Decreased daydreaming in the following types:  Sexual  Heroic  Achievement-oriented Achievement Fear of failure  Hostile  Guilt .

DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES  What might account for reduced daydreaming with increased age? Redirection and reduction of attentional resources  Biological degradation in the brain  .

Possible Suggestive Connections between Sleep & Daydreaming Daydreaming   Decreases in duration of REM as we age Similar Content  Life concerns list  daydream 65% (Gold and Reilly 1985) § night dreams 71% (Nikles et al. 1998) 1998) Daydream nearly 50% (Klinger 1993) § REM 1993) dream 53%(Zadra et al 1998 ) 53%(Zadra  Auditory imagery  .

Possible Suggestive Connections between Sleep & Daydreaming Daydreaming  Similar 90 minute cycle to REM  Kripke and Sonnenschein 1978 .

The Effect of Experimentally Enhanced Daydreaming on an Electroencephalographic Measure of Sleepiness (Pritzl 2003) Hypothesis: Daydreaming as Restoration similar to sleep .

SLEEPINESS & DAYDREAMING  Experimental Paradigm  Daydream Prevention vs. Daydream Induction  EEG as index of sleepiness/sleep deprivation  (theta/alpha ratio) .

SLEEPINESS & DAYDREAMING  Hypotheses Enhancement group daydreaming than relax group  Enhancement group decreases in initial level of sleepiness  ill-rested daydream than wellillwellrested  those who had more daydreaming should have reduction in sleepiness  .

SLEEPINESS & DAYDREAMING  Results  Hypotheses 1 & 2 were not supported  Hypothesis 3 supported  Hypothesis 4 reversed  those who had more daydreaming should have reduction in sleepiness. but instead had no less reduction in sleepiness .

but may be a response to sleep deprivation .SLEEPINESS & DAYDREAMING  Interpretation  Daydreaming does not compensate for sleep deprivation.

Is daydreaming an alternate state of consciousness?      Involuntary generation Vivid imagery Shift in attention Dissociation from external stimuli Similarity to other alternate states of consciousness .

Singer. Normative dissociation. Los Angeles: Daydreaming. (1975). New York: Harper & Row. J. Giambra. T. B.S. 29(1).J. 45. Tarcher. Pritzl.. (pp. L. L. Klinger. 147)John Benjamins Publishing Company. J. Jeremy P.L. (1990). (2003). & Antrobus. (2000). E. (2006). J. Princeton. Daydreaming characteristics across the life-span: Age differences and seven to lifetwenty year longitudinal changes. (1970) Manual for the Imaginal Processes Inventory.L.: Education Testing Service. Daydreaming. The effect of experimentally enhanced daydreaming on an electroencephalographic measure of sleepiness. . daydreaming. N. Singer. The Psychiatric Clinics of North America. The inner world of daydreaming.REFERENCES       Butler.

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